The Experiment Is Tested


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The Experiment Is Tested

  1. 1. THE EXPERIMENT IS TESTED Essential Questions: 1. How did the Civil War start? 2. What was the tone of Lincoln’s Inaugural address? 3. Why was the Fort Sumter attack significant? 4. Why did Virginia Secede from the Union? 5. What happened at the Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)? 6. Who were George McClellan and Ulysses Grant? 7. Why is the Battle of Shiloh important?
  2. 2. The First Domino February – March 1860  Lincoln's victory in the 1860 election triggered South Carolina's declaration of secession  By February 1861, six more Southern states made similar declarations  The seven states adopted a constitution for the Confederate States of America  President Buchanan did nothing but voice his disapproval  A February Peace Conference met but failed at resolving the
  3. 3. Inaugural Address March 1860  March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was sworn in  In his inaugural address, he argued the Constitution was a more perfect union  Said it was a binding contract, and called any secession quot;legally void”  Said he had no intent to:  Invade the South  End slavery where it existed  Closed with a plea for restoration of the union  Lincoln rejected confederate negotiations  Confederacy was not a legitimate government
  4. 4. Fort Sumter April 1861  Five days after South Carolina seceded U.S. Army Major Robert Anderson moved to Fort Sumter  The Confederacy called for the United States to evacuate Fort Sumter  Requests were ignored by the Union  Fort Sumter would soon run out of supplies  Buchanan and Lincoln began ordering supply ships to resupply the fort  Again the Confederacy demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter
  5. 5. Fort Sumter April 1861  After debating what to do the Confederate officer in charge decided it was “manifestly futile…” to attempt negotiations  On April 12, 1861, at 4:30am, Confederate batteries opened fire  They fired on the fort for 34 straight hours  On April 13, the fort was surrendered and evacuated  The Civil War had begun
  6. 6. Virginia Secedes April 17, 1861  Fall of Fort Sumter united the North  Lincoln called for volunteers to serve for three months  Response was overwhelming  Lincoln’s call received a different reaction in the South  On April 17, Virginia, unwilling to fight against the Southern states, seceded from the Union  Virginia was the most populous state in the South and the most industrialized  In May Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina followed Virginia
  7. 7. West Virginia  However, the western counties of Virginia were anti-slavery  They ceded from Virginia and were admitted into the Union as West Virginia in 1863  The four remaining slave states Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky and Missouri remained in the Union  But many of their citizens fought for the Confederacy
  8. 8. Battle of Bull Run July 1861  Fought on July 21, 1861, near Manassas, Virginia (known as Battle of Manassas)  McDowell was harassed by impatient politicians and citizens in Washington  On July 16, 1861, the general departed Washington with 35,000 men  Largest army gathered on North America  McDowell's plan was to move westward in three columns  With two columns he would attack the Confederate line  Third column would move around Confederates' right flank to the south
  9. 9. Battle of Bull Run July 1861  McDowell had arrived at a theoretically sound plan, but it had one major flaws  Required synchronized execution of troop movements and attacks  July 19-20, significant reinforcements bolstered the Confederate lines  McDowell was getting contradictory information from intelligence agents  He called for the balloon Enterprise,  Demonstrated by Thaddeus Lowe  Used it to perform aerial
  10. 10. Bull Run: On The Battlefield July 1861  Union army gained the upper hand in the morning  But the Confederate army was inspired by General Thomas Jackson  Was standing on the battlefield like a “stonewall”  Received nickname “Stonewall Jackson”  Confederate reinforcements arrived in the afternoon and turned the tide of the battle  Confederates won first battle of Civil War  Union troops began a retreat to the
  11. 11. Bull Run: The Aftermath July 1861  Casualties:  Union - 460 killed  Confederate - 387 killed  Union forces and civilians feared Confederate would advance on Washington, D.C.  Prof. Lowe ascended in Enterprise to observe the Confederates  The Confederates were too exhausted to mount an attack on Washington  Name of battle has caused controversy since 1861  Union named battles after rivers & creeks  Confederates used names of towns & farms
  12. 12. McClellan and Grant February 1862  Lincoln responded to the defeat at Bull Run by calling for the enlistment of 500,000 men to serve for three years  Appointed General George McClellan to lead the new Union army  In 1862 General Ulysses S. Grant led an army to invade western Tennessee  In 11 days Grant had captured two confederate forts that were positioned on important rivers  Fort Henry on the Tennessee River  Fort Donelson on the Cumberland
  13. 13. Shiloh April 1862  In March Grant gathered his forces near a small Tennessee church named Shiloh  In April the Confederate forces surprised Grant and the Union troops  Many Union troops were shot while making coffee  Grant reorganized, called in reinforcements, and attacked at dawn the next day  By afternoon the Confederates were retreating  Shiloh taught both sides:  You have to send out scouts  You need to dig trenches and fortifications  Showed how bloody the war would be  24,000 troops died at Shiloh