The Articles Of Confederation

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The Articles Of Confederation

  1. 1. Building a New Nation <ul><li>Essential Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What were the Articles of Confederation? </li></ul><ul><li>What powers did the Articles of Confederation have? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the problems and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Colonies To States <ul><li>From the start the relationship between the states and the national government was hard to define </li></ul><ul><li>Many were still loyal to their colony </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution gave colonies a common goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They still were reluctant to unite under a strong central government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Americans in the late 1700s believed that a democracy placed too much power in the hands of the uneducated masses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They favored a republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens rule via elected representatives </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Articles of Confederation <ul><li>Framers proposed a new government and set of laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were called the Articles of Confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Under it two levels of government shared fundamental powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State governments were supreme in some matters and the national government in others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This new form of government a confederation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Power of the Articles <ul><li>The Articles gave the new government the power to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declare war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrow money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set standards for coins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish postal service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deal with Native American peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Articles did not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a separate executive department to carry out and enforce the acts of Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a national court system to interpret the meaning of laws </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Land Claims and the Articles <ul><li>By 1779 12 states accepted the Articles </li></ul><ul><li>But conflict over western lands delayed final approval for more than two years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States refused to approve the Articles until all states turned over their western lands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Then the question arose of how to govern public lands in the west </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed the Land Ordinance of 1785 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established a plan for surveying the land </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 <ul><li>In it Congress provided a procedure for dividing the land into territories </li></ul><ul><li>Set requirements for admission of new states into the confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5,000 voting residents - settlers could write temporary constitution and elect their own government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60,000 free inhabitants - settlers could write a state constitution which then had to be approved by Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If so statehood would be granted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 were the Articles greatest achievements </li></ul>
  7. 7. Problems with the Articles <ul><li>Taxation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress was required to get the state’s approval to impose a tax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to impose taxes the Confederation also had no control over interstate or foreign trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Debt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War had cost the Americans $190 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems with representation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Articles didn’t recognized the population differences among states since each state had only one vote </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Problems with the Articles <ul><li>Foreign Relations Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the U.S. was not paying off its war debt: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain refused to leave forts on the Great Lakes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spain closed the Mississippi River to Americans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most serious problem was the country lacked unity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state pursued its own interests instead of a single national interest </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. States have most of the power. The national government has little. A president heads the executive branch of the government. Congress is responsible to the states Both national and state courts exist. Laws may be passed by a majority vote of both houses of Congress Congress given power to tax Congress given the power to regulate interstate and foreign trade Each state coins its own money. There is no national currency.

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