The Road To Appomattox


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The Road To Appomattox

  1. 1. THE ROAD TO APPOMATTOX Essential Questions: 1. Why was the siege of Vicksburg important? 2. How did the battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg impact the South 3. Who did Grant and Sherman view war? 4. What was Total War? 5. Why was Sherman’s March important? 6. How did the Civil War end?
  2. 2. Vicksburg  Vicksburg, Mississippi was one of only two Confederate cities on the Mississippi River  In the spring of 1863 Grant sent a Calvary brigade to destroy rail lines in central MS  Drew attention away from the port city  Grant landed troops south of Vicksburg  Two assaults on Vicksburg failed so Grant settled on a siege of the city  On July 3, 1863 the Confederate commander of Vicksburg surrendered  Five days later the second port city on the Mississippi also fell to the Union forces  The confederacy was split in two
  3. 3. Confederate Morale  Twin defeats at Gettysburg and Vicksburg cost the South much of its limited fighting power  Confederacy was already low on food, shoes, uniforms, guns, and ammunition  It was no longer able to attack  South could only hope to hold out long enough to destroy Northern morale  They wanted to work toward an armistice rather then a surrender
  4. 4. Trouble in the South 1863  Confederate Congress passed a resolution in 1863 urging planters to stop planting cash crops and instead plant food  They resented the resolution  Many soldiers deserted after receiving letters from home saying their was a lack of food  Growing discord in the Confederacy made it impossible for Jefferson Davis to government effectively
  5. 5. Grant and Sherman March 1864  March 1864 Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant to command all Union armies  In turn, Grant appointed William Tecumseh Sherman as commander of the military division of the Mississippi region  These two appointments would change the course of the war  Both believed in total war  Fighting not just the South’s armies but also its civilian population  If they destroyed the Confederacy’s will to fight they believed it would eventually
  6. 6. Total War  Grant threw his troops into battle after battle  From May 4th to June 18th 1864 Grant lost nearly 60,000 men  Lee lost nearly 32,000 men  The difference was the North could replace these men, the South could not
  7. 7. Sherman’s March September 1864  By September 1864 Sherman had occupied a transportation center in Atlanta  A Confederate army tried to circle around him and cut his rail supply lines  Sherman decided to abandon his supply lines and march southeast through Georgia  He would cut a wide path of destruction living off the land as he went  He took Savannah, Georgia by Christmas and then turned to help Grant “wipe out Lee”  Finally he reached North Carolina, the last state to secede from the
  8. 8. Surrender at Appomattox April 9,1865  By March 1865 it was clear the end of the Confederacy was near  Grant was approaching Richmond from the West and Sherman was approaching from the South  On April 2 President Davis abandoned the capital and set it on fire  Lee and Grant met to arrange a Confederate surrender on April 9, 1865  It took place at a small village called Appomattox  The terms were generous as per Lincoln’s request  Grant allowed Lee’s soldiers to keep their arms and possessions and simply return home  The Civil War was over