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Urbanization Urbanization Presentation Transcript

    • Essential Questions:
    • What conditions did cities experience at the turn of the century?
    • How did electricity and steel change the urban environment?
    • Why is “How The Other Half Lives” important in regards to urban living and working conditions?
    • Migrating citizens and new immigrants settled in cities:
      • The cheapest place to live
      • Most convenient places to live
      • Unskilled laborers could find jobs in factories and mills
      • Overcrowding became a huge problem for cities
        • Overcrowding led to other urban problems
    • Housing
      • Tenements arose in major U.S. cities
        • Multiple families living in single family homes
    • Transportation
      • New transportation networks were needed to keep pace with the rising population
    • Water
      • Little control over quality of drinking water
      • Poor quality led to the spread of diseases
    • Sanitation
      • Horse manure piled up on the streets
      • Sewage flowed through open gutters
      • Factories spewed smoke into the air
    View slide
    • Crime
      • More people  Rise in crime rates
      • Divide between rich and poor continued to grow
        • People turned to alternative ways to survive
    • Fire
      • Cities were packed with wooden housing
      • Cities lacked water supply
      • Fires broke out in major cities from about 1870s to 1900s
      • Firefighters at the time were volunteers
    View slide
    • Americanization Movement
    • Designed to assimilate people of different cultures into one dominant culture
      • Social campaign was sponsored by government
      • Aimed to teach immigrants the skills needed for citizenship:
        • English literacy
        • American history
        • U.S. government
    • Many immigrants did not wish to abandon their culture
    • In 1870 only 25 American cities had populations of 50,000 or more
    • By 1890, 58 cities could make that claim
    • The primary way to meet the need for urban space was to build upward
    • Skyscrapers
      • Two inventions led to their development:
        • Internal steel skeletons
        • Elevator (with steel cables)
    • Electricity
      • Transformed the urban environment
      • By 1900 networks of electric streetcars ran from outlying neighborhoods to downtown offices and department stores
      • Residents can commute to downtown jobs
    • Work of photojournalist Jacob Riis
    • Documented the living conditions in New York City slums
    • Featured 15 halftone images and 43 drawings based on photographs
    • Blamed crowded and unsanitary tenements as the cause of crime and moral decay
    • The recent invention of flash photography, allowed Riis to capture the unlit areas of tenements
      • Helped expose the wretched working and living conditions of the poor
    • Characterized the experience of more than 1 million immigrants
    • Pushed tenement reform to the front of New York's political agenda
    • Riis argued for better housing, adequate lighting and sanitation, and the construction of city parks and playgrounds
    • Encouraged the middle and upper classes to take an active role in shaping communities