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Coach Morgan’s World History  Chapters 1 and 2
 
1 st  Six Weeks Prehistory And Ancient Civilizations
1 st  Six Weeks Themes <ul><li>1.  What is LIFE? </li></ul><ul><li>a) What do humans need to survive? </li></ul><ul><li>b)...
 
The First Humans How do we know if this “ancient stuff” really happened? <ul><li>Archaeology   </li></ul><ul><li>The study...
The Earliest Humans   <ul><li>Hominids </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest human like creatures in Africa.  Also known by the n...
Hunters and Gatherers “Lets go get some tools” <ul><li>Paleolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Mesolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>...
Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>The single most important development in human history? </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic farming v...
 
Catal Huyuk
 
 
The Birth of Civilization <ul><li>Human Needs + Environment = Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>A c...
The First Civilizations Mesopotamia & Egypt
WORLD HISTORY Dates Cheat Sheet <ul><li>B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>C.E. </li><...
Mesopotamian Region The Geography
Mesopotamia Region “The land between the rivers” <ul><li>ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Tigris and Euphrates Rivers </li></...
Mesopotamian Society <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Theocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Government ruled by divine authority <...
Museum Tour  PRESS HERE
Cuneiform Tablets <ul><li>A Babylonian tablet from 87 B.C. reports the arrival of the comet now known as Halley.  </li></ul>
The Sumerians 3000 B.C. – 2340 B.C. <ul><li>Creators of the first Mesopotamian civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Formed city-...
 
The Akkadians 2340 B.C. – 1792 B.C. <ul><li>Sargon overruns Sumerian city-states </li></ul><ul><li>The Akkadians set up th...
Babylon under Hammurabi 1792 B.C. - 1750 B.C.   <ul><li>Hammurabi comes to power </li></ul><ul><li>Divides his opponents a...
 
 
Did Mesopotamian’s Invent Soap? <ul><li>As far back as 2500 B.C., clay tablets from near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers w...
Interesting Nuggets <ul><li>It was the accepted practice in Babylon 4,000 years ago that for a month after the wedding, th...
The First Civilizations Egypt
 
Egypt THE ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>Like Mesopotamia, the Egyptian civilization is also a river valley </li></ul><ul><li>The Nil...
Egypt Religion <ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Sun gods & land gods </li></ul><ul><li>Re (Ra) </li></ul><ul><li>Osi...
 
Egyptian gods <ul><li>Re (Ra) is shown below.  </li></ul><ul><li>Who is this? How do you know? </li></ul>
Old Kingdom Age of Pyramids <ul><li>Strong Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Stability-free from invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Dyn...
Mummification  <ul><li>Press Here  </li></ul>
 
Middle Kingdom  Period of Chaos <ul><li>Age of political chaos and invasion </li></ul>
New Kingdom  The Empire <ul><li>Strong military advancements </li></ul><ul><li>Prosperous gains in wealth </li></ul><ul><l...
NEFERTITI
Writing and Education <ul><li>Hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>Papyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Scribes </li></ul><ul><li>Masters ...
The Persian Empire
The  Hebrews  and  Persians <ul><li>Hebrew </li></ul><ul><li>Religion-Judaism- Influenced Christianity and Islam </li></ul...
Other Notable  Civilizations <ul><li>Minoans </li></ul><ul><li>Built enormous palace complex on Crete at Knossus </li></ul...
 
Hebrew and Persian Religions   A Closer Look <ul><li>Zoroastrianism </li></ul><ul><li>Humans play a strong role in the str...
HEBREWS and JUDAISM    Written down as the Hebrew bible or “ Torah ” Christians call this  The Old Testament Torah
King Solomon <ul><li>Hebrews control Palestine and  establish monarchy  c. 1000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Call territory “ Isra...
Map of Palestine The Holy Land
<ul><li>Remain under Persian control until conquests of Alexander the Great (4 th  century bc.) </li></ul><ul><li>People o...
COVENANT <ul><li>God has a ‘contract’ with his people that he will take care of them if they promise to obey him and his l...
 
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Transcript of "Chapter1and2 Prehistory Egypt 004"

