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Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
Principles of marketing k&a  chapter 3 moghimi
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Principles of marketing k&a chapter 3 moghimi

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Principles of marketing k&a chapter 3 MOGHIMI …

Principles of marketing k&a chapter 3 MOGHIMI
KOTLER
University of Georgia

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  • 1. 1
  • 2. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk Lecturer: Bahman Moghimi M.Sc. Of “Industrial Marketing & e-Commerce” Doctor of Business Administration Session Three University of Georgia 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. What is Paradigm Shift?B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 4
  • 5. Marketing Environment  The actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management’s ability to build and maintain successful relationships with target customers – Micro-environment: The actors close to the company that affect its ability to serve its customers— the company, suppliers,B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk marketing intermediaries, customer markets, competitors, and publics. – Macro-environment: The larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment—demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, and cultural forces. 5
  • 6. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 6
  • 7. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 7
  • 8. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 8
  • 9. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 9
  • 10. The Economic Environment  Markets require buying power as well as people. The economic environment consists of economic factors that affect consumer purchasing power and spending patterns. Marketers must pay close attention to major trends and consumer spending patterns both across and within their world markets. Nations vary greatly in their levels and distribution of income. Some countriesB.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk  have industrial economies, which constitute rich markets for many different kinds of goods. At the other extreme are subsistence economies; they consume most of their own agricultural and industrial output and offer few market opportunities. In between are developing economies that can offer outstanding marketing opportunities for the right kinds of products. 10
  • 11. 11B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
  • 12. The Natural Environment  The natural environment involves the natural resources that are needed as inputs by marketers or that are affected by marketing activities.B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk  Today’s enlightened companies are developing environmentally sustainable strategies in an effort to create a world economy that the planet can support indefinitely 12
  • 13. Trends in the natural environment.  Growing shortages of raw materials  Increasing pollution Increasing government intervention in naturalB.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk  resource management 13
  • 14. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 14
  • 15. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 15
  • 16. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 16
  • 17. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 17
  • 18. The Technological Environment  Forces that create new technologies, creating new product and market opportunities. – Technological advances are perhaps the most dramatic forces affecting today’s marketingB.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk strategies. Just think about the tremendous impact of the Web— which emerged in the mid-1990s—on marketing... 18
  • 19. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 19
  • 20. The Political and Social Environment  Laws, government agencies, and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals in a given society. Even the most liberal free-market advocates agree thatB.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk  the system works best with at least some regulation. But beyond regulation, most companies want to be socially responsible. If you look at almost any company’s Web site, you’ll find long lists of good deeds and environmentally responsible actions. 20
  • 21. Legislation Regulating Business Business legislation has been enacted for a number of reasons: – The first is to protect companies from each other! – The second purpose of government regulation is toB.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk protect consumers from unfair business practices. – Third is to protect the interests of society against unrestrained business behavior 21
  • 22. Increased Emphasis on Ethics and Socially Responsible Actions  Written regulations cannot possibly cover all potential marketing abuses, and existing laws are often difficult to enforce. However, beyond written laws and regulations,B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk business is also governed by social codes and rules of professional ethics.  Socially Responsible Behavior  Cause-Related Marketing 22
  • 23. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 23
  • 24. The Cultural Environment  Institutions and other forces that affect society’s basic values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors  Cultural factors strongly affect how peopleB.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk think and how they consume. So marketers are keenly interested in the cultural environment. 24
  • 25. Shifts in Secondary Cultural Values  Core beliefs and values are passed on from parents to children and are reinforced by schools, churches, business, and government  Secondary beliefs and values are more open to changeB.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk  Believing in marriage is a core belief; believing that people should get married early in life is a secondary belief.  Marketers have some chance of changing secondary values but little chance of changing core values. For example, family- planning marketers could argue more effectively that people should get married later than not getting married at all. 25
  • 26. Shifts in Secondary Cultural Values  People’s Views of Themselves  People’s Views of Others  People’s Views of Organizations  People’s Views of SocietyB.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk  People’s Views of Nature  People’s Views of the Universe 26
  • 27. Responding to the Marketing Environment  Rather than simply watching and reacting, companies should take proactive steps with respect to the marketing environment.  Marketing management cannot alwaysB.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk control environmental forces. In many cases, it must settle for simply watching and reacting to the environment. 27
  • 28. 1. What micro-environmental factors have affected Target’s performance over the past few years?2. What macro-environmental factors have affected Target’s performance during that period?3. By focusing on the “Pay Less” part of its slogan, has Target pursued the best strategy? Why or why not?4. What alternative strategy might Target have followed in responding to the first signs of declining revenues and profits?5. Given Target’s current situation, what recommendations would you make to Steinhafel for his company’s future? B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 29
  • 29. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk 30

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