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G10 genetics
 

G10 genetics

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These are the key concepts for the genetics unit of the grade 10 biology sequence.

These are the key concepts for the genetics unit of the grade 10 biology sequence.

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  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Gregor Mendel: first person to trace the characteristics of successive generations of a living thing. saw that the traits were inherited in certain numerical ratios. Self-fertilization: Pollen from the same flower enters the egg cells of the same flower. True-breeding: All of the offspring have the same trait. Cross-Fertilization: Remove the stamens, and fertilize the carpel yourself by brushing it with the pollen from a different flower. P-Generation flowers were true-breeding, so he cross-fertilized them. The seeds produced were HYBRIDS (different ALLELES). Allowed the purple flowers from F1 to self-fertilize and had a 705:224 purple to white ratio. F3 Generation: ALL the white flowers were WHITE. About 1/3 of the purple true-breed for purple, the remaining produced a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers.
  • Images, in order: X + Y chromosomes sex linkage colorblindness tests hemophilia symptoms
  • Images, in order: X + Y chromosomes sex linkage colorblindness tests hemophilia symptoms
  • Images, in order: X + Y chromosomes sex linkage colorblindness tests hemophilia symptoms
  • Images, in order: X + Y chromosomes sex linkage colorblindness tests hemophilia symptoms
  • Images, in order: X + Y chromosomes sex linkage colorblindness tests hemophilia symptoms
  • Marfan syndrome disorder of connective tissue gene alteration or mutation causes defect in growth hormone production
  • Marfan wrists
  • carcinogens can interfere with DNA replication radiation may alter nucleotides in DNA
  • achondroplasia (dwarfism)
  • Trisomy 21 aka Down Syndrome
  • drought- and disease-resistance growth patterns
  • once planted in a field, pollination occurs naturally - can’t control which genes are transported to non-GMO plants