  1. 1. Coach Morgan’s World History Chapters 1 and 2
  2. 3. 1 st Six Weeks Prehistory And Ancient Civilizations
  3. 4. 1 st Six Weeks Themes <ul><li>1. What is LIFE? </li></ul><ul><li>a) What do humans need to survive? </li></ul><ul><li>b) What is the environment? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What is CULTURE? </li></ul><ul><li>a) Way of life, traditions, customs, </li></ul><ul><li>b) Why have culture? </li></ul>
  4. 6. The First Humans How do we know if this “ancient stuff” really happened? <ul><li>Archaeology </li></ul><ul><li>The study of past societies through an analysis of what people left behind them. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>The study of how humans live </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific methods for excavations </li></ul><ul><li>Radiocarbon dating </li></ul><ul><li>Method of analysis that calculates the ages of objects by measuring the amount of carbon left in an object </li></ul><ul><li>Thermo luminescence dating (Archmides article Aug 06) </li></ul><ul><li>Method of analysis that dates an object by measuring the light given off by electrons trapped in surrounding fossils and artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid tests </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic tests providing information on human evolution </li></ul>
  5. 7. The Earliest Humans <ul><li>Hominids </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest human like creatures in Africa. Also known by the name of Australopithecines. (Apes) </li></ul><ul><li>Homo Erectus </li></ul><ul><li>Neanderthals - The first homo-sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens-sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>“ Wise-wise human being” </li></ul>
  6. 8. Hunters and Gatherers “Lets go get some tools” <ul><li>Paleolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Mesolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze Age </li></ul><ul><li>“ Old Stone Age”- usage of simple tools </li></ul><ul><li>“ Middle Stone”-gradual shift from food gathering and hunting economy to a food producing one </li></ul><ul><li>“ New Stone”- shift from hunting to systematic agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Adding of copper and tin to tools. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>The single most important development in human history? </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic farming villages </li></ul><ul><li>Jericho and Catal Huyuk </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico, Central America, India, China, Europe, Egypt </li></ul>
  8. 11. Catal Huyuk
  9. 14. The Birth of Civilization <ul><li>Human Needs + Environment = Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>A complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of commonalties. </li></ul><ul><li>6 Basic Characteristics of Civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of cities </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of governments </li></ul><ul><li>Role of religion </li></ul><ul><li>New social structure </li></ul><ul><li>Use of writing </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic activity </li></ul>
  10. 15. The First Civilizations Mesopotamia & Egypt
  11. 16. WORLD HISTORY Dates Cheat Sheet <ul><li>B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>c. </li></ul><ul><li>Before Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: The years count backwards! </li></ul><ul><li>Anno Domini </li></ul><ul><li>Year of Our Lord </li></ul><ul><li>Before the Common Era </li></ul><ul><li>Common Era </li></ul><ul><li>Circa “around…” </li></ul>
  12. 17. Mesopotamian Region The Geography
  13. 18. Mesopotamia Region “The land between the rivers” <ul><li>ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Tigris and Euphrates Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Present Day Country of Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding along the banks of the river </li></ul><ul><li>Irregularity of flooding created insecurity </li></ul><ul><li>Zero natural barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Mud and dirt is abundant in the area. </li></ul><ul><li>NEEDS </li></ul><ul><li>What needed to be done? </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of cities </li></ul><ul><li>Governing the cities </li></ul><ul><li>Zero natural barriers enabled “raiders” to sweep in continually </li></ul><ul><li>Walls were created for defense </li></ul><ul><li>These walls were made of mud bricks which enabled the Sumerians to invent the following: 1) Arch 2) Dome </li></ul>
  14. 19. Mesopotamian Society <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Theocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Government ruled by divine authority </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in many gods and goddesses </li></ul><ul><li>Ziggurat </li></ul><ul><li>Temples were often built upon this massive stepped tower. </li></ul><ul><li>The tower of Babel was a ziggurat . </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and Science </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal </li></ul><ul><li>Led and dominated by men </li></ul><ul><li>Cuneiform writing c. 3000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>“ wedge shaped” </li></ul><ul><li>-used for record keeping to maintain knowledge of previous events </li></ul><ul><li>The Epic of Gilgamesh </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics and Astronomy </li></ul>
  15. 20. Museum Tour PRESS HERE
  16. 21. Cuneiform Tablets <ul><li>A Babylonian tablet from 87 B.C. reports the arrival of the comet now known as Halley. </li></ul>
  17. 22. The Sumerians 3000 B.C. – 2340 B.C. <ul><li>Creators of the first Mesopotamian civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Formed city-states </li></ul><ul><li>City-states </li></ul><ul><li>Cities with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside </li></ul><ul><li>The arch </li></ul><ul><li>The dome </li></ul><ul><li>The wheel c. 3000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerian city-states contained three major classes </li></ul><ul><li>1) Nobles 2) Commoners 3) Slaves </li></ul>
  18. 24. The Akkadians 2340 B.C. – 1792 B.C. <ul><li>Sargon overruns Sumerian city-states </li></ul><ul><li>The Akkadians set up the first empire in world history </li></ul><ul><li>Empires are easy to create but difficult to maintain. Why? </li></ul>
  19. 25. Babylon under Hammurabi 1792 B.C. - 1750 B.C. <ul><li>Hammurabi comes to power </li></ul><ul><li>Divides his opponents and defeats them with a well-disciplined army </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi is best known for his law code </li></ul><ul><li>The Code of Hammurabi </li></ul>
  20. 28. Did Mesopotamian’s Invent Soap? <ul><li>As far back as 2500 B.C., clay tablets from near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers were found that make mention of the use of soap.  </li></ul><ul><li>It's use for washing did not necessarily come first. It was first used as a way to dress one's hair, or as a medicament on wounds. </li></ul>
