Rebelling To Revolution

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Rebelling To Revolution

  1. 1. Division in the Colonies <ul><li>Taxation without Representation </li></ul><ul><li>People are dying (Boston) </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament is to far away (they don’t know us) </li></ul><ul><li>War has broken out at Lexington and Concord! </li></ul><ul><li>Britain is the most powerful empire in the world </li></ul><ul><li>We are first and foremost British subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Our trade will suffer if we leave Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Other nations might attack us if we leave, we’ll be 13 sitting ducks! </li></ul><ul><li>We should separate! </li></ul><ul><li>We are subjects of the KING! </li></ul>
  2. 2. REBELLING TO REVOLUTION <ul><li>Essential Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Why was Fort Ticonderoga important? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was the Second Continental Congress formed and what did it do? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was George Washington appointed to lead the continental army? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Battle of Breed’s Hill unfold and why was it important? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Olive Branch Petition and why was it important? </li></ul><ul><li>What was Common Sense and why was it important? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Siege of Boston and why was it important? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fort Ticonderoga <ul><li>Even before the War started, Revolutionaries were concerned about Fort Ticonderoga </li></ul><ul><li>The fort was a valuable for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within its walls were cannons and massive amounts of artillery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was situated on the strategically important Lake Champlain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was on the route between the rebellious Thirteen Colonies and the British-controlled Canada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>After Lexington and Concord the Americans seized the fort before it could be reinforced by the British </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vermonter Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold captured Fort Ticonderoga </li></ul></ul>May 1775
  4. 4. Second Continental Congress <ul><li>Convention that met in May 1775 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soon after the War begun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually adopted the Declaration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress managed colonial war effort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acted as de facto national government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was responsible for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raising armies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directing war strategy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appointing diplomats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making formal treaties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognized militia as Continental Army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed 43 year old veteran of the French and Indian War as commander of the army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington </li></ul></ul></ul>May 10, 1775
  5. 5. The Gentleman From Virginia <ul><li>Every day Washington appeared before the Congress in military uniform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He wanted the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling he was prepared to lead </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The day after Congress created the Army it selected Washington as its commander </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams nominated Washington </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No one rivaled his experience & leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adams believed appointing a southerner would help unite the colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Army was primarily an army of northerners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Washington ‘reluctantly’ accepted </li></ul>June 14, 1775
  6. 6. <ul><li>6,000 British troops under General Thomas Gage occupied Boston </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain was being resupplied by sea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A &quot;strangulation&quot; would be long & unsuccessful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists decided to bombard the city </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The British soon spotted the fortifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gage sent 2,400 troops up to Breed’s Hills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The third attack was successful only because the colonists ran low on ammunition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Aftermath: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists lost 450; Britain lost 1,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed the Colonists were able to stand up to the British troops </li></ul></ul>Breed’s June 17, 1775
  7. 7. The Olive Branch Petition <ul><li>John Dickinson wrote Olive Branch Petition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said the colonies didn't want independence but to negotiate trade & tax regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent to London in July1775 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the it arrived in London so did a confiscated letter by John Adams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said war was inevitable and colonies should have already raised a navy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britain used letter to say the Petition was insincere & the King discarded the petition </li></ul><ul><li>Supporters of separation pushed for independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said it showed the colonies could either submit unconditionally , or gain complete independence </li></ul></ul>July 1775
  8. 8. Common Sense <ul><li>After the Olive Branch Petition was rejected a 50-page pamphlet began to circulate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was entitled Common Sense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It was written by Thomas Paine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was in a style that common people understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured like a sermon & relied on Biblical references to make his case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paine attacked King George III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declared that the time had come for the colonies to declare independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argued it was America’s “destiny” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Sense sold nearly 500,000 copies </li></ul>January 10, 1776
  9. 9. Siege of Boston <ul><li>In the winter of 1775-1776 Henry Knox moved the guns of Fort Ticonderoga to Dorchester Heights overlooking Boston </li></ul><ul><li>General Howe, commander in control of Boston, planned an assault on the heights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to a storm it never took place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead a letter was sent to Washington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Said British would evacuate Boston if the Americans didn't fire on them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>British troops and loyalists evacuated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 ships and more than 11,000 people fled Boston </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The first real victory for Washington and the Continental Army </li></ul>April 1775 – March 1776

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