The Spanish American War


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The Spanish American War

  1. 1. THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR <ul><li>Essential Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>How did yellow journalism impact the Spanish-American war? </li></ul><ul><li>What role did the Maine play in the outbreak of war with Spain? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the significance of San Juan Hill and the Rough Riders? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the Treaty of Paris set forth? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Problems in Cuba <ul><li>Cubans were dissatisfied with Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Fought Ten Years' War (1868-1878) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to grant self-government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1895 a second conflict broke out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain sent 200,000 troops to Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. was outraged by reports from Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain and Cuban nationalists were leveling homes, factories, and fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. had economic interests in Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President Cleveland was against war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Congress approved war , he vowed to never send the military to Cuba </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Yellow Journalism <ul><li>U.S. newspapers sensationalized the events taking place in Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as &quot; yellow journalism “ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newspaper tycoons Hearst and Pulitzer were in a circulation war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Were willing to make up stories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearst sent artists to Cuba to paint and draw the atrocities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One reported to Hearst that the rumors and scale of the conflict were overblown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearst replied &quot; You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war .” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Warship Maine Was Split In Two By An Enemy's Secret Infernal Machine! <ul><li>The U.S. sent the USS Maine to Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Hearst intercepts letter from Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It spoke rudely of President McKinley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearst published the letter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The letter outraged Americans and tensions grow between US and Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Then in February 1898 the Maine explodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>260 out of 350 sailors and officers die </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Maine destruction created an uproar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The yellow press exploited the story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Spanish sentiments grew </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. WAR! <ul><li>The yellow press continued feeding the public's appetite for anti-Spanish news </li></ul><ul><li>War Hawks like Theodore Roosevelt criticized McKinley for being weak </li></ul><ul><li>McKinley finally submits to cries for war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In April 1898 the U.S. declared war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. public celebrated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe saw the war as a land-grab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort by America to assume control of Cuba from Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress passed the Teller Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promised not to annex Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US claimed to be fighting the war to liberate an oppressed people and promote justice in the world </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Dewey and the Philippines <ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt , the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, thought the US should take a bigger role in world affairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He wanted more than a war in Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So… Roosevelt used his authority to cable George Dewey the officer in command of the U.S. fleet in Hong Kong harbor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt told Dewey that if the U.S. went to war he was to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt gave the order without his bosses knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the U.S. declared war Dewey sailed into Manila harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey's forces quickly defeated the Spanish fleet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a single U.S. sailor died </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. American Imperialism <ul><li>Americans were excited by the victory </li></ul><ul><li>But Dewey had no troops, and without troops, you can’t invade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dewey had to wait months for troops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other fleets sailed near Manila, especially German and British fleets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German fleet harassed the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British wanted to offset German intimidation and foster better relations between Britain and America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>War in the Philippines was seen as a way to get a new set of Pacific islands (Hawaii) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. annexed Hawaii in July 1898 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Rough Riders and San Juan Hill <ul><li>U.S. had no experience in the tropics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Army arrived with wool clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better equipped were the &quot; Rough Riders “ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most famous was Theodore Roosevelt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resigned his post in the Navy to fight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt had no military experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Battle of San Juan Hill was fought in July </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “ Rough Riders ” stormed the hill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffered 3x as many loses as Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the end they claimed victory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With defeats in Cuba and the Philippines Spain asked for peace </li></ul>
  9. 9. Treaty of Paris <ul><li>The terms of the peace agreement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuba would become independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. would get Guam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. would get Puerto Rico </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Philippines ?? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. refused to give the islands back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain, however, had a complaint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the time U.S. ground forces arrived the armistice was signed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The US should have stopped fighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain said… Philippines didn't count </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American negotiators offered Spain $20 million dollars and they accepted </li></ul><ul><li>In December 1898, the US and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rise of Theodore Roosevelt <ul><li>The Battle of San Juan Hill launched Theodore Roosevelt into national fame </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt returned to the United States a national hero </li></ul><ul><li>He was elected governor of New York later in the year </li></ul><ul><li>He then became Vice President in the general election two years later </li></ul>