A Necessary War


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A Necessary War

  1. 1. …we didn’t think we were fighting to save the world… A NECESSARY WAR Essential Questions: • How did the U.S. enter World War II? • What was the Lend-Lease Act? • How did the events of Pearl Harbor impact the nation?
  2. 2. Neutrality Reconsidered After the attack on Poland  Roosevelt revised the Neutrality Acts of 1935 He began to prepare the  nation for the war he saw coming He convinced Congress to  pass a “cash-and-carry” provision that allowed warring nations to buy U.S. arms as long as they paid cash and transported them in their own ships Isolationists attacked  Roosevelt for his actions
  3. 3. Too Little, Too Late The “cash-and-carry” policy was  too late By 1940 France had fallen and  Britain was under siege Americans were stunned to hear  that Germany, Italy, and Japan had signed a mutual defense treaty, known as the Tripartite Pact They became known as the Axis  Powers The Pact was aimed at keeping  the U.S. out of the war If the U.S. declared war on any  nation it would face its worst military nightmare A war in both the Atlantic and  Pacific
  4. 4. A Storm on the Horizon Nazi victories  convinced Congress to boost military spending Congress passed the  first peacetime military draft Known as the Selective  Training and Service Act 16 million men ages 21  to 35 were registered
  5. 5. FDR is Reelected In 1940 Roosevelt broke  precedent and ran for a third term His opponent was Wendell  Willkie The two men both agreed on  aiding Britain and promised to keep the U.S. out of the war The voters re-elected  Roosevelt with 55% of the vote
  6. 6. The Arsenal of Democracy After the election  Roosevelt told his radio audience during a fireside chat that it would not be possible to negotiate peace with Hitler He warned if Britain  fell that the “Americas would be living at the point of a gun”
  7. 7. Lend-Lease Act Britain was broke  Roosevelt proposed  that the U.S. lend or lease arms to “any country whose defense was vital to the United States” Isolationists hated it  but the American public supported it
  8. 8. Supporting Stalin In June 1941 Hitler  broke his agreement with Stalin and invaded the Soviet Union Roosevelt began  sending lend-lease supplies to the Soviet Union “the enemy of my  enemy is my friend”
  9. 9. FDR Plans For War Atlantic Charter  Roosevelt and Churchill met  secretly aboard the USS Augusta Both pledged similar war aims  Collective security,  disarmament, self- determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seas The Atlantic Charter became  the basis of a new document called “A Declaration of the United Nations” It was signed by 26 nations…  “four-fifths of the human race”
  10. 10. Pearl Harbor Shortly after Hideki Tojo became  Prime Minister of Japan he met with the Emperor, Hirohito Promised to protect the Japanese  Empire The U.S. had broke the Japanese  communication codes and knew an attack was coming They didn’t know where or when  On December 6, 1941 Roosevelt  receives decoded Japanese message that instructed Japan’s peace envoy to the U.S. to reject all American proposals Roosevelt knew “this means war” 
  11. 11. The Attack The next morning Pearl Harbor  was attacked The largest naval base in the  Pacific 180 Japanese aircraft launched  from 6 aircraft carries attacked The Japanese killed 2,403  Americans 21 ships were sunk  300 aircraft were damaged or  destroyed Only 3 aircraft carries out at sea  survived
  12. 12. The Reaction The next day Roosevelt  addressed Congress Congress quickly approved  Roosevelt’s request for a declaration of war Three days later Germany and  Italy declared war on the United States More than anything else Pearl  Harbor destroyed the cause/policy of Isolationism An all out American effort against  the Axis powers was now nearly universally supported