G10 genetics G10 genetics Presentation Transcript

  • Grade 10 BiologyGenetics and Inheritance PatternsMr KremerGrade 10 BiologyGenetics and Inheritance PatternsMr Kremer
  • Genetics: Key concepts• Mendel’s experiments with pea plants• Dominant, recessive, + codominant traits• Sex linkage of genetic disorders• Biotechnology + its consequences
  • Mendellian Genetics
  • MendellianGeneticsGregor Mendel + his pea plantsAlleles + traitsDominant, recessive, +codominantHeterozygous + homozygousPhenotype + genotype
  • Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk
  • Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants
  • Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants
  • Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants
  • Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants
  • Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants• Identified patterns inoffspring
  • Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants• Identified patterns inoffspring• Developed Law ofSegregation and Lawof IndependentAssortment
  • Gregor Mendel + His Work• 1800‘s monk• Systematically bredpea plants• Identified patterns inoffspring• Developed Law ofSegregation and Lawof IndependentAssortment
  • Inheritance Patterns
  • Dominant +RecessiveTraitsAlleles, chromosomes, + lociTraits + characteristicsDominant vs recessiveHeterozygous + homozygousMonohybrid cross
  • Essential Vocabulary• Locus = place on achromosome where aspecific gene is found• Gene = combination ofalleles controlling atrait• Allele = one form of agene (basically, half agene)fromMom!fromDad!
  • Essential Vocabulary• Genotype = alleliccomposition• Phenotype = physicalexpression of genotype• Bb = genotype• brown eyes =phenotype
  • Dominant + Recessive Traits• Dominant = alwaysexpressed• Recessive = onlyexpressed ifhomozygous
  • Dominant + Recessive Traits• Dominant = alwaysexpressed• Recessive = onlyexpressed ifhomozygous• Homozygous = bothalleles are the same
  • Dominant + Recessive Traits• Dominant = alwaysexpressed• Recessive = onlyexpressed ifhomozygous• Homozygous = bothalleles are the same• Heterozygous =different alleles
  • Dominant + Recessive Traits• Dominant = alwaysexpressed• Recessive = onlyexpressed ifhomozygous• Homozygous = bothalleles are the same• Heterozygous =different alleles
  • Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
  • Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
  • Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
  • Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
  • Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
  • Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
  • Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
  • Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
  • Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
  • Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes
  • Monohybrid Crosses• Show probability ofoffspring inheriting atrait• Alleles listed along x-and y-axes• Combine alleles in boxesto show possiblegenotypes• Genotypes determinephenotypes3:1ratio
  • 3:1ratioMonohybrid Crosses
  • Codominance + Blood Types
  • Codominance +Blood TypesCodominanceIncomplete dominanceBlood typesCrosses involving codominanttraitsImage credit: http://www.joannelovesscience.com
  • Codominance + Incomplete Dominance• Codominance = bothheterozygous allelesfully expressed
  • Codominance + Incomplete Dominance• Codominance = bothheterozygous allelesfully expressed
  • Codominance + Incomplete Dominance• Codominance = bothheterozygous allelesfully expressed
  • Codominance + Incomplete Dominance• Codominance = bothheterozygous allelesfully expressed• Incomplete dominance =a blend of eachcharacteristic isexpressed
  • Codominance + Blood Types• 3 blood type alleles:• IA= Type A• IB= Type B• i = Type O• A + B = codominant• O is recessive
  • Codominance + Blood Types• 3 blood type alleles:• IA= Type A• IB= Type B• i = Type O• A + B = codominant• O is recessive
  • Codominance + Blood Types• 3 blood type alleles:• IA= Type A• IB= Type B• i = Type O• A + B = codominant• O is recessive
  • Codominance + Blood Types• 3 blood type alleles:• IA= Type A• IB= Type B• i = Type O• A + B = codominant• O is recessive
  • Codominance + Blood Types• 3 blood type alleles:• IA= Type A• IB= Type B• i = Type O• A + B = codominant• O is recessive
  • Sex Linkage
  • Sex LinkageSex LinkageX + Y chromosomesColorblindnessHemophiliaImage credit: http://www.biologycorner.com
  • Sex Linkage• Gene carried on Xchromosome• Women = XX• Men = XY• women need 2 copies ofrecessive allele• men need only 1 copy
  • Sex Linkage• Gene carried on Xchromosome• Women = XX• Men = XY• women need 2 copies ofrecessive allele• men need only 1 copy
  • Sex Linkage• Gene carried on Xchromosome• Women = XX• Men = XY• women need 2 copies ofrecessive allele• men need only 1 copy
  • Sex Linkage• Colorblindness
  • Sex Linkage• Hemophilia
  • Genetic Disorders
  • Genetic Disorders• Caused by gene variationor mutation• Environmental mutation• Inherited as recessivealleles• Wrong number ofchromosomes
  • Genetic Disorders• Caused by genevariation or mutation• Environmentalmutation• Inherited as recessivealleles• Wrong number ofchromosomes
  • Genetic Disorders• Caused by genevariation or mutation• Environmentalmutation• Inherited as recessivealleles• Wrong number ofchromosomes
  • Genetic Disorders• Caused by genevariation or mutation• Environmentalmutation• Inherited as recessivealleles• Wrong number ofchromosomes
  • Genetic Disorders• Caused by genevariation or mutation• Environmentalmutation• Inherited as recessivealleles• Wrong number ofchromosomes
  • Biotechnology
  • BiotechnologyGenetic screeningDNA profilingGMO’sStem cell research
  • Genetic Screening• Examine DNA forgenetic disorders• Good for preventativecare + treatment• Ethics of use forinsurance + healthcare?• May be used in jobplacement
  • Genetic Screening• Examine DNA forgenetic disorders• Good for preventativecare + treatment• Ethics of use forinsurance + healthcare?• May be used in jobplacement
  • Genetic Screening• Examine DNA forgenetic disorders• Good for preventativecare + treatment• Ethics of use forinsurance + healthcare?• May be used in jobplacement
  • Genetic Screening• Examine DNA forgenetic disorders• Good for preventativecare + treatment• Ethics of use forinsurance + healthcare?• May be used in jobplacement
  • DNA Profiling• aka DNA fingerprinting• Compare samples todatabase• Forensics (CSI)• Questions aboutlegality/ownership ofinformation
  • DNA Profiling• aka DNA fingerprinting• Compare samples todatabase• Forensics (CSI)• Questions aboutlegality/ownership ofinformation
  • Genetically Modified Organisms• Inserting/deletinggenes for humanbenefit• Common in USagriculture• Benefits: higher yield +productivity• Concerns: ecologicaldangers, loss ofdiversity
  • Genetically Modified Organisms• Inserting/deletinggenes for humanbenefit• Common in USagriculture• Benefits: higher yield +productivity• Concerns: ecologicaldangers, loss ofdiversity
  • Genetically Modified Organisms• Inserting/deletinggenes for humanbenefit• Common in USagriculture• Benefits: higher yield +productivity• Concerns: ecologicaldangers, loss ofdiversity
  • Genetically Modified Organisms• Inserting/deletinggenes for humanbenefit• Common in USagriculture• Benefits: higher yield +productivity• Concerns: ecologicaldangers, loss ofdiversity
  • Genetically Modified Organisms• Inserting/deletinggenes for humanbenefit• Common in USagriculture• Benefits: higher yield +productivity• Concerns: ecologicaldangers, loss ofdiversity