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Origins Of The Cold War
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Origins Of The Cold War

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  • 1. Origins of the Cold War
    • Essential Questions:
    • What was U.S.-Soviet relations like after World War II?
    • What was the Iron Curtain?
    • What was the Truman Doctrine?
    • What was the Marshall Plan?
    • How is Berlin an example of the Cold War on a smaller scale?
    • What was the Berlin Airlift?
    • What was NATO?
  • 2. U.S.-Soviet Relations
    • After World War II the U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers
    • Relations were tense throughout the war between the two nations
      • Stalin was angry the U.S. and England did not open a second front to draw Hitler away from the Soviet Union
      • Stalin was furious when he learned the Manhattan Project had been kept a secret
    • Both had different views of the future:
      • The Soviets endorsed communism
        • Wanted the state to control all property and economic activity
      • The Americans endorsed capitalism
        • Wanted private citizens to control almost all economic activity
  • 3. United Nations
    • After World War II ended hopes for peace were high
    • April 1945 representatives of 50 nations met in San Francisco to establish a new peacekeeping body
    • It was intended to keep peace and prevent another World War
    • It would soon become a body where nations (U.S. and Soviet Union) competed for power
  • 4. Stalin Extends His Power
    • Stalin refused free elections in Poland
    • Truman demanded free elections
      • Wanted to spread democracy to the nations once controlled by Nazi Germany
      • Wanted to expand economic free enterprises across the globe
    • U.S. industries boomed during the war and he wanted this to continue
    • Soviets tightened grip on Europe
      • Stalin installed Communist governments in many nations
      • Known as satellite nations
        • Countries dominated by Soviet Union
  • 5. The Iron Curtain
    • American officials decided it was time to stop “babying the Soviets”
    • Policy of containment was adopted
      • Taking measures to prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries
    • Churchill called this division of power between Communism and Democracy an “Iron Curtain”
  • 6. Truman Doctrine
    • Conflicts between U.S. and Soviet Union led to the Cold War
      • Conflict in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battlefield
    • Would dominate global affairs from 1945 to 1991
    • Truman enacted a new policy known as the “Truman Doctrine”
      • Said the U.S. would support those who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures
    • Congress agreed and believed it was necessary to stop the expansion of Communism
  • 7. Marshall Plan
    • Post-war Europe was chaos
    • Factories and industries had been destroyed and entire cities obliterated
    • Secretary of State George Marshall proposed the United States provide aid to all European nations that needed it
      • Known as the Marshall Plan
    • Over the next four years 16 countries received $13 billion dollars in aid
    • By 1952 Europe was flourishing and Communism had lost much of its appeal
  • 8. Germany
    • At end of WWII Germany had been divided into four zones occupied by:
      • The East
        • The Soviet Union
      • The West
        • United States, Great Britain, France
        • 1948 theses three nations decided to merge their three zones into one
    • Stalin in ‘retaliation’ for this act of unification blockaded all roads and highways into western Berlin
    • They were surrounded by Soviet territory
    • As a result no food or fuel could reach that part of the city
  • 9. Berlin Airlift
    • American and British officials started the Berlin airlift
    • Flew food and supplies into western Berlin
    • For 327 days planes took off and landed every few minutes
      • 227,000 flights were flown
    • It saved western Berlin
    • Finally, in 1949 Stalin realized he had been beaten and the blockade was lifted
  • 10. NATO
    • Berlin blockade had increased western Europe’s fear of Communist aggression
    • 10 western European powers (including the U.S. and Canada) created NATO
      • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • Pledged military support to each other in case any member was attacked
    • U.S. had entered into a peacetime alliance with other nations
    • Hopes of returning to a pre-1941 isolationism was gone

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