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War Comes To Europe
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War Comes To Europe

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  • 1. WAR COMES TO EUROPE Essential Questions: • How did World War II begin? • What was the Munich Agreement? • What was the Phony War? • How did Paris fall? • What was the Battle of Britain?
  • 2. Austria In 1937 Hitler met secretly with  his top military advisers He declared that to grow and  prosper Germany needed the land of its neighbors His plan was to absorb Austria  and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich Austria  In March 1938 Hitler marched  into Austria unopposed Most Austrians were German who  favored unification
  • 3. Czechoslovakia Hitler began massing troops near the  Sudetenland  A mountainous region on the western border of Czechoslovakia France and England both declared  that they would protect Czechoslovakia at all costs When war seemed inevitable Hitler  invited French premier Daladier and British Prime Minster Neville Chamberlain to meet with him in Munich  Hitler told them that Czechoslovakia would be his “last territorial demand” The two leaders believed Hitler in  their desire to avoid war
  • 4. The Munich Agreement Munich Agreement was signed in  September 1938 Turned the Sudetenland over to  Germany without a single shot being fired Chamberlain returned to England from  Germany and declared that he had come back from with “peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time” Winston Churchill, Chamberlain’s  political, disagreed with the Munich Agreement  Said it was a policy of appeasement  Gave up principles to pacify an aggressor
  • 5. The German Offensive Begins March 1939 Hitler moved into what  remained of Czechoslovakia Hitler then looked toward Poland   Surprised many since Poland was Russia’s neighbor  If Hitler attacked it might draw Russia into the conflict  It would lead to a two front war…exactly what exhausted Germany in World War I Tensions rose and suddenly Joseph  Stalin signed a nonaggression pact with Hitler  The two committed to never attack each other  They signed a secret pact agreeing to split Poland between them
  • 6. Invasion of Poland September 1, 1939 the Luftwaffe  roared into Poland Luftwaffe is the German air force  Bombed Polish  basses, airfields, railroads, & cities At the same time German tanks raced  into the country The first test of Germans military  strength and their Blitzkrieg strategy Blitzkrieg means a “lightning war”  Utilized the element of surprise to  quickly crush opposition forces Blitzkrieg worked and Poland fell  World War II officially commenced 
  • 7. The Phony War After the fall of Poland French and British  troops sat on the Maginot Line  Fortifications on France’s eastern border  They waited for something to happen  Phony War because nothing took place Russia   Stalin began annexing the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Finland Hitler   In April 1940 Hitler launched a surprise invasion of Denmark and Norway  He said it was to protect their “freedom”  He really wanted a place to build bases so he could attack England  He then attacked the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg  They fell by May
  • 8. The Fall of Paris France’s Maginot Line proved to be  ineffective German army bypassed the line  Hitler's generals went through the  Ardennes Region of wooded ravines in France  400,000 British and French soldiers fled to  the beaches of Dunkirk and evacuated to England Italy entered the war & invaded France  Germany closed in on Paris from the North  June 1940 Hitler gave French officials his  terms French general, Charles de Gaulle, fled to 
  • 9. The Battle of Britain Summer of 1940 Germany began to  assemble an invasion force along the French coast Luftwaffe began making bombing  runs over Britain  Goal was to gain control of skies by destroying the Royal Air Force (RAF) Every night for two months German  bombers pounded London First the Luftwaffe targeted airfields  and aircraft, and then they targeted cities The RAF fought back brilliantly  They used the new device called  radar to target the German Luftwaffe