  21. 29. Interesting Nuggets <ul><li>It was the accepted practice in Babylon 4,000 years ago that for a month after the wedding, the bride's father would supply his son-in-law with all the mead he could drink. Mead is a honey beer and because their calendar was lunar based, this period was called the honey month, which we know today as the honeymoon. </li></ul>
  22. 30. The First Civilizations Egypt
  23. 32. Egypt THE ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>Like Mesopotamia, the Egyptian civilization is also a river valley </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile River- The longest river in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the floods of Mesopotamia’s rivers, the flooding was predictable </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike Mesopotamia, Egypt had excellent natural barriers. </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts to the west and east, cataracts to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to the North </li></ul><ul><li>These barriers did not prevent trading however. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement along the Nile created efficiency in trading </li></ul>
  24. 33. Egypt Religion <ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Sun gods & land gods </li></ul><ul><li>Re (Ra) </li></ul><ul><li>Osiris </li></ul>
  25. 35. Egyptian gods <ul><li>Re (Ra) is shown below. </li></ul><ul><li>Who is this? How do you know? </li></ul>
  26. 36. Old Kingdom Age of Pyramids <ul><li>Strong Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Stability-free from invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>A family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramids </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchs were called Pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>Vizier </li></ul><ul><li>In charge of government bureaucracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Mummification </li></ul><ul><li>Mastabas </li></ul><ul><li>Tombs for the Pharaoh’s noble officials </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Pyramid at Giza </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric angles are almost precise </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Sphinx </li></ul>
  27. 37. Mummification <ul><li>Press Here </li></ul>
  28. 39. Middle Kingdom Period of Chaos <ul><li>Age of political chaos and invasion </li></ul>
  29. 40. New Kingdom The Empire <ul><li>Strong military advancements </li></ul><ul><li>Prosperous gains in wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Social Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>Vizier </li></ul><ul><li>High priests </li></ul><ul><li>Royal overseers </li></ul><ul><li>Scribes, artisans </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers, laborers </li></ul><ul><li>Read about Egyptian society and the daily life </li></ul><ul><li>KEY PHARAOHS </li></ul><ul><li>Hatshepsut </li></ul><ul><li>First female ruler in history </li></ul><ul><li>Amenhotep IV </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly led a religious revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Nefertiti </li></ul><ul><li>Ankh </li></ul><ul><li>Tutankhamen </li></ul><ul><li>(King Tut) </li></ul><ul><li>Restored the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Rameses II </li></ul>
  30. 41. NEFERTITI
  31. 42. Writing and Education <ul><li>Hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>Papyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Scribes </li></ul><ul><li>Masters of the art of writing and also its teachers </li></ul>Papyrus Hieroglyphics
  32. 43. The Persian Empire
  33. 44. The Hebrews and Persians <ul><li>Hebrew </li></ul><ul><li>Religion-Judaism- Influenced Christianity and Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Old Testament </li></ul><ul><li>Descendants of Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>Saul the first Hebrew King </li></ul><ul><li>David- reclaims Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon </li></ul><ul><li>Building Projects- Temple </li></ul><ul><li>Covenant-contract with God </li></ul><ul><li>Prophets-religious teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Persians </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Won the approval by using not only Persians but also the conquered as government officials. </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation of mercy </li></ul><ul><li>Darius </li></ul><ul><li>Generous to supporters, harsh to enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Satrapies- Persian provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Satrap- Persian governors </li></ul><ul><li>Well maintained roads </li></ul><ul><li>Immortals (Persian Guard) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased taxes led to disloyalty </li></ul>
  34. 45. Other Notable Civilizations <ul><li>Minoans </li></ul><ul><li>Built enormous palace complex on Crete at Knossus </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative paintings, elaborate bath drains </li></ul><ul><li>Hittites </li></ul><ul><li>First to make use of iron. (Weaponry) </li></ul><ul><li>Elephants in battle </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenicians </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent traders by sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Best known for its alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet was passed onto the Greeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Assyrians </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders with absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>First “ large” armies equipped with iron weapons </li></ul>
  35. 47. Hebrew and Persian Religions A Closer Look <ul><li>Zoroastrianism </li></ul><ul><li>Humans play a strong role in the struggle between good and evil </li></ul><ul><li>Perform good deeds: achieve paradise </li></ul>
  36. 48. HEBREWS and JUDAISM Written down as the Hebrew bible or “ Torah ” Christians call this The Old Testament Torah
  37. 49. King Solomon <ul><li>Hebrews control Palestine and establish monarchy c. 1000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Call territory “ Israel ” and establish Jerusalem as its capitol </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon’s most famous </li></ul><ul><li>deed is the building of the </li></ul><ul><li>temple at Jerusalem; </li></ul><ul><li>symbolic center of their </li></ul><ul><li>religion </li></ul>
  38. 50. Map of Palestine The Holy Land
  39. 51. <ul><li>Remain under Persian control until conquests of Alexander the Great (4 th century bc.) </li></ul><ul><li>People of Judah retain their separate identity, become known as the Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>God: Yahweh </li></ul>
  40. 52. COVENANT <ul><li>God has a ‘contract’ with his people that he will take care of them if they promise to obey him and his laws </li></ul><ul><li>MORAL concerns were at the heart of the law of God </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul>
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