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Chapter1and2 Prehistory Egypt 004

Chapter1and2 Prehistory Egypt 004






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    Chapter1and2 Prehistory Egypt 004 Chapter1and2 Prehistory Egypt 004 Presentation Transcript

    • Coach Morgan’s World History Chapters 1 and 2
    • 1 st Six Weeks Prehistory And Ancient Civilizations
    • 1 st Six Weeks Themes
      • 1. What is LIFE?
      • a) What do humans need to survive?
      • b) What is the environment?
      • 2. What is CULTURE?
      • a) Way of life, traditions, customs,
      • b) Why have culture?
    • The First Humans How do we know if this “ancient stuff” really happened?
      • Archaeology
      • The study of past societies through an analysis of what people left behind them.
      • Anthropology
      • The study of how humans live
      • Scientific methods for excavations
      • Radiocarbon dating
      • Method of analysis that calculates the ages of objects by measuring the amount of carbon left in an object
      • Thermo luminescence dating (Archmides article Aug 06)
      • Method of analysis that dates an object by measuring the light given off by electrons trapped in surrounding fossils and artifacts
      • Deoxyribonucleic acid tests
      • Genetic tests providing information on human evolution
    • The Earliest Humans
      • Hominids
      • The earliest human like creatures in Africa. Also known by the name of Australopithecines. (Apes)
      • Homo Erectus
      • Neanderthals - The first homo-sapiens
      • Homo sapiens-sapiens
      • “ Wise-wise human being”
    • Hunters and Gatherers “Lets go get some tools”
      • Paleolithic Age
      • Mesolithic Age
      • Neolithic Age
      • Bronze Age
      • “ Old Stone Age”- usage of simple tools
      • “ Middle Stone”-gradual shift from food gathering and hunting economy to a food producing one
      • “ New Stone”- shift from hunting to systematic agriculture
      • Adding of copper and tin to tools.
    • Neolithic Revolution
      • The single most important development in human history?
      • Neolithic farming villages
      • Jericho and Catal Huyuk
      • Mexico, Central America, India, China, Europe, Egypt
    • Catal Huyuk
    • The Birth of Civilization
      • Human Needs + Environment = Culture
      • Civilization
      • A complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of commonalties.
      • 6 Basic Characteristics of Civilizations
      • Rise of cities
      • Growth of governments
      • Role of religion
      • New social structure
      • Use of writing
      • Artistic activity
    • The First Civilizations Mesopotamia & Egypt
    • WORLD HISTORY Dates Cheat Sheet
      • B.C.
      • A.D.
      • B.C.E.
      • C.E.
      • c.
      • Before Christ
      • Remember: The years count backwards!
      • Anno Domini
      • Year of Our Lord
      • Before the Common Era
      • Common Era
      • Circa “around…”
    • Mesopotamian Region The Geography
    • Mesopotamia Region “The land between the rivers”
      • Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
      • Present Day Country of Iraq
      • Flooding along the banks of the river
      • Irregularity of flooding created insecurity
      • Zero natural barriers
      • Mud and dirt is abundant in the area.
      • NEEDS
      • What needed to be done?
      • Irrigation
      • Creation of cities
      • Governing the cities
      • Zero natural barriers enabled “raiders” to sweep in continually
      • Walls were created for defense
      • These walls were made of mud bricks which enabled the Sumerians to invent the following: 1) Arch 2) Dome
    • Mesopotamian Society
      • Religion
      • Theocracy
      • Government ruled by divine authority
      • Polytheistic
      • Belief in many gods and goddesses
      • Ziggurat
      • Temples were often built upon this massive stepped tower.
      • The tower of Babel was a ziggurat .
      • Culture and Science
      • Patriarchal
      • Led and dominated by men
      • Cuneiform writing c. 3000 B.C.
      • “ wedge shaped”
      • -used for record keeping to maintain knowledge of previous events
      • The Epic of Gilgamesh
      • Mathematics and Astronomy
    • Museum Tour PRESS HERE
    • Cuneiform Tablets
      • A Babylonian tablet from 87 B.C. reports the arrival of the comet now known as Halley.
    • The Sumerians 3000 B.C. – 2340 B.C.
      • Creators of the first Mesopotamian civilization
      • Formed city-states
      • City-states
      • Cities with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
      • The arch
      • The dome
      • The wheel c. 3000 B.C.
      • Sumerian city-states contained three major classes
      • 1) Nobles 2) Commoners 3) Slaves
    • The Akkadians 2340 B.C. – 1792 B.C.
      • Sargon overruns Sumerian city-states
      • The Akkadians set up the first empire in world history
      • Empires are easy to create but difficult to maintain. Why?
    • Babylon under Hammurabi 1792 B.C. - 1750 B.C.
      • Hammurabi comes to power
      • Divides his opponents and defeats them with a well-disciplined army
