Conflict and cooperation presentationPresentation Transcript
Tuesday, April 23, 2013•What do wecall theundecipheredwriting systemthat was usedby theMinoans?•Linear A
Introduction•Greek history is split up into periodsof conflict and periods of cooperationamong the many city-states of Hellas.•These periods had both positive andnegative consequences for the peopleof the Greek peninsula.
Essential Question•What would a socialscientist from each of thefive themes of socialstudies learn aboutancient civilizations?
Learning Targets1. I can explain how cooperationhelped the Greeks during the Trojan,Persian, and Alexandrian Wars.2. I can explain how conflict hurt theGreeks during the PeloponnesianWar and time of Alexander theGreat.
KEY TERMSPart 1
Persian Empire•The largest,and mostpowerful,empire inthe worldat the timeof classicalGreece.
Darius•King of thePersianEmpireduring theirfirstinvasion ofGreece.
Xerxes I•King of thePersianEmpireduring theirsecondinvasion ofGreece.
Marathon•Large plain inGreece. Site ofthe Battle ofMarathonfought by theAthenian andPersianarmies.
Thermopylae•Narrowmountain passin northernGreece. Site ofthe Battle ofThermopylaefought by theSpartan andPersian armies.
Salamis•Island off of thecoast of Greecenear Athens.Site of the Battleof Salamis,fought by theAthenian andPersian navies.
Plataea• Ancient Greek citylocated nearThebes. Site ofthe Battle ofPlataea fought bythe armies ofPersia and analliance of Greekcity-states.
Peloponnesian War• Greek civil warthat was foughtbetween Athensand the membersof the DelianLeague vs. Spartaand the membersof thePeloponnesianLeague.
Syracuse•PowerfulGreek colonylocated onthe island ofSicily.
Macedonia•Region to thenorth ofGreece. TheGreeksconsidered thepeople ofMacedonia tobe barbarians.
Philip II•King ofMacedoniawhoconqueredmost of theGreek city-states.
Alexander the Great•King ofMacedoniaand creatorof theHellenisticEmpire.
THE TROJAN WARPart 2
Who were the combatants in theTrojan War?The Trojans Alliance of MycenaeansVS
What was the trojan war?•TheMycenaeansinvaded andpossibly laidsiege to Troyuntil theTrojans starvedand gave up.
Where did the fightingoccur?•Troy was acity-statelocated inAsia Minor, inwhat is todayTurkey.
When did the Trojan Wartake place?•Most likelyaround1700-1600BC.
Why was the Trojan Warfought?•The Greekswent to warwith Troy mostlikely overtrade andpursuit ofwealth andresources.
How did the Trojan Wargo down?• An alliance ofMycenaean city-statesworked togetheragainst a commonenemy.• The Mycenaeans won,but the loss of lifeweakened them somuch that not muchlater they wereconquered by theDorians.
THE GRECO-PERSIANWARSPart 3
Whowere the combatantsinthe Greco-PersianWars?Alliance of Greek city-states,led by Sparta and AthensThe PersianEmpire
Whatwere the Greco-PersianWars?•A series ofinvasions ofGreece by thePersian Empireunder the kingsDarius and hisson, Xerxes.
When was the Greco-Persianwar fought?•The war wasfoughtbetween502 and 449BC.
Why was the Greco-PersianWar fought?• The Greeks (primarilyAthens) hadsupported some city-states in the Persianregion of Ionia whenthey revolted againstPersia.• The Persian king,Darius, vowed to takerevenge on Athensbecause of this.
How did the GrecoPersian War Godown?The war is divided up into twoseparate time periods becausethe Persians invaded Greecetwice.
First Persian Invasion• The Persiansinvaded andconquered Thrace.• They had to stopthere because ahuge stormwrecked theirfleet.
First Persian Invasion• The Persians sentambassadors to all ofthe city-states inGreece and demandedthat they submit to thePersian Empire.• Most accepted theterms.• Athens and Sparta didnot.• Instead, they killed theambassadors.
First Persian Invasion• Persia sent moretroops andconquered anumber of Greekislands beforelanding nearAthens in the bayof Marathon.
Battle of Marathon•Though vastlyoutnumbered,the Athenianarmy was ableto defeat thePersians, endingthe first PersianInvasion.
Battle of MArathon•Though vastlyoutnumbered,the Athenianarmy was ableto defeat thePersians, endingthe first PersianInvasion.
Second Persian Invasion•Led by a newking, Xerxes, theson of Darius,the Persiansassembled ahuge army of200,000 menand marchedinto Greece.
Second Persian Invasion• Most of the Greekcity-states met,forming theHellenic Alliance.• They decided towait for thePersians atThermopylae.
