The Constitutional Convention


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The Constitutional Convention

  1. 1. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION <ul><li>Essential Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What plans were proposed at the 1787 Convention? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the delegates address the question of slavery? </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Constitutional Convention <ul><li>Took place from May to September 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proceedings were held in secret </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose was to address problems in government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. was operating under the Articles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Convention was only to revise the Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many, however, such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, intended to create a new government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>George Washington was elected to preside over the convention </li></ul><ul><li>Result of the convention was the Constitution </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Virginia Plan <ul><li>Drafted by James Madison (Father of Constitution) </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed a new form of national government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 branches: legislative, executive, & judicial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proposed a legislative branch consisting of two chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set forth the idea of population-weighted representation in the National Legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as a bicameral legislature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state was represented in proportion to “the number of free inhabitants” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>States with a large population had more representatives than smaller states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large states supported this plan </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The New Jersey Plan <ul><li>Created in response to the Virginia Plan's call for two houses of Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both Houses being elected with proportional representation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proposed by William Paterson </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed a single-chamber legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Each state, regardless of size, would have one vote, as under the Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected the belief that the states were independent entities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entered the U.S. freely and individually and they wished to remain that way </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Hamilton’s Plan <ul><li>Alexander Hamilton proposed a plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembled British system of government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hamilton advocated getting rid of state sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Plan featured a bicameral legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Plan gave the Governor, an executive elected by electors, a term for life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had an absolute veto over bills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It was received as a well-thought-out plan, but it was given little consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembled the British system </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Connecticut Plan <ul><li>Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut forged a compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Called for a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower and upper house </li></ul><ul><li>Membership in the lower house: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocated in proportion to a states population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candidates were elected by people of each state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Membership in the upper house: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocated by giving each state two seats, regardless of size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members were to be chosen by the state legislatures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adopted after eleven days of debate </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3/5’s Compromise <ul><li>A debate emerged at the convention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegates opposed to slavery wanted to count only free inhabitants of each state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegates supportive of slavery wanted to count slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proposed by James Wilson and Roger Sherman </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise between Southern and Northern states </li></ul><ul><li>Said three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for purposes regarding the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apportionment of members to the U.S. House of Representatives </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Electoral College <ul><li>A committee was formed to work out the details for the election of the President </li></ul><ul><li>They recommended that the election be by a group of people, called electors </li></ul><ul><li>These people would be chosen by the states </li></ul><ul><li>Each state would have the same number of electors as they had representatives in Congress </li></ul>