The Honeybee• Brought over from Europeabout 400 years ago• Most popular, easiest towork with.• Major pollinator! “busy asa bee”Image: http://matoa.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/519742656_0b2323bc8e.jpg
Bumble Bees• More than 40species in NorthAmerica• Generalists• Nestunderground, rodent burrow, flowerpots, etc…• sonicate, or “buzzpollinate”= bettertomatoes!
Carpenter bees• 500 species worldwide• “semi-solitary”• Usually seeing the easterncarpenter bee here in NC• Males cannot sting, femalescan but generally don’t.• Prefer open faced flowersImage: J.K. Barnes. University of Arkansas.
Andrenid (mining) bees• Over 2000 species• Solitary, females digburrows in ground• Lay egg on large ballof pollen at the endof tunnel
Squash bees• Few know species (about 20)• Oligoleges: Focus almost entirelyon cucurbits• Generally active 1 hour beforehoneybeesImage: http://extension.psu.edu/susag/news/2011/Jan-2011/1-squash-bees/image_galleryzoomAnd: http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/images/squashbees/peponapis_male.jpg
Mason Bees• 300 species worldwide, 140 in NorthAmerica• Make compartments ofmud in their hollow nests• Great springpollinators, very efficientfruit tree pollinators• Handle cold well.Images: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6c/Osmia_rufa_couple_%28aka%29.jpg/800px-Osmia_rufa_couple_%28aka%29.jpgAnd
Mason bees- Pollinator of the month!• Blue Orchard Mason Bee- (Osmia lignaria)Image:http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/images/masonbees/Osmia_sp.jpg
Sweat bees• More than 2000known species• Nest in ground• Some arevespertine, orcrepuscular.• Attracted to salt inhuman sweat/tearshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweat_bee
Plasterer bee• Over 2000 knownspecies• Solitary, but nest inaggregations.• Line inside of nestwith secretions frommouth• Dries intocellophane-likelining.Image:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasterer_bee
The Honey Bee- interesting facts• 1 hive may have 60,000 individuals• Honey bees have foraging adults throughout theflowering season• Some vegetables require 12 visits/ flower to setfruit.• Honey bees can fly at speeds of up to 15 miles perhour.• A single honeybee worker produces about 1/12thteaspoon honey in her lifetime
The Honey Bee- interesting facts• The hive must produce 40-60lbs of honey to livethrough the winter• A queen honeybee stores a lifetime’s worth ofsperm• A queen bee can lay 1,500-2,000 eggs in a day,and a million in her life• Honeybees have an amazing communicationsystem
Economic Impact of bees• Bee-dependent crops account for $47.1 billionevery year, of which $14.6 billion is attributable tohoney bee pollination• In NC bees are responsible for $185 million inadded fresh produce a year.• Over 100 crops in North America require a visitfrom a pollinator• Affect 1/3 of agricultural production• NC honey producers make $6 million a year
Tips to encourage bees in yourgarden• Plant a garden instead of a mowing a lawn!• Replace parts of lawn with native flowers• Try using non-hybridized flowers• Plan for blossoms year round (click here)• Set up native bee homes• Give them some water!
Common Garden Pesticides that mayharm honeybees• Orthene (Acephate)• Seven (Carbaryl)• Diazinon (Spectracide, others)• Bayer systemic (Imidacloprid), which gets into the pollen, maycause disorientation and death in bees• Ambush, Pounce (Permethrin)• Crossfire, Raid Flying Insect Killer (Resmethrin)• Read more:http://www.northcoastgardening.com/2010/05/honeybee-safe-pesticides/#ixzz2OrWq79aZ
Safe only if sprayed at dawn ordusk, when bees aren’t active• Spinosad (insecticide)• Pyrethrum (insecticide)• Neem oil (fungicide, insecticide)
Honeybee-safe pesticides• Sulfur (fungicide)• Serenade (biological fungicide)• Insecticidal soap• Petroleum-based oils• B.T. (Bacillus thuringiensis) -biological control forcaterpillars• Herbicides like Roundup and 2,4-D