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The Market Revolution
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The Market Revolution

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  • 1. A Market Revolution & Manifest Destiny
    • Essential Questions:
    • What was the market revolution?
    • What was manifest destiny?
    • What was the Fort Laramie Treaty?
    • Why did settlers move westward?
    • How did settlers move westward?
  • 2. The Market Revolution
    • By mid 1800s the U.S. had become a more industrialized nation
    • Textile mills and factories had changed the lives of workers and consumers
    • Farmers switched from self-sufficiency to specialization
      • Raised one or two cash crops that they could sell
    • Led to a market revolution
      • People bought and sold goods rather than making them for their own use
      • Goods and services multiplied while income rose
    • In 1840, the economy grew more than it had in the previous 40 years
  • 3. The Impact
    • American agriculture flourish
      • Farmers used equipment produced in factories
    • Prices fell as items were manufactured
    • Inventions made life easier (sewing machine)
    • Impact on Communication
      • Telegraph was created in 1837
      • Within 10 years telegraph wires connected large cities
    • Impact on Transportation
      • Water transportation grew
      • In 1816, America had100 miles of canals
      • By 1841 it had more than 3,300 miles of canals
  • 4. The Railroad Emerges
    • Hay-day of canals lasted only until the 1860’s
    • The railroad emerged
      • Railroads offered the advantage of speed
      • Could operate in winter, unlike canals
        • By 1850 10,000 miles of track had been laid
    • Linked differ regions of the United States and led to specialization
      • South exported cotton to New England
      • West exported grain and livestock that fed workers in the East
      • East manufactured textiles and machinery
    • While all this is taking place the nation is moving westward
  • 5. Manifest Destiny
    • Many Americans assumed the nation would extend its dominion to the Pacific Ocean
    • In the 1840’s expansion fever gripped the country
    • American’s began to believe that their movement westward and southward was destined and ordained by God
    • A newspaper editor referred to the annexation of Texas in 1845 as Manifest Destiny
    • Manifest Density became the term used to express the belief that it was the United States’ destiny to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory
  • 6. The Frontier
    • Settlers moved westward for economic reasons
      • Panic of 1837 convinced many they could have a fresh start out west
    • Abundance of land in the west was the greatest attraction
    • Also, as farmers moved west merchants followed seeking new markets
  • 7. The Black Hawk War
    • In the 1830’s white settlers in eastern Iowa and western Illinois placed pressure on the Native Americans in the region
    • Chief Black Hawk had a vision that convinced him to lead a rebellion against the U.S.
      • The Black Hawk War started
    • It ended in August 1832, when Illinois militia members slaughtered more than 200 Native Americans
  • 8. Fort Laramie Treaty
    • As settlers moved westward some were met by attacks from Native Americans
    • U.S. government responded to these fears by calling a conference near what is now Laramie, Wyoming
    • Native American tribes such as the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Sioux, Crow and others joined U.S. representatives
      • Swore to “maintain….friendship…and mutual intercourse”
    • Treaty provided Native American nations control of the Central Plains, and land east of the rocky Mountains
      • Native Americans promised not to attack settlers and allow the construction of forts and roads
      • Federal government promised to make annual payments to the Native Americans
  • 9. The Trails
    • Thousands made the trek west, using a series of old Native American trails as well as forged new routes
    • The Santa Fe Trail
      • One of the busiest and most well known trials
      • 780 miles from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico
    • The Oregon Trail
      • Started in Independence, Missouri and ended in Portland, Oregon
      • Traced some of the paths that Lewis and Clark had followed
      • By 1844, about 5,000 American settlers had arrived in Oregon
  • 10. Disputes in the West
    • Great Britain still claimed areas in parts of what are now Maine and Minnesota
    • In 1844, Democrat James K. Polk’s presidential platform called for annexation of the entire Oregon Territory
      • Newspapers adopted the “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!” slogan
      • Referred to the northern limit of the disputed Oregon territory
    • Finally, in 1846 the two countries peaceably agreed to set the northern border of the United States along the 49 th parallel
    • The northern boundary of the nation was set