      • Hammurabi is best known for his law code
      • The Code of Hammurabi
    • Did Mesopotamian’s Invent Soap?
      • As far back as 2500 B.C., clay tablets from near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers were found that make mention of the use of soap. 
      • It's use for washing did not necessarily come first. It was first used as a way to dress one's hair, or as a medicament on wounds.
    • Interesting Nuggets
      • It was the accepted practice in Babylon 4,000 years ago that for a month after the wedding, the bride's father would supply his son-in-law with all the mead he could drink. Mead is a honey beer and because their calendar was lunar based, this period was called the honey month, which we know today as the honeymoon.
    • The First Civilizations Egypt
      • Like Mesopotamia, the Egyptian civilization is also a river valley
      • The Nile River- The longest river in the world
      • Unlike the floods of Mesopotamia’s rivers, the flooding was predictable
      • Unlike Mesopotamia, Egypt had excellent natural barriers.
      • Deserts to the west and east, cataracts to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to the North
      • These barriers did not prevent trading however.
      • Movement along the Nile created efficiency in trading
    • Egypt Religion
      • Polytheistic
      • Sun gods & land gods
      • Re (Ra)
      • Osiris
    • Egyptian gods
      • Re (Ra) is shown below.
      • Who is this? How do you know?
    • Old Kingdom Age of Pyramids
      • Strong Leadership
      • Stability-free from invasion
      • Dynasty
      • A family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family
      • Pyramids
      • Monarchs were called Pharaohs
      • Vizier
      • In charge of government bureaucracy.
      • Mummification
      • Mastabas
      • Tombs for the Pharaoh’s noble officials
      • The Great Pyramid at Giza
      • Geometric angles are almost precise
      • The Great Sphinx
    • Mummification
      • Press Here
    • Middle Kingdom Period of Chaos
      • Age of political chaos and invasion
    • New Kingdom The Empire
      • Strong military advancements
      • Prosperous gains in wealth
      • Social Classes
      • Pharaoh
      • Vizier
      • High priests
      • Royal overseers
      • Scribes, artisans
      • Farmers, laborers
      • Read about Egyptian society and the daily life
      • Hatshepsut
      • First female ruler in history
      • Amenhotep IV
      • Nearly led a religious revolution
      • Nefertiti
      • Ankh
      • Tutankhamen
      • (King Tut)
      • Restored the gods
      • Rameses II
    • Writing and Education
      • Hieroglyphics
      • Papyrus
      • Scribes
      • Masters of the art of writing and also its teachers
      Papyrus Hieroglyphics
    • The Persian Empire
    • The Hebrews and Persians
      • Hebrew
      • Religion-Judaism- Influenced Christianity and Islam
      • Old Testament
      • Descendants of Abraham
      • Saul the first Hebrew King
      • David- reclaims Palestine
      • Solomon
      • Building Projects- Temple
      • Covenant-contract with God
      • Prophets-religious teachers
      • Persians
      • Cyrus
      • Won the approval by using not only Persians but also the conquered as government officials.
      • Reputation of mercy
      • Darius
      • Generous to supporters, harsh to enemies
      • Satrapies- Persian provinces
      • Satrap- Persian governors
      • Well maintained roads
      • Immortals (Persian Guard)
      • Increased taxes led to disloyalty
    • Other Notable Civilizations
      • Minoans
      • Built enormous palace complex on Crete at Knossus
      • Decorative paintings, elaborate bath drains
      • Hittites
      • First to make use of iron. (Weaponry)
      • Elephants in battle
      • Phoenicians
      • Excellent traders by sea.
      • Best known for its alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet was passed onto the Greeks.
      • Assyrians
      • Leaders with absolute power
      • First “ large” armies equipped with iron weapons
    • Hebrew and Persian Religions A Closer Look
      • Zoroastrianism
      • Humans play a strong role in the struggle between good and evil
      • Perform good deeds: achieve paradise
    • HEBREWS and JUDAISM Written down as the Hebrew bible or “ Torah ” Christians call this The Old Testament Torah
    • King Solomon
      • Hebrews control Palestine and establish monarchy c. 1000 BC
      • Call territory “ Israel ” and establish Jerusalem as its capitol
      • Solomon’s most famous
      • deed is the building of the
      • temple at Jerusalem;
      • symbolic center of their
      • religion
    • Map of Palestine The Holy Land
      • Remain under Persian control until conquests of Alexander the Great (4 th century bc.)
      • People of Judah retain their separate identity, become known as the Jews
      • Religion: Judaism
      • God: Yahweh
      • God has a ‘contract’ with his people that he will take care of them if they promise to obey him and his laws
      • MORAL concerns were at the heart of the law of God
      • 10 Commandments