It Ends With Nine Steps

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  • 1. It Ends With Nine Steps Essential Questions: 1. What was Sputnik? 2. Who was Yuri Gagarin? 3. What was Project Mercury? 4. What was Project Gemini? 5. What was the Apollo Program? 6. Why was Apollo 11 important?
  • 2. Sputnik and the Russians  Sputnik program was a series of robotic spacecraft missions launched by the Soviet Union  Sputnik 1, was the first human- made object to orbit the Earth  Took place on October 4, 1957  The surprise launch of Sputnik 1 shocked the United States  April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first human to travel into space  Launched to orbit aboard Vostok 1
  • 3. America’s Turn  Project Mercury, initiated in 1958, started NASA down the path of human space exploration  Designed to discover simply if man could survive in space  Launched on May 5, 1961  The Mercury capsule was named Freedom 7  Performed a suborbital flight piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard  First American in space  Flight lasted less than 16 minutes  Unlike the earlier Soviet Vostok 1 flight, Sheppard did not orbit the earth  Simply went up and then down
  • 4. Round and Round We Go  Part of Project Mercury  Spacecraft was named Friendship 7  Piloted by astronaut John Glenn  Made three earth orbits  Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth
  • 5. Project Gemini  Project Gemini was initiated to conduct experiments  Also to work out issues relating to a moon mission  Gemini 3 was the first Gemini flight with astronauts on board  Nine missions followed and showed:  Long-duration human space flight was possible  Rendezvous and docking in space was possible
  • 6. Apollo 11  Apollo 11 mission was the first manned mission to land on the Moon  Launched on July 16, 1969  Commander Neil Alden Armstrong  Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Eugene 'Buzz' Aldrin  Command Module Pilot Michael Collins  On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to land on the Moon  The mission fulfilled President John F. Kennedy's goal of reaching the moon by the end of the 1960s
  • 7. Launch and Lunar Landing Apollo 11 Lands on Moon (5:00)  Millions watched the event on television  President Richard Nixon viewed the events from the Oval Office  Buzz Aldrin spoke the first words from the LM on the lunar surface  Armstrong said the famous words, quot;Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.”
  • 8. On the Lunar Surface Nixon Talks to Apollo 11 (1:30)  July 20, 1969, Armstrong made his descent down the nine rungs of the LM ladder  quot;That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind” (Armstrong On Moon)  Astronauts planted a flag on the lunar surface and then spoke with Nixon  Nixon originally had a long speech prepared to read during the phone call  NASA liaison convinced Nixon to keep his words brief  He said to do this out of respect  Lunar landing was Kennedy's legacy