Battle of Thermopylae• The Spartans wouldstop the Persiansfrom advancingthrough the pass.• The Athenian fleetwould prevent thePersians frombypassingThermopylae byboat.
Battle of Thermopylae• But…• The Persiansarrived atThermopylaeduring theOlympic Gamesand festival ofCarneia.• Spartantraditionbanned warfareduring this time,believing it tobe sacrilegious.
Battle of Thermopylae• King Leonidas tookhis personalbodyguard: 300 elitewarriors.• He also met up withand recruited a fewthousand otherGreeks along theway.
Battle of Thermopylae•The Greeks heldthe pass for twowhole daysagainst an armythat greatlyoutnumberedthem.
Battle of Thermopylae• Eventually, aGreek traitor toldthe Persians abouta secret patharound the pass.• The Persianssurrounded theGreeks and killedor captured all ofthem.
Battle of Thermopylae
Second Persian Invasion• The Persian armythen moved on toAthens, whichhad been mostlyabandoned.• They sacked thecity and thenburned it to theground.
Second Persian Invasion•The allies on thePeloponnesusbuilt a wallacross theIsthmus ofCorinth toprevent thePersians fromadvancing.
Second Persian Invasion•However, the Persian fleet was still ahuge threat because they could justcarry troops around the wall.
BattleofSalamis•The Athenianand Persianfleets met inthe narrowstraits ofSalamis.
BattleofSalamis• The Persiansoutnumberedthe Greeks, but…• It was actually adisadvantagebecause thestraits arenarrow andthere were toomany Persianships in such asmall area.
Battle ofPlataea• Eventually mistakeswere made by theGreeks and theirarmies wereseparated,exposed, andvulnerable.• The Persians tookadvantage andattacked.
Battle ofPlataea•The Persianinfantry wasno match forthe Greekhoplites.
Battle ofPlataea• The Spartans brokethrough Mardonius’sbodyguard and killedhim.• The Persians thenpanicked andretreated.• 40,000 managed toescape.• The rest werecaptured or killed.
Second Persian Invasion•With theirdefeat atPlataea, thesecondPersianinvasioncame to anend.
Greek Counter-Attack• The Hellenic Alliancethen took the fight toPersia, capturingsome key Persianareas.• Eventually, Sparta,tired of fighting,backed out, takingother city-states withthem.
Creation of the Delian League• Leadership ofthe alliance fellonto Athens.• They took theopportunity tocreate a newalliance calledthe DelianLeague
The Delian League• Members of theleague either hadto supply soldiersand ships to fightor pay Athens toprovide them forthem.• Most chose to justpay Athens.
The Delian League• Athens used thewealth to create apowerful navyand to rebuild thecity bigger andbetter than ever.• The leagueeventuallybecamedominated byAthens,essentiallycreating theAthenian Empire.
THE PELOPONNESIANWARPart 4
Who were the combatants inthe Peloponnesian War?Athens and theDelian LeagueSparta and thePeloponnesian LeagueVS
What was the PeloponnesianWar?•Civil warfought bymost ofthe Greekcity-states.
Where was the PeloponnesianWar Fought?•MainlandGreece•Sicily
When was the PeloponnesianWar Fought?•The war wasfoughtbetween 431and 404 BC.
Why was the PeloponnesianWar Fought?• Athens had grownvery powerful. Afterturning their allianceinto their ownpersonal empire,Sparta and othercity-states fearedthat they wouldeventually try to takeover all of Greece.
How did the PeloponnesianWar go down?•In response tothe power ofAthens, Spartaand their alliesattacked Athensbut could notget through itswalls.
How did the PeloponnesianWar go down?•The Athenianfleet madesure thatsuppliesarrived safelyto theAthenianharbor.
How did the PeloponnesianWar go down?•Pericles ledAthens in adefensive war,avoiding openbattle withSparta.
How did the PeloponnesianWar go down?•A plague hitAthens, killingPericles, hissons, andmore than 1/3of theAthenianpopulation.
How did the PeloponnesianWar go down?•Pericles’successorspreferred amoreoffensiveapproach towar.
How did the PeloponnesianWar go down?•They sent ahuge army toSicily, hopingto conquer itand gain greatwealth andpower.
How did the PeloponnesianWar go down?•TheAthenianarmy thatwas sent toSicily wascompletelydestroyed.
How did the PeloponnesianWar go down?•Sparta alliedwith thePersian Empirewho sent ahuge fleet ofships anddestroyed theAthenian fleet.
How did the PeloponnesianWar go down?•The Spartanarmy andPersian navysurroundedAthens andstarved themintosubmission.
