ESS Topic 3 - Human Populations, Carrying Capacity, and Resource Use

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This is a presentation created by my colleague Peter Stanley at IST in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
  • Int: While many of the more economically developed countries (MEDCs) have a declining population size, that of many of the less economically developed countries (LEDCs) is rising rapidly. The position of various countries on the demographic transition model reflects their development stages.\n
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  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • This might include computer simulations, statistical and/or demographic tables for LEDCs and MEDCs, age/sex pyramids and graphical extrapolation of population curves.\n
  • Print and hand out to pairs. Countries to research: Tanzania, Norway, USA, India, Pakistan, Malawi, Oman, etc... mix of developed and developing. \n
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  • Ecologically minded economists describe resources as “natural capital”. If properly managed, renewable and replenishable resources are forms of wealth that can produce “natural income” indefinitely in the form of valuable goods and services. This income may consist of marketable commodities such as timber and grain (goods) or may be in the form of ecological services such as the flood and erosion protection provided by forests (services). Similarly, non-renewable resources can be considered in parallel to those forms of economic capital that cannot generate wealth without liquidation of the estate.\n
  • Ecologically minded economists describe resources as “natural capital”. If properly managed, renewable and replenishable resources are forms of wealth that can produce “natural income” indefinitely in the form of valuable goods and services. This income may consist of marketable commodities such as timber and grain (goods) or may be in the form of ecological services such as the flood and erosion protection provided by forests (services). Similarly, non-renewable resources can be considered in parallel to those forms of economic capital that cannot generate wealth without liquidation of the estate.\n
  • Ecologically minded economists describe resources as “natural capital”. If properly managed, renewable and replenishable resources are forms of wealth that can produce “natural income” indefinitely in the form of valuable goods and services. This income may consist of marketable commodities such as timber and grain (goods) or may be in the form of ecological services such as the flood and erosion protection provided by forests (services). Similarly, non-renewable resources can be considered in parallel to those forms of economic capital that cannot generate wealth without liquidation of the estate.\n
  • Ecologically minded economists describe resources as “natural capital”. If properly managed, renewable and replenishable resources are forms of wealth that can produce “natural income” indefinitely in the form of valuable goods and services. This income may consist of marketable commodities such as timber and grain (goods) or may be in the form of ecological services such as the flood and erosion protection provided by forests (services). Similarly, non-renewable resources can be considered in parallel to those forms of economic capital that cannot generate wealth without liquidation of the estate.\n
  • Ecologically minded economists describe resources as “natural capital”. If properly managed, renewable and replenishable resources are forms of wealth that can produce “natural income” indefinitely in the form of valuable goods and services. This income may consist of marketable commodities such as timber and grain (goods) or may be in the form of ecological services such as the flood and erosion protection provided by forests (services). Similarly, non-renewable resources can be considered in parallel to those forms of economic capital that cannot generate wealth without liquidation of the estate.\n
  • Ecologically minded economists describe resources as “natural capital”. If properly managed, renewable and replenishable resources are forms of wealth that can produce “natural income” indefinitely in the form of valuable goods and services. This income may consist of marketable commodities such as timber and grain (goods) or may be in the form of ecological services such as the flood and erosion protection provided by forests (services). Similarly, non-renewable resources can be considered in parallel to those forms of economic capital that cannot generate wealth without liquidation of the estate.\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • There are three broad classes of natural capital. \n* Renewable natural capital, such as living species and ecosystems, is self-producing and self-maintaining and uses solar energy and photosynthesis. This natural capital can yield marketable goods such as wood fibre, but may also provide unaccounted essential services when left in place, for example, climate regulation.\n* Replenishable natural capital, such as groundwater and the ozone layer, is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal.\n* Non-renewable (except on a geological timescale) forms of natural capital, such as fossil fuel and minerals, are analogous to inventories: any use implies liquidating part of the stock.\n\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Consider how cultural, economic, technological and other factors influence the status of a resource over time and space. For example, uranium, due to the development of nuclear technology, has only recently become a valuable resource.\n
  • Organisms or ecosystems that are valued on aesthetic or intrinsic grounds may not provide commodities identifiable as either goods or services, and so remain unpriced or undervalued from an economic viewpoint. Organisms or ecosystems regarded as having intrinsic value, for instance from an ethical, spiritual or philosophical perspective, are valued regardless of their potential use to humans. Therefore, diverse perspectives may underlie the evaluation of natural capital.\nAttempts are being made to acknowledge diverse valuations of nature (for example, biodiversity, rate of depletion of natural resources) so that they may be weighed more rigorously against more common economic values (for example, gross national product (GNP)). However, some argue that these valuations are impossible to quantify and price realistically. Not surprisingly, much of the sustainability debate centres on the problem of how to weigh conflicting values in our treatment of natural capital.\nTOK: How can we quantify values such as aesthetic value, which are inherently qualitative?\n\n
  • Organisms or ecosystems that are valued on aesthetic or intrinsic grounds may not provide commodities identifiable as either goods or services, and so remain unpriced or undervalued from an economic viewpoint. Organisms or ecosystems regarded as having intrinsic value, for instance from an ethical, spiritual or philosophical perspective, are valued regardless of their potential use to humans. Therefore, diverse perspectives may underlie the evaluation of natural capital.\nAttempts are being made to acknowledge diverse valuations of nature (for example, biodiversity, rate of depletion of natural resources) so that they may be weighed more rigorously against more common economic values (for example, gross national product (GNP)). However, some argue that these valuations are impossible to quantify and price realistically. Not surprisingly, much of the sustainability debate centres on the problem of how to weigh conflicting values in our treatment of natural capital.\nTOK: How can we quantify values such as aesthetic value, which are inherently qualitative?\n\n
  • Organisms or ecosystems that are valued on aesthetic or intrinsic grounds may not provide commodities identifiable as either goods or services, and so remain unpriced or undervalued from an economic viewpoint. Organisms or ecosystems regarded as having intrinsic value, for instance from an ethical, spiritual or philosophical perspective, are valued regardless of their potential use to humans. Therefore, diverse perspectives may underlie the evaluation of natural capital.\nAttempts are being made to acknowledge diverse valuations of nature (for example, biodiversity, rate of depletion of natural resources) so that they may be weighed more rigorously against more common economic values (for example, gross national product (GNP)). However, some argue that these valuations are impossible to quantify and price realistically. Not surprisingly, much of the sustainability debate centres on the problem of how to weigh conflicting values in our treatment of natural capital.\nTOK: How can we quantify values such as aesthetic value, which are inherently qualitative?\n\n
  • Organisms or ecosystems that are valued on aesthetic or intrinsic grounds may not provide commodities identifiable as either goods or services, and so remain unpriced or undervalued from an economic viewpoint. Organisms or ecosystems regarded as having intrinsic value, for instance from an ethical, spiritual or philosophical perspective, are valued regardless of their potential use to humans. Therefore, diverse perspectives may underlie the evaluation of natural capital.\nAttempts are being made to acknowledge diverse valuations of nature (for example, biodiversity, rate of depletion of natural resources) so that they may be weighed more rigorously against more common economic values (for example, gross national product (GNP)). However, some argue that these valuations are impossible to quantify and price realistically. Not surprisingly, much of the sustainability debate centres on the problem of how to weigh conflicting values in our treatment of natural capital.\nTOK: How can we quantify values such as aesthetic value, which are inherently qualitative?\n\n
