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Native Americans, The U.S. Government, And The Indian Wars

Native Americans, The U.S. Government, And The Indian Wars






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    Native Americans, The U.S. Government, And The Indian Wars Native Americans, The U.S. Government, And The Indian Wars Presentation Transcript

      • What does this map reveal about America in the late 19 th century?
      • What story is this map telling?
      • What untold story is not being conveyed via this map?
      The United States, 1860-1869
      • Essential Questions:
      • What was the Homestead Act?
      • What was the Dawes Act and what was its impact?
      • How did the U.S. government treat Native Americans?
      • What was the Battle of Little Bighorn?
      • Federal law that gave settlers 160 acres of undeveloped land outside of the original 13 colonies
      • The new law required three steps:
        • File an application
        • Improve the land
        • File for deed of title
      • Eventually 1.6 million homesteads were granted
      • 270,000,000 acres were privatized
      • But whose land was being given away?
      • Enacted in February 1887
      • Named after its sponsor, U.S. Senator Henry L. Dawes
      • Authorized the President to have Native American lands surveyed and divided into plots for Native American families
      • What did it say?
        • A Native American family may receive 160 acres if they farm
        • 80 acres if they are to raise cattle
        • 40 acres for “living purposes”
      • Remained in effect until 1934
      • Land granted to most Native Americans was not viable to sustain a living
      • Eventually the land was sold to non-Native buyers at bargain prices
      • Native Americans lost about 90 million acres of land
        • 90,000 Indians were made landless
      • Goal of the Dawes Act: 
        • Complete Native American assimilation
        • Force the deterioration of the communal life-style of native societies
        • Impose Western-oriented values of strengthening the nuclear family
      • Under President Jackson, the Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830
        • Authorized the President to exchange Native American land east of the Mississippi River for western lands
        • About100,000 Native Americans relocated to the West as a result of the policy
      • Tribes in the West were continually moved to smaller and smaller reservations
        • Government and settlers continued to take their land
        • Caused tension and hostility to rise
      • The Indian Wars
        • Conflicts known as the "Indian Wars" broke out between U.S. forces and tribes
        • The Battle of Little Bighorn
      • George Armstrong Custer of the 7th U.S. Cavalry discovered gold in the Black Hills in 1874
      • A ‘gold rush’ followed and thousands of miners went to the Black Hills…territory controlled by the Lakota
      • Treaty of Fort Laramie
        • Guaranteed Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, as well as land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana
      • In 1876, the United States took control of the region from the Lakota in violation of the Treaty of Fort Laramie
      • Occurred between June 25-26, 1876, near the Little Bighorn River in the Montana Territory
      • An armed engagement between the Lakota and the 7 th Cavalry of the Army
      • The Lakota were led by Sitting Bull
        • Sitting Bull was inspired by a vision to fight Custer
        • He saw U.S. soldiers being killed as they entered the tribe’s camp
      • In the end the U.S. 7 th Cavalry, including 700 men led by Custer, were defeated
        • Custer was killed in the battle
      • Custer did not realize that more than 3,000 Native Americans had left their reservations to follow Sitting Bull
      • Outrage at Custer's death and defeat brought thousands more soldiers to the area
      • Over the next year, the new military forces pursued the Lakota, forcing many to surrender
      • Sitting Bull refused to surrender
        • In May 1877 he led his followers across the border into Canada where he remained in exile