The Peloponnesian War
THE WARS OFALEXANDER THEGREATPart 4
Who were the combatants inthe wars of Alexander?Greek/Macedonian Army Persian Empire
What were the Wars ofAlexander?•Invasion andconquest ofthe Persianempire by theMacedonianking,Alexander theGreat.
Where were the Wars ofAlexander fought?•Asia Minor•Egypt•Syria•Babylonia•Persia•India
When were the Wars ofAlexander fought?•335-323 BC
Why were the Wars ofAlexander fought?• Alexanderbelieved from avery early agethat it was hisdestiny to rulethe world. Hiswars were justthe steps he tookin order to realizethat destiny.
How did the wars of Alexandergo down?•WhenAlexander’sfather, PhilipII, becameking he unitedtheMacedonianpeople andbuilt an army.
How did the wars of Alexandergo down?•He createda newformationcalled aphalanx.
How did the wars of Alexandergo down?•He thenbegan totake overGreek city-states oneby one.
How did the wars of Alexandergo down?• They were either too weak after fightingthe Peloponnesian War or too busyfighting amongst themselves to stop him.
How did the wars of Alexandergo down?•Afterconqueringmost ofGreece, Philipwasassassinatedby a memberof his ownbodyguard.
How did the wars of Alexandergo down?•Alexanderbecame kingand somecity-statesimmediatelyrevoltedagainst him.
Thursday, April 26, 2012•Review:What wasthe newmilitaryformationcalled thatwascreated by•Aphalanx
How did the wars of Alexandergo down?•He put downthe rebellionand built ahuge army;then set hissights onPersia.
How did the wars of Alexandergo down?•AsAlexander’sarmy movedthrough AsiaMinor mosttowns gave upwith little orno resistance.
How did the wars of Alexandergo down?•Persian king,Darius III,didn’tconsiderAlexander athreat at firstand basicallyignored him.
Battle of the Granicus River•The PersiansfinallyconfrontedAlexander,but weresoundlydefeated.
Siege of Halicarnassus•The Persianfleet was basedthere.•Alexander laidsiege to it, wasnearly defeated,but eventuallybroke throughthe city-walls.
Battle of Issus• Darius III led a hugearmy twice the sizeof Alexander’s.• Thanks to goodstrategy and bettersoldiers Alexanderwon again.• Darius got on ahorse and rodeaway as fast as hecould.
Siege of Tyre• Tyre was the onlyPersian port that didn’tsurrender toAlexander.• It was located on anisland.• Alexander built acauseway to get to thecity.• Eventually the Greeksbroke through thewalls and won thebattle.
Siege of Gaza• Most Egyptiancitiessurrenderedwithout a fight.• Gaza refused tosurrender.• AlthoughAlexander waswounded, theGreeks won.
Siege of Gaza• Batis, the Persiancommander, refused tokneel before Alexander.• Alexander had a ropesewn between Batis’ankle bone and Achillestendon.• He then tied the otherend of the rope to achariot and rode arounddragging Batis, or whatwas left of him, behindthem.
Battle of Gaugamela• Darius again led alarger army againstAlexander.• Alexander won, againdue to better strategyand soldiers.• Darius fled, but waslater found stabbedand dying.• Alexander claimed thatbefore dying, Dariushad made him hissuccessor.
Battle of the Persian Gate• A Persiangovernor, orSatrap, made alast stand againstAlexander.• He held the passfor a month beforefinally beingdefeated.
Siege of Sogdian Rock• A local king sent hisfamily to a fortressbuilt high atop sheercliffs.• It was believed thatthe fortress wasimpenetrable.• Alexander had 300 ofhis men climb thecliffs and force asurrender.
Western India• Alexander wantedto conquer all ofIndia as well.• He did win a seriesof battles until hisarmy refused tofight any longer.• They were tiredand homesick.
What happened toAlexander?• Alexanderreturned toBabylon andmarried a princesswho was in thefortress that heattacked in theBattle of SogdianRock.
What happened toAlexander?• While there hedeveloped a feverand became ill.• He lived for nearlytwo weeks beforefalling into a comaand dying.• His death remains amystery withassassination,natural causes, andbattle wounds aspossible causes.
Alexander the Great
Assessment1. Use your notes to completely fill inthe Conflict and Cooperation chart.2. Use an example from each of thefour conflicts that you have learnedabout.• Trojan War• Greco-Persian War• Peloponnesian War• War of Alexander
Review1.Explain how cooperation helpedthe Greeks during the Trojan,Persian, and Alexandrian Wars.2.Explain how conflict hurt theGreeks during thePeloponnesian War and time ofAlexander the Great.