  • Organisms or ecosystems that are valued on aesthetic or intrinsic grounds may not provide commodities identifiable as either goods or services, and so remain unpriced or undervalued from an economic viewpoint. Organisms or ecosystems regarded as having intrinsic value, for instance from an ethical, spiritual or philosophical perspective, are valued regardless of their potential use to humans. Therefore, diverse perspectives may underlie the evaluation of natural capital.\nAttempts are being made to acknowledge diverse valuations of nature (for example, biodiversity, rate of depletion of natural resources) so that they may be weighed more rigorously against more common economic values (for example, gross national product (GNP)). However, some argue that these valuations are impossible to quantify and price realistically. Not surprisingly, much of the sustainability debate centres on the problem of how to weigh conflicting values in our treatment of natural capital.\nTOK: How can we quantify values such as aesthetic value, which are inherently qualitative?\n\n
  • Organisms or ecosystems that are valued on aesthetic or intrinsic grounds may not provide commodities identifiable as either goods or services, and so remain unpriced or undervalued from an economic viewpoint. Organisms or ecosystems regarded as having intrinsic value, for instance from an ethical, spiritual or philosophical perspective, are valued regardless of their potential use to humans. Therefore, diverse perspectives may underlie the evaluation of natural capital.\nAttempts are being made to acknowledge diverse valuations of nature (for example, biodiversity, rate of depletion of natural resources) so that they may be weighed more rigorously against more common economic values (for example, gross national product (GNP)). However, some argue that these valuations are impossible to quantify and price realistically. Not surprisingly, much of the sustainability debate centres on the problem of how to weigh conflicting values in our treatment of natural capital.\nTOK: How can we quantify values such as aesthetic value, which are inherently qualitative?\n\n
  • The term “sustainability” has been given a precise meaning in this syllabus. Students should understand that any society that supports itself in part by depleting essential forms of natural capital is unsustainable. If human well-being is dependent on the goods and services provided by certain forms of natural capital, then long-term harvest (or pollution) rates should not exceed rates of capital renewal. Sustainability means living, within the means of nature, on the “interest” or sustainable income generated by natural capital.\n
  • The term “sustainability” has been given a precise meaning in this syllabus. Students should understand that any society that supports itself in part by depleting essential forms of natural capital is unsustainable. If human well-being is dependent on the goods and services provided by certain forms of natural capital, then long-term harvest (or pollution) rates should not exceed rates of capital renewal. Sustainability means living, within the means of nature, on the “interest” or sustainable income generated by natural capital.\n
  • The term “sustainability” has been given a precise meaning in this syllabus. Students should understand that any society that supports itself in part by depleting essential forms of natural capital is unsustainable. If human well-being is dependent on the goods and services provided by certain forms of natural capital, then long-term harvest (or pollution) rates should not exceed rates of capital renewal. Sustainability means living, within the means of nature, on the “interest” or sustainable income generated by natural capital.\n
  • The term “sustainable development” was first used in 1987 in Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report) and was defined as “development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The value of this approach is a matter of considerable debate and there is now no single definition for sustainable development. For example, some economists may view sustainable development as a stable annual return on investment regardless of the environmental impact, whereas some environmentalists may view it as a stable return without environmental degradation.\nConsider the development of changing attitudes to sustainability and economic growth, since the Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Agenda 21.\nInt: International summits on sustainable development have highlighted the issues involved in economic development across the globe, yet the viewpoints of environmentalists and economists may be very different.\n\n
  • The term “sustainable development” was first used in 1987 in Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report) and was defined as “development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The value of this approach is a matter of considerable debate and there is now no single definition for sustainable development. For example, some economists may view sustainable development as a stable annual return on investment regardless of the environmental impact, whereas some environmentalists may view it as a stable return without environmental degradation.\nConsider the development of changing attitudes to sustainability and economic growth, since the Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Agenda 21.\nInt: International summits on sustainable development have highlighted the issues involved in economic development across the globe, yet the viewpoints of environmentalists and economists may be very different.\n\n
  • The term “sustainable development” was first used in 1987 in Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report) and was defined as “development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The value of this approach is a matter of considerable debate and there is now no single definition for sustainable development. For example, some economists may view sustainable development as a stable annual return on investment regardless of the environmental impact, whereas some environmentalists may view it as a stable return without environmental degradation.\nConsider the development of changing attitudes to sustainability and economic growth, since the Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Agenda 21.\nInt: International summits on sustainable development have highlighted the issues involved in economic development across the globe, yet the viewpoints of environmentalists and economists may be very different.\n\n
  • The term “sustainable development” was first used in 1987 in Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report) and was defined as “development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The value of this approach is a matter of considerable debate and there is now no single definition for sustainable development. For example, some economists may view sustainable development as a stable annual return on investment regardless of the environmental impact, whereas some environmentalists may view it as a stable return without environmental degradation.\nConsider the development of changing attitudes to sustainability and economic growth, since the Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Agenda 21.\nInt: International summits on sustainable development have highlighted the issues involved in economic development across the globe, yet the viewpoints of environmentalists and economists may be very different.\n\n
  • The term “sustainable development” was first used in 1987 in Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report) and was defined as “development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The value of this approach is a matter of considerable debate and there is now no single definition for sustainable development. For example, some economists may view sustainable development as a stable annual return on investment regardless of the environmental impact, whereas some environmentalists may view it as a stable return without environmental degradation.\nConsider the development of changing attitudes to sustainability and economic growth, since the Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Agenda 21.\nInt: International summits on sustainable development have highlighted the issues involved in economic development across the globe, yet the viewpoints of environmentalists and economists may be very different.\n\n
  • The term “sustainable development” was first used in 1987 in Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report) and was defined as “development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The value of this approach is a matter of considerable debate and there is now no single definition for sustainable development. For example, some economists may view sustainable development as a stable annual return on investment regardless of the environmental impact, whereas some environmentalists may view it as a stable return without environmental degradation.\nConsider the development of changing attitudes to sustainability and economic growth, since the Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Agenda 21.\nInt: International summits on sustainable development have highlighted the issues involved in economic development across the globe, yet the viewpoints of environmentalists and economists may be very different.\n\n
  • The term “sustainable development” was first used in 1987 in Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report) and was defined as “development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The value of this approach is a matter of considerable debate and there is now no single definition for sustainable development. For example, some economists may view sustainable development as a stable annual return on investment regardless of the environmental impact, whereas some environmentalists may view it as a stable return without environmental degradation.\nConsider the development of changing attitudes to sustainability and economic growth, since the Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Agenda 21.\nInt: International summits on sustainable development have highlighted the issues involved in economic development across the globe, yet the viewpoints of environmentalists and economists may be very different.\n\n
  • The term “sustainable development” was first used in 1987 in Our Common Future (The Brundtland Report) and was defined as “development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The value of this approach is a matter of considerable debate and there is now no single definition for sustainable development. For example, some economists may view sustainable development as a stable annual return on investment regardless of the environmental impact, whereas some environmentalists may view it as a stable return without environmental degradation.\nConsider the development of changing attitudes to sustainability and economic growth, since the Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Agenda 21.\nInt: International summits on sustainable development have highlighted the issues involved in economic development across the globe, yet the viewpoints of environmentalists and economists may be very different.\n\n
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  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
  • Sustainable yield (SY) may be calculated as the rate of increase in natural capital, that is, that which can be exploited without depleting the original stock or its potential for replenishment. For example, the annual sustainable yield for a given crop may be estimated simply as the annual gain in biomass or energy through growth and recruitment. See figures 1 and 2.\n
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  • Consider one non-renewable (fossil fuels or nuclear) and one renewable energy source.\n
  • This may include availability, economic, cultural, environmental and technological factors.\n
  • This may include availability, economic, cultural, environmental and technological factors.\n
  • This may include availability, economic, cultural, environmental and technological factors.\n
  • This may include availability, economic, cultural, environmental and technological factors.\n
  • This may include availability, economic, cultural, environmental and technological factors.\n
  • This may include availability, economic, cultural, environmental and technological factors.\n
  • This may include availability, economic, cultural, environmental and technological factors.\n
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  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Emphasize a systems approach. Students should draw diagrams that show links between the soil, lithosphere, atmosphere and living organisms. The soil as a living system should be considered with reference to a generalized soil profile. Studies of specific soil profiles, for example, podsol, are not required. \nTransfers of material (including deposition) result in reorganization of the soil. There are inputs of organic and parent material, precipitation, infiltration and energy. Outputs include leaching, uptake by plants and mass movement. Transformations include decomposition, weathering and nutrient cycling.\n\n
  • Consider mineral content, drainage, water-holding capacity, air spaces, biota and potential to hold organic matter, and link these to primary productivity.\n
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  • Human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. These include soil erosion, toxification and salinization. Desertification (enlargement of deserts through human activities) can be associated with this degradation.\n
  • Human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. These include soil erosion, toxification and salinization. Desertification (enlargement of deserts through human activities) can be associated with this degradation.\n
  • Human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. These include soil erosion, toxification and salinization. Desertification (enlargement of deserts through human activities) can be associated with this degradation.\n
  • Human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. These include soil erosion, toxification and salinization. Desertification (enlargement of deserts through human activities) can be associated with this degradation.\n
  • Human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. These include soil erosion, toxification and salinization. Desertification (enlargement of deserts through human activities) can be associated with this degradation.\n
  • Human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. These include soil erosion, toxification and salinization. Desertification (enlargement of deserts through human activities) can be associated with this degradation.\n
  • Human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. These include soil erosion, toxification and salinization. Desertification (enlargement of deserts through human activities) can be associated with this degradation.\n
  • Human activities such as overgrazing, deforestation, unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. These include soil erosion, toxification and salinization. Desertification (enlargement of deserts through human activities) can be associated with this degradation.\n
  • Consider: \n* soil conditioners (for example, use of lime and organic materials) \n* wind reduction techniques (wind breaks, shelter belts, strip cultivation)\n* cultivation techniques (terracing, contour plowing)\n* efforts to stop plowing of marginal lands.\n\n
  • Consider: \n* soil conditioners (for example, use of lime and organic materials) \n* wind reduction techniques (wind breaks, shelter belts, strip cultivation)\n* cultivation techniques (terracing, contour plowing)\n* efforts to stop plowing of marginal lands.\n\n
  • Consider: \n* soil conditioners (for example, use of lime and organic materials) \n* wind reduction techniques (wind breaks, shelter belts, strip cultivation)\n* cultivation techniques (terracing, contour plowing)\n* efforts to stop plowing of marginal lands.\n\n
  • Consider: \n* soil conditioners (for example, use of lime and organic materials) \n* wind reduction techniques (wind breaks, shelter belts, strip cultivation)\n* cultivation techniques (terracing, contour plowing)\n* efforts to stop plowing of marginal lands.\n\n
  • Consider: \n* soil conditioners (for example, use of lime and organic materials) \n* wind reduction techniques (wind breaks, shelter belts, strip cultivation)\n* cultivation techniques (terracing, contour plowing)\n* efforts to stop plowing of marginal lands.\n\n
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  • Students should appreciate the differences in food production and distribution around the world, including the socio‑political, economic and ecological influences on these.\n
  • Students should appreciate the differences in food production and distribution around the world, including the socio‑political, economic and ecological influences on these.\n
  • Students should appreciate the differences in food production and distribution around the world, including the socio‑political, economic and ecological influences on these.\n
  • Students should appreciate the differences in food production and distribution around the world, including the socio‑political, economic and ecological influences on these.\n
  • Students should appreciate the differences in food production and distribution around the world, including the socio‑political, economic and ecological influences on these.\n
  • Students should appreciate the differences in food production and distribution around the world, including the socio‑political, economic and ecological influences on these.\n
  • Students should appreciate the differences in food production and distribution around the world, including the socio‑political, economic and ecological influences on these.\n
  • Students should appreciate the differences in food production and distribution around the world, including the socio‑political, economic and ecological influences on these.\n
  • Compare and contrast these in terms of their trophic levels and efficiency of energy conversion. There is no need to consider individual production systems in detail. In terrestrial systems, most food is harvested from relatively low trophic levels (producers and herbivores). However, in aquatic systems, perhaps largely due to human tastes, most food is harvested from higher trophic levels where the total storages are much smaller. Although energy conversions along the food chain may be more efficient in aquatic systems, the initial fixing of available solar energy by primary producers tends to be less efficient due to the absorption and reflection of light by water.\n
  • Compare and contrast these in terms of their trophic levels and efficiency of energy conversion. There is no need to consider individual production systems in detail. In terrestrial systems, most food is harvested from relatively low trophic levels (producers and herbivores). However, in aquatic systems, perhaps largely due to human tastes, most food is harvested from higher trophic levels where the total storages are much smaller. Although energy conversions along the food chain may be more efficient in aquatic systems, the initial fixing of available solar energy by primary producers tends to be less efficient due to the absorption and reflection of light by water.\n
  • Compare and contrast these in terms of their trophic levels and efficiency of energy conversion. There is no need to consider individual production systems in detail. In terrestrial systems, most food is harvested from relatively low trophic levels (producers and herbivores). However, in aquatic systems, perhaps largely due to human tastes, most food is harvested from higher trophic levels where the total storages are much smaller. Although energy conversions along the food chain may be more efficient in aquatic systems, the initial fixing of available solar energy by primary producers tends to be less efficient due to the absorption and reflection of light by water.\n
  • Compare and contrast these in terms of their trophic levels and efficiency of energy conversion. There is no need to consider individual production systems in detail. In terrestrial systems, most food is harvested from relatively low trophic levels (producers and herbivores). However, in aquatic systems, perhaps largely due to human tastes, most food is harvested from higher trophic levels where the total storages are much smaller. Although energy conversions along the food chain may be more efficient in aquatic systems, the initial fixing of available solar energy by primary producers tends to be less efficient due to the absorption and reflection of light by water.\n
  • Compare and contrast these in terms of their trophic levels and efficiency of energy conversion. There is no need to consider individual production systems in detail. In terrestrial systems, most food is harvested from relatively low trophic levels (producers and herbivores). However, in aquatic systems, perhaps largely due to human tastes, most food is harvested from higher trophic levels where the total storages are much smaller. Although energy conversions along the food chain may be more efficient in aquatic systems, the initial fixing of available solar energy by primary producers tends to be less efficient due to the absorption and reflection of light by water.\n
  • Compare and contrast these in terms of their trophic levels and efficiency of energy conversion. There is no need to consider individual production systems in detail. In terrestrial systems, most food is harvested from relatively low trophic levels (producers and herbivores). However, in aquatic systems, perhaps largely due to human tastes, most food is harvested from higher trophic levels where the total storages are much smaller. Although energy conversions along the food chain may be more efficient in aquatic systems, the initial fixing of available solar energy by primary producers tends to be less efficient due to the absorption and reflection of light by water.\n
  • The systems selected should be both terrestrial or both aquatic. In addition, the inputs and outputs of the two systems should differ qualitatively and quantitatively (not all systems will be different in all aspects). The pair of examples could be North American cereal farming and subsistence farming in some parts of South‑East Asia, intensive beef production in the developed world and the Maasai tribal use of livestock, or commercial salmon farming in Norway/Scotland and rice‑fish farming in Thailand. Other local or global examples are equally valid. \nFactors to be considered should include:\n* inputs—for example, fertilizers (artificial and natural), irrigation water, pesticides, fossil fuels, food distribution, human labour, seed, breeding stock\n* system characteristics—for example, selective breeding, genetically engineered organisms, monoculture versus polyculture, sustainability\n* socio‑cultural—for example, for the Maasai, cattle equals wealth and quantity is more important than quality\n* environmental impact—for example, pollution, habitat loss, reduction in biodiversity, soil erosion \n* outputs—for example, food quality and quantity, pollutants, soil erosion.\n\n
  • The systems selected should be both terrestrial or both aquatic. In addition, the inputs and outputs of the two systems should differ qualitatively and quantitatively (not all systems will be different in all aspects). The pair of examples could be North American cereal farming and subsistence farming in some parts of South‑East Asia, intensive beef production in the developed world and the Maasai tribal use of livestock, or commercial salmon farming in Norway/Scotland and rice‑fish farming in Thailand. Other local or global examples are equally valid. \nFactors to be considered should include:\n* inputs—for example, fertilizers (artificial and natural), irrigation water, pesticides, fossil fuels, food distribution, human labour, seed, breeding stock\n* system characteristics—for example, selective breeding, genetically engineered organisms, monoculture versus polyculture, sustainability\n* socio‑cultural—for example, for the Maasai, cattle equals wealth and quantity is more important than quality\n* environmental impact—for example, pollution, habitat loss, reduction in biodiversity, soil erosion \n* outputs—for example, food quality and quantity, pollutants, soil erosion.\n\n
  • The systems selected should be both terrestrial or both aquatic. In addition, the inputs and outputs of the two systems should differ qualitatively and quantitatively (not all systems will be different in all aspects). The pair of examples could be North American cereal farming and subsistence farming in some parts of South‑East Asia, intensive beef production in the developed world and the Maasai tribal use of livestock, or commercial salmon farming in Norway/Scotland and rice‑fish farming in Thailand. Other local or global examples are equally valid. \nFactors to be considered should include:\n* inputs—for example, fertilizers (artificial and natural), irrigation water, pesticides, fossil fuels, food distribution, human labour, seed, breeding stock\n* system characteristics—for example, selective breeding, genetically engineered organisms, monoculture versus polyculture, sustainability\n* socio‑cultural—for example, for the Maasai, cattle equals wealth and quantity is more important than quality\n* environmental impact—for example, pollution, habitat loss, reduction in biodiversity, soil erosion \n* outputs—for example, food quality and quantity, pollutants, soil erosion.\n\n
  • The systems selected should be both terrestrial or both aquatic. In addition, the inputs and outputs of the two systems should differ qualitatively and quantitatively (not all systems will be different in all aspects). The pair of examples could be North American cereal farming and subsistence farming in some parts of South‑East Asia, intensive beef production in the developed world and the Maasai tribal use of livestock, or commercial salmon farming in Norway/Scotland and rice‑fish farming in Thailand. Other local or global examples are equally valid. \nFactors to be considered should include:\n* inputs—for example, fertilizers (artificial and natural), irrigation water, pesticides, fossil fuels, food distribution, human labour, seed, breeding stock\n* system characteristics—for example, selective breeding, genetically engineered organisms, monoculture versus polyculture, sustainability\n* socio‑cultural—for example, for the Maasai, cattle equals wealth and quantity is more important than quality\n* environmental impact—for example, pollution, habitat loss, reduction in biodiversity, soil erosion \n* outputs—for example, food quality and quantity, pollutants, soil erosion.\n\n
  • The systems selected should be both terrestrial or both aquatic. In addition, the inputs and outputs of the two systems should differ qualitatively and quantitatively (not all systems will be different in all aspects). The pair of examples could be North American cereal farming and subsistence farming in some parts of South‑East Asia, intensive beef production in the developed world and the Maasai tribal use of livestock, or commercial salmon farming in Norway/Scotland and rice‑fish farming in Thailand. Other local or global examples are equally valid. \nFactors to be considered should include:\n* inputs—for example, fertilizers (artificial and natural), irrigation water, pesticides, fossil fuels, food distribution, human labour, seed, breeding stock\n* system characteristics—for example, selective breeding, genetically engineered organisms, monoculture versus polyculture, sustainability\n* socio‑cultural—for example, for the Maasai, cattle equals wealth and quantity is more important than quality\n* environmental impact—for example, pollution, habitat loss, reduction in biodiversity, soil erosion \n* outputs—for example, food quality and quantity, pollutants, soil erosion.\n\n
  • The systems selected should be both terrestrial or both aquatic. In addition, the inputs and outputs of the two systems should differ qualitatively and quantitatively (not all systems will be different in all aspects). The pair of examples could be North American cereal farming and subsistence farming in some parts of South‑East Asia, intensive beef production in the developed world and the Maasai tribal use of livestock, or commercial salmon farming in Norway/Scotland and rice‑fish farming in Thailand. Other local or global examples are equally valid. \nFactors to be considered should include:\n* inputs—for example, fertilizers (artificial and natural), irrigation water, pesticides, fossil fuels, food distribution, human labour, seed, breeding stock\n* system characteristics—for example, selective breeding, genetically engineered organisms, monoculture versus polyculture, sustainability\n* socio‑cultural—for example, for the Maasai, cattle equals wealth and quantity is more important than quality\n* environmental impact—for example, pollution, habitat loss, reduction in biodiversity, soil erosion \n* outputs—for example, food quality and quantity, pollutants, soil erosion.\n\n
  • This could be illustrated through the use of examples, such as:\n* the way in which the low population densities and belief systems of shifting cultivators links with the ecosystem of “slash and burn” agriculture\n* the relationship between high population densities, culture, soil fertility and the wet-rice ecosystem of South‑East Asia\n* the link between the political economy of modern urban society, corporate capitalism and agro-ecosystems.\n\n
  • This could be illustrated through the use of examples, such as:\n* the way in which the low population densities and belief systems of shifting cultivators links with the ecosystem of “slash and burn” agriculture\n* the relationship between high population densities, culture, soil fertility and the wet-rice ecosystem of South‑East Asia\n* the link between the political economy of modern urban society, corporate capitalism and agro-ecosystems.\n\n
  • This could be illustrated through the use of examples, such as:\n* the way in which the low population densities and belief systems of shifting cultivators links with the ecosystem of “slash and burn” agriculture\n* the relationship between high population densities, culture, soil fertility and the wet-rice ecosystem of South‑East Asia\n* the link between the political economy of modern urban society, corporate capitalism and agro-ecosystems.\n\n
  • This could be illustrated through the use of examples, such as:\n* the way in which the low population densities and belief systems of shifting cultivators links with the ecosystem of “slash and burn” agriculture\n* the relationship between high population densities, culture, soil fertility and the wet-rice ecosystem of South‑East Asia\n* the link between the political economy of modern urban society, corporate capitalism and agro-ecosystems.\n\n
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  • Only a small fraction (2.6% by volume) of the Earth’s water supply is fresh water. Of this, over 80% is in the form of ice caps and glaciers, 0.6% is groundwater and the rest is made up of lakes, soil water, atmospheric water vapour, rivers and biota in decreasing order of storage size. Precise figures are not required.\n
  • Only a small fraction (2.6% by volume) of the Earth’s water supply is fresh water. Of this, over 80% is in the form of ice caps and glaciers, 0.6% is groundwater and the rest is made up of lakes, soil water, atmospheric water vapour, rivers and biota in decreasing order of storage size. Precise figures are not required.\n
  • Only a small fraction (2.6% by volume) of the Earth’s water supply is fresh water. Of this, over 80% is in the form of ice caps and glaciers, 0.6% is groundwater and the rest is made up of lakes, soil water, atmospheric water vapour, rivers and biota in decreasing order of storage size. Precise figures are not required.\n
  • Only a small fraction (2.6% by volume) of the Earth’s water supply is fresh water. Of this, over 80% is in the form of ice caps and glaciers, 0.6% is groundwater and the rest is made up of lakes, soil water, atmospheric water vapour, rivers and biota in decreasing order of storage size. Precise figures are not required.\n
  • Irrigation, industrialization and population increase all make demands on the supplies of fresh water. Global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and water supplies. The hydrological cycle supplies humans with fresh water but we are withdrawing water from underground aquifers and degrading it with wastes at a greater rate than it can be replenished. Consider the increased demand for fresh water, inequity of usage and political consequences, methods of reducing use and increasing supplies. A case study must be explored that covers some of these issues and demonstrates either sustainable or unsustainable water use.\n
  • Irrigation, industrialization and population increase all make demands on the supplies of fresh water. Global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and water supplies. The hydrological cycle supplies humans with fresh water but we are withdrawing water from underground aquifers and degrading it with wastes at a greater rate than it can be replenished. Consider the increased demand for fresh water, inequity of usage and political consequences, methods of reducing use and increasing supplies. A case study must be explored that covers some of these issues and demonstrates either sustainable or unsustainable water use.\n
  • Irrigation, industrialization and population increase all make demands on the supplies of fresh water. Global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and water supplies. The hydrological cycle supplies humans with fresh water but we are withdrawing water from underground aquifers and degrading it with wastes at a greater rate than it can be replenished. Consider the increased demand for fresh water, inequity of usage and political consequences, methods of reducing use and increasing supplies. A case study must be explored that covers some of these issues and demonstrates either sustainable or unsustainable water use.\n
  • Irrigation, industrialization and population increase all make demands on the supplies of fresh water. Global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and water supplies. The hydrological cycle supplies humans with fresh water but we are withdrawing water from underground aquifers and degrading it with wastes at a greater rate than it can be replenished. Consider the increased demand for fresh water, inequity of usage and political consequences, methods of reducing use and increasing supplies. A case study must be explored that covers some of these issues and demonstrates either sustainable or unsustainable water use.\n
  • Irrigation, industrialization and population increase all make demands on the supplies of fresh water. Global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and water supplies. The hydrological cycle supplies humans with fresh water but we are withdrawing water from underground aquifers and degrading it with wastes at a greater rate than it can be replenished. Consider the increased demand for fresh water, inequity of usage and political consequences, methods of reducing use and increasing supplies. A case study must be explored that covers some of these issues and demonstrates either sustainable or unsustainable water use.\n
  • Irrigation, industrialization and population increase all make demands on the supplies of fresh water. Global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and water supplies. The hydrological cycle supplies humans with fresh water but we are withdrawing water from underground aquifers and degrading it with wastes at a greater rate than it can be replenished. Consider the increased demand for fresh water, inequity of usage and political consequences, methods of reducing use and increasing supplies. A case study must be explored that covers some of these issues and demonstrates either sustainable or unsustainable water use.\n
  • Irrigation, industrialization and population increase all make demands on the supplies of fresh water. Global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and water supplies. The hydrological cycle supplies humans with fresh water but we are withdrawing water from underground aquifers and degrading it with wastes at a greater rate than it can be replenished. Consider the increased demand for fresh water, inequity of usage and political consequences, methods of reducing use and increasing supplies. A case study must be explored that covers some of these issues and demonstrates either sustainable or unsustainable water use.\n
  • Irrigation, industrialization and population increase all make demands on the supplies of fresh water. Global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and water supplies. The hydrological cycle supplies humans with fresh water but we are withdrawing water from underground aquifers and degrading it with wastes at a greater rate than it can be replenished. Consider the increased demand for fresh water, inequity of usage and political consequences, methods of reducing use and increasing supplies. A case study must be explored that covers some of these issues and demonstrates either sustainable or unsustainable water use.\n
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  • By examining carefully the requirements of a given species and the resources available, it might be possible to estimate the carrying capacity of that environment for the species. This is problematic in the case of human populations for a number of reasons. The range of resources used by humans is usually much greater than for any other species. Furthermore, when one resource becomes limiting, humans show great ingenuity in substituting one resource for another. Resource requirements vary according to lifestyles, which differ from time to time and from population to population. Technological developments give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. \nHuman populations also regularly import resources from outside their immediate environment, which enables them to grow beyond the boundaries set by their local resources and increases their carrying capacity. While importing resources in this way increases the carrying capacity for the local population, it ha\n
  • By examining carefully the requirements of a given species and the resources available, it might be possible to estimate the carrying capacity of that environment for the species. This is problematic in the case of human populations for a number of reasons. The range of resources used by humans is usually much greater than for any other species. Furthermore, when one resource becomes limiting, humans show great ingenuity in substituting one resource for another. Resource requirements vary according to lifestyles, which differ from time to time and from population to population. Technological developments give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. \nHuman populations also regularly import resources from outside their immediate environment, which enables them to grow beyond the boundaries set by their local resources and increases their carrying capacity. While importing resources in this way increases the carrying capacity for the local population, it ha\n
  • By examining carefully the requirements of a given species and the resources available, it might be possible to estimate the carrying capacity of that environment for the species. This is problematic in the case of human populations for a number of reasons. The range of resources used by humans is usually much greater than for any other species. Furthermore, when one resource becomes limiting, humans show great ingenuity in substituting one resource for another. Resource requirements vary according to lifestyles, which differ from time to time and from population to population. Technological developments give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. \nHuman populations also regularly import resources from outside their immediate environment, which enables them to grow beyond the boundaries set by their local resources and increases their carrying capacity. While importing resources in this way increases the carrying capacity for the local population, it ha\n
  • By examining carefully the requirements of a given species and the resources available, it might be possible to estimate the carrying capacity of that environment for the species. This is problematic in the case of human populations for a number of reasons. The range of resources used by humans is usually much greater than for any other species. Furthermore, when one resource becomes limiting, humans show great ingenuity in substituting one resource for another. Resource requirements vary according to lifestyles, which differ from time to time and from population to population. Technological developments give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. \nHuman populations also regularly import resources from outside their immediate environment, which enables them to grow beyond the boundaries set by their local resources and increases their carrying capacity. While importing resources in this way increases the carrying capacity for the local population, it ha\n
  • By examining carefully the requirements of a given species and the resources available, it might be possible to estimate the carrying capacity of that environment for the species. This is problematic in the case of human populations for a number of reasons. The range of resources used by humans is usually much greater than for any other species. Furthermore, when one resource becomes limiting, humans show great ingenuity in substituting one resource for another. Resource requirements vary according to lifestyles, which differ from time to time and from population to population. Technological developments give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. \nHuman populations also regularly import resources from outside their immediate environment, which enables them to grow beyond the boundaries set by their local resources and increases their carrying capacity. While importing resources in this way increases the carrying capacity for the local population, it ha\n
  • By examining carefully the requirements of a given species and the resources available, it might be possible to estimate the carrying capacity of that environment for the species. This is problematic in the case of human populations for a number of reasons. The range of resources used by humans is usually much greater than for any other species. Furthermore, when one resource becomes limiting, humans show great ingenuity in substituting one resource for another. Resource requirements vary according to lifestyles, which differ from time to time and from population to population. Technological developments give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. \nHuman populations also regularly import resources from outside their immediate environment, which enables them to grow beyond the boundaries set by their local resources and increases their carrying capacity. While importing resources in this way increases the carrying capacity for the local population, it ha\n
  • By examining carefully the requirements of a given species and the resources available, it might be possible to estimate the carrying capacity of that environment for the species. This is problematic in the case of human populations for a number of reasons. The range of resources used by humans is usually much greater than for any other species. Furthermore, when one resource becomes limiting, humans show great ingenuity in substituting one resource for another. Resource requirements vary according to lifestyles, which differ from time to time and from population to population. Technological developments give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. \nHuman populations also regularly import resources from outside their immediate environment, which enables them to grow beyond the boundaries set by their local resources and increases their carrying capacity. While importing resources in this way increases the carrying capacity for the local population, it ha\n
  • By examining carefully the requirements of a given species and the resources available, it might be possible to estimate the carrying capacity of that environment for the species. This is problematic in the case of human populations for a number of reasons. The range of resources used by humans is usually much greater than for any other species. Furthermore, when one resource becomes limiting, humans show great ingenuity in substituting one resource for another. Resource requirements vary according to lifestyles, which differ from time to time and from population to population. Technological developments give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. \nHuman populations also regularly import resources from outside their immediate environment, which enables them to grow beyond the boundaries set by their local resources and increases their carrying capacity. While importing resources in this way increases the carrying capacity for the local population, it ha\n
  • By examining carefully the requirements of a given species and the resources available, it might be possible to estimate the carrying capacity of that environment for the species. This is problematic in the case of human populations for a number of reasons. The range of resources used by humans is usually much greater than for any other species. Furthermore, when one resource becomes limiting, humans show great ingenuity in substituting one resource for another. Resource requirements vary according to lifestyles, which differ from time to time and from population to population. Technological developments give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. \nHuman populations also regularly import resources from outside their immediate environment, which enables them to grow beyond the boundaries set by their local resources and increases their carrying capacity. While importing resources in this way increases the carrying capacity for the local population, it ha\n
  • By examining carefully the requirements of a given species and the resources available, it might be possible to estimate the carrying capacity of that environment for the species. This is problematic in the case of human populations for a number of reasons. The range of resources used by humans is usually much greater than for any other species. Furthermore, when one resource becomes limiting, humans show great ingenuity in substituting one resource for another. Resource requirements vary according to lifestyles, which differ from time to time and from population to population. Technological developments give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. \nHuman populations also regularly import resources from outside their immediate environment, which enables them to grow beyond the boundaries set by their local resources and increases their carrying capacity. While importing resources in this way increases the carrying capacity for the local population, it ha\n
  • Human carrying capacity is determined by the rate of energy and material consumption, the level of pollution and the extent of human interference in global life-support systems. While reuse and recycling reduce these impacts, they can also increase human carrying capacity.\n
  • \n
  • Why societies collapse: Jared Diamond. \nGuns, Germs and Steel\n5 checks:\n1) human env impact\n2) climate change\n3) relations with friendlies that can sustain the society\n4) relation with hostiles\n5) political-economic-societal-cultural attitudes: not open to change\n\nBlue print for trouble:\nConflict of interest (Elite vs. society as a whole)\nHard to make ‘good’ decisions when can recognize that strengths can be the problem???\n\n“Since we made the problems, we can also solve the problems”\n\n\n
  • The ecological footprint of a population is the area of land, in the same vicinity as the population, that would be required to provide all the population’s resources and assimilate all its wastes. As a model, it is able to provide a quantitative estimate of human carrying capacity. It is, in fact, the inverse of carrying capacity. It refers to the area required to sustainably support a given population rather than the population that a given area can sustainably support.\n
  • The ecological footprint of a population is the area of land, in the same vicinity as the population, that would be required to provide all the population’s resources and assimilate all its wastes. As a model, it is able to provide a quantitative estimate of human carrying capacity. It is, in fact, the inverse of carrying capacity. It refers to the area required to sustainably support a given population rather than the population that a given area can sustainably support.\n
  • The ecological footprint of a population is the area of land, in the same vicinity as the population, that would be required to provide all the population’s resources and assimilate all its wastes. As a model, it is able to provide a quantitative estimate of human carrying capacity. It is, in fact, the inverse of carrying capacity. It refers to the area required to sustainably support a given population rather than the population that a given area can sustainably support.\n
  • The ecological footprint of a population is the area of land, in the same vicinity as the population, that would be required to provide all the population’s resources and assimilate all its wastes. As a model, it is able to provide a quantitative estimate of human carrying capacity. It is, in fact, the inverse of carrying capacity. It refers to the area required to sustainably support a given population rather than the population that a given area can sustainably support.\n
  • The ecological footprint of a population is the area of land, in the same vicinity as the population, that would be required to provide all the population’s resources and assimilate all its wastes. As a model, it is able to provide a quantitative estimate of human carrying capacity. It is, in fact, the inverse of carrying capacity. It refers to the area required to sustainably support a given population rather than the population that a given area can sustainably support.\n
  • The ecological footprint of a population is the area of land, in the same vicinity as the population, that would be required to provide all the population’s resources and assimilate all its wastes. As a model, it is able to provide a quantitative estimate of human carrying capacity. It is, in fact, the inverse of carrying capacity. It refers to the area required to sustainably support a given population rather than the population that a given area can sustainably support.\n
  • Although the accurate calculation of an ecological footprint might be very complex, an approximation can be achieved through the steps outlined in figures 3 and 4.\nThe total land requirement (ecological footprint) can then be calculated as the sum of these two per capita requirements, multiplied by the total population.\nThis calculation clearly ignores the land or water required to provide any aquatic and atmospheric resources, assimilate wastes other than carbon dioxide (CO2), produce the energy and material subsidies imported to the arable land for increasing yields, replace loss of productive land through urbanization, and so on.\n\nsee figure 3 & figure 4\n\n
  • Although the accurate calculation of an ecological footprint might be very complex, an approximation can be achieved through the steps outlined in figures 3 and 4.\nThe total land requirement (ecological footprint) can then be calculated as the sum of these two per capita requirements, multiplied by the total population.\nThis calculation clearly ignores the land or water required to provide any aquatic and atmospheric resources, assimilate wastes other than carbon dioxide (CO2), produce the energy and material subsidies imported to the arable land for increasing yields, replace loss of productive land through urbanization, and so on.\n\nsee figure 3 & figure 4\n\n
  • Although the accurate calculation of an ecological footprint might be very complex, an approximation can be achieved through the steps outlined in figures 3 and 4.\nThe total land requirement (ecological footprint) can then be calculated as the sum of these two per capita requirements, multiplied by the total population.\nThis calculation clearly ignores the land or water required to provide any aquatic and atmospheric resources, assimilate wastes other than carbon dioxide (CO2), produce the energy and material subsidies imported to the arable land for increasing yields, replace loss of productive land through urbanization, and so on.\n\nsee figure 3 & figure 4\n\n
  • Although the accurate calculation of an ecological footprint might be very complex, an approximation can be achieved through the steps outlined in figures 3 and 4.\nThe total land requirement (ecological footprint) can then be calculated as the sum of these two per capita requirements, multiplied by the total population.\nThis calculation clearly ignores the land or water required to provide any aquatic and atmospheric resources, assimilate wastes other than carbon dioxide (CO2), produce the energy and material subsidies imported to the arable land for increasing yields, replace loss of productive land through urbanization, and so on.\n\nsee figure 3 & figure 4\n\n
  • Although the accurate calculation of an ecological footprint might be very complex, an approximation can be achieved through the steps outlined in figures 3 and 4.\nThe total land requirement (ecological footprint) can then be calculated as the sum of these two per capita requirements, multiplied by the total population.\nThis calculation clearly ignores the land or water required to provide any aquatic and atmospheric resources, assimilate wastes other than carbon dioxide (CO2), produce the energy and material subsidies imported to the arable land for increasing yields, replace loss of productive land through urbanization, and so on.\n\nsee figure 3 & figure 4\n\n
  • Although the accurate calculation of an ecological footprint might be very complex, an approximation can be achieved through the steps outlined in figures 3 and 4.\nThe total land requirement (ecological footprint) can then be calculated as the sum of these two per capita requirements, multiplied by the total population.\nThis calculation clearly ignores the land or water required to provide any aquatic and atmospheric resources, assimilate wastes other than carbon dioxide (CO2), produce the energy and material subsidies imported to the arable land for increasing yields, replace loss of productive land through urbanization, and so on.\n\nsee figure 3 & figure 4\n\n
  • Although the accurate calculation of an ecological footprint might be very complex, an approximation can be achieved through the steps outlined in figures 3 and 4.\nThe total land requirement (ecological footprint) can then be calculated as the sum of these two per capita requirements, multiplied by the total population.\nThis calculation clearly ignores the land or water required to provide any aquatic and atmospheric resources, assimilate wastes other than carbon dioxide (CO2), produce the energy and material subsidies imported to the arable land for increasing yields, replace loss of productive land through urbanization, and so on.\n\nsee figure 3 & figure 4\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Data for food consumption are often given in grain equivalents, so that a population with a meat‑rich diet would tend to consume a higher grain equivalent than a population that feeds directly on grain.\nStudents should be aware that in MEDCs, about twice as much energy in the diet is provided by animal products than in LEDCs. Grain production will be higher with intensive farming strategies. Populations more dependent on fossil fuels will have higher CO2 emissions. Fixation of CO2 is clearly dependent on climatic region and vegetation type. These and other factors will often explain the differences in the ecological footprints of populations in LEDCs and MEDCs.\n\n
  • Many policy factors influence human population growth. Domestic and international development policies (which target the death rate through agricultural development, improved public health and sanitation, and better service infrastructure) may stimulate rapid population growth by lowering mortality without significantly affecting fertility.\nSome analysts believe that birth rates will come down by themselves as economic welfare improves and that the population problem is therefore better solved through policies to stimulate economic growth. \nEducation about birth control encourages family planning.\nParents may be dependent on their children for support in their later years and this may create an incentive to have many children.\nUrbanization may also be a factor in reducing crude birth rates.\nPolicies directed towards the education of women, enabling women to have greater personal and economic independence, may be the most effective method for reducing population pressure.\n\n
  • Because technology plays such a large role in human life, many economists argue that human carrying capacity can be expanded continuously through technological innovation. For example, if we learn to use energy and material twice as efficiently, we can double the population or the use of energy without necessarily increasing the impact (load) imposed on the environment. However, to compensate for foreseeable population growth and the economic growth that is deemed necessary, especially in developing countries, it is suggested that efficiency would have to be raised by a factor of 4 to 10 to remain within global carrying capacity.\n
  • \n
  • ESS Topic 3 - Human Populations, Carrying Capacity, and Resource Use

    1. 1. HUMAN POPULATION, CARRYING CAPACITY & RESOURCE USE Topic 3 By Peter Stanley, International School of Tanganyika, 2008
    2. 2. HUMAN POPULATION, CARRYING CAPACITY & RESOURCE USE Topic 3 By Peter Stanley, International School of Tanganyika, 2008
    3. 3. 3.1 POPULATION DYNAMICS © Peter Stanley, 2009
    4. 4. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)
    5. 5. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)
    6. 6. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)
    7. 7. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)
    8. 8. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:
    9. 9. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:22=4... 42=16... 162=256... 2562=65,536...65,5362=4,294,967,296
    10. 10. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:22=4... 42=16... 162=256... 2562=65,536...65,5362=4,294,967,296What are the implication of our population growing exponentially?
    11. 11. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:22=4... 42=16... 162=256... 2562=65,536...65,5362=4,294,967,296What are the implication of our population growing exponentially? • Using resources
    12. 12. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:22=4... 42=16... 162=256... 2562=65,536...65,5362=4,294,967,296What are the implication of our population growing exponentially? • Using resources • War (water, oil, food, land)
    13. 13. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:22=4... 42=16... 162=256... 2562=65,536...65,5362=4,294,967,296What are the implication of our population growing exponentially? • Using resources • War (water, oil, food, land) • Pollution
    14. 14. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:22=4... 42=16... 162=256... 2562=65,536...65,5362=4,294,967,296What are the implication of our population growing exponentially? • Using resources • War (water, oil, food, land) • Pollution • more hosts for disease outbreaks
    15. 15. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:22=4... 42=16... 162=256... 2562=65,536...65,5362=4,294,967,296What are the implication of our population growing exponentially? • Using resources • War (water, oil, food, land) • Pollution • more hosts for disease outbreaksWhat are the limiting factors that may eventually stem our growth?
    16. 16. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:22=4... 42=16... 162=256... 2562=65,536...65,5362=4,294,967,296What are the implication of our population growing exponentially? • Using resources • War (water, oil, food, land) • Pollution • more hosts for disease outbreaksWhat are the limiting factors that may eventually stem our growth? • Shortage of food
    17. 17. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:22=4... 42=16... 162=256... 2562=65,536...65,5362=4,294,967,296What are the implication of our population growing exponentially? • Using resources • War (water, oil, food, land) • Pollution • more hosts for disease outbreaksWhat are the limiting factors that may eventually stem our growth? • Shortage of food • Disease
    18. 18. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:22=4... 42=16... 162=256... 2562=65,536...65,5362=4,294,967,296What are the implication of our population growing exponentially? • Using resources • War (water, oil, food, land) • Pollution • more hosts for disease outbreaksWhat are the limiting factors that may eventually stem our growth? • Shortage of food • Disease • Pollution
    19. 19. 3.1.1 Exponential growth “Describe the nature and explain the implications of exponential growth in human populations.” (3)Rapid, increasing growth:22=4... 42=16... 162=256... 2562=65,536...65,5362=4,294,967,296What are the implication of our population growing exponentially? • Using resources • War (water, oil, food, land) • Pollution • more hosts for disease outbreaksWhat are the limiting factors that may eventually stem our growth? • Shortage of food • Disease • Pollution • Shortage of space (territory) factors
    20. 20. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes“Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3)click to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    21. 21. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes“Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 peopleclick to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    22. 22. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes“Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 peopleclick to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    23. 23. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes“Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 peopleclick to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    24. 24. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes“Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 people • Crude death rate (CDR): deaths per 1000 peopleclick to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    25. 25. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes“Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 people • Crude death rate (CDR): deaths per 1000 people • Fertility: number of children per woman in her lifetimeclick to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    26. 26. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes“Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 people • Crude death rate (CDR): deaths per 1000 people • Fertility: number of children per woman in her lifetime • Doubling time: how long it takes for population to doubleclick to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    27. 27. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes“Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 people • Crude death rate (CDR): deaths per 1000 people • Fertility: number of children per woman in her lifetime • Doubling time: how long it takes for population to double • 70 / overall growth rate (it’s a math thing...)click to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    28. 28. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes“Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 people • Crude death rate (CDR): deaths per 1000 people • Fertility: number of children per woman in her lifetime • Doubling time: how long it takes for population to double • 70 / overall growth rate (it’s a math thing...) • Natural increase rate: (CBR-CDR) ÷ 10 (migration not included!)click to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    29. 29. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes “Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 people • Crude death rate (CDR): deaths per 1000 people • Fertility: number of children per woman in her lifetime • Doubling time: how long it takes for population to double • 70 / overall growth rate (it’s a math thing...) • Natural increase rate: (CBR-CDR) ÷ 10 (migration not included!)If... Tanzania has a pop. of 1,000,000 and 15,000 are born last year... what was the CBR? click to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    30. 30. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes “Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 people • Crude death rate (CDR): deaths per 1000 people • Fertility: number of children per woman in her lifetime • Doubling time: how long it takes for population to double • 70 / overall growth rate (it’s a math thing...) • Natural increase rate: (CBR-CDR) ÷ 