Perception in buyer behaviour [compatibility mode]


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The importance of understanding perception in Buyer Behaviour

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Perception in buyer behaviour [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. The MAANZ MXpress ProgramPerception in Buyer BehaviourDr Brian MongerCopyright June 2013.This Power Point program and the associated documents remain the intellectual property and thecopyright of the author and of The Marketing Association of Australia and New Zealand Inc. Thesenotes may be used only for personal study and not in any education or training program. Persons and/orcorporations wishing to use these notes for any other purpose should contact MAANZ for written permission.
  2. 2. MAANZ International• MAANZ International, is a Not for Profit, internet based professional and educational institute which has operated for over 25 years.• MAANZ International offers Professional Memberships;• Marketing Courses (Formal and Short)• And Marketing Publications• 2
  3. 3. Dr. Brian Monger• Brian Monger is the CEO of MAANZ International and a Professional marketer and consultant with over 40 years experience.Marketing In Black and White 3
  4. 4. What is Perception?Perception is “how  we see the world around us.”“Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organises and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world.”  Schiffman et al 2001, p. 148“Perception is a process through which individuals are exposed to information, attend to the information, and comprehend the information”  J. C. Mowen 1995, p. 734
  5. 5. The Customer as Perceiver• Perception– The process by which an individual selects, organises andinterprets information received from the environment• Sensation– attending to an object/event with one of five senses• Organisation– categorising by matching sensed stimulus with similarobject in memory, e.g. colour• Interpretation– attaching meaning to stimulus, making judgements as tovalue and liking, e.g. bitter taste5
  6. 6. Individual Differences in PerceptionTwo people may be exposed to the same stimuli underapparently the same conditions, but they may• Select• Organise and • Interpret these stimuli in quite different ways, depending ontheir own needs, values and expectations6
  7. 7. We Perceive The Environment asFollows:Us The outside world: external stimuli7
  8. 8. PerceptionSENSATION (EXPOSURE) - occurs when astimulus comes within our reach. (sensoryreceptors).May be random or deliberate.– Sensory Receptors: eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin etc.8
  9. 9. Perception• Sensitivity to stimuli varies by:• the quality of the individual’s sensory receptors• the amount or the intensity of the stimuli• the interest in the stimuli• its ability to catch attention9
  10. 10. The Way We Perceive Things Is Related To: • Personality• Culture• Upbringing (socialisation)• Economic factors• Needs and wants10
  11. 11. Perception•Perception is not a function of sensory input alone, butis the result of 2 different kinds of input and conditions:-– Physical stimuli - e.g. sight, smell, sound etc.– Inherent predispositions - experience, expectations, motives& learning11
  12. 12. Information Processing Stages• Exposure– Target customer is in proximity of message when delivered• Attention– Target customer allocates cognitive processing capacity• Comprehension– Target customer interprets the message12
  13. 13. Information Processing Stages (cont.)• Acceptance– Does the target customer believe, agree with, or is s/hepersuaded by message, or do they disagree and dismiss it?• Retention– Target customer stores the advertisement and message inmemory so can be accessed when needed.13
  14. 14. Factors That Shape Perception• Stimulus characteristics• Sensory characteristics:• Information content• Context• Customer characteristics14
  15. 15. Perceptual InterpretationThe assignment of meaning to sensations consists of:• both a cognitive and affective (emotional) component• is individual and personal• is based on what we expect to see• stimuli is often ambiguous, may be weak due tointerference• the narrower our experience the more limited ourinterpretation15
  16. 16. Perceptual Interpretation• Distorting InfluencesPhysical AppearancesStereotypesIrrelevant CuesFirst Impression - Tend to be lasting.Jumping to Conclusions –Halo Effect (Stimulus Generalisation) - Brand nameassociations tend to link a number of differentproducts. True of famous brands.16
  17. 17. Perceptual InterpretationCognitive interpretation• process whereby stimuli are placed in knowncategories of meaning– Lexical or semantic meaning– Semiotic meaning - symbols– Psychological meaning• Affective interpretation• the emotional or feeling response triggered by astimulus17
  18. 18. Biases in the Perceptual Process• Selective exposure– Customers only allow exposure to a small number of the3000 daily marketing communications• Selective attention– Customers ignore ads that do not relate to their interests• Selective interpretation– Customers use perceptual distortion to make informationmore congruent with existing beliefs18
  19. 19. We select what we perceive influenced by:The nature of the stimulus factor such as size and intensity, colour andmovement, contrast, position, format etc.Individual factors such as interest, need, expectation, previous experienceetcSituational factors such as time pressure, contrast of the stimulus etc.We also block what we don’t want to see or to avoid overload. We havedefences against what we don’t like or wish to know about.Marketers need to be aware of this (i.e. in the road safety advertisingcampaigns).Perceptual Selection19
  20. 20. Buyer Imagery • Buyers judge products related to their own personalself image• Self-ImageActual self-image - how buyers actually see themselvesIdeal self-image - how buyers would like to seethemselvesSocial self-image - how buyers feel others see themIdeal social self-image - how buyers would like othersto see them20
  21. 21. Buyer Imagery (cont’d)• Marketers deal with this issue byPositioning product - to target buyer market niches.Maintaining or enhancing brand image - to targetconsumer self image.Using perceptual mapping to compare products tocompetitors.And other aspects of marketing mix to satisfy buyerimage related to product21
  22. 22. Buyer ImageryPositioning• the image/perception of the Product in the mind of thebuyer• marketers position goods/services/brands to fit aspecific target market through differentiation• different positioning strategies can be used for the sameproduct targeting different segments22
  23. 23. Buyer ImageryPerceptual mapping• allows marketers to determine how their Productsappear to buyers in relation to competitive brands onone or more characteristics• provides insight about a market at a specific point intime23
  24. 24. A Perceptual MapPerceived Quality Factor(High)Low Product Quality FactorPerceived HighValue for MoneyPerceived LowValue  for Money24
  25. 25. • For more information about MAANZ International and articles about Marketing, visit:•••• .‐SmartaMarketing‐Group‐2650856/about• Email:• Link to this site ‐ ‐ for further presentationsMarketing In Black and White 25
  26. 26. 26ENDMAANZ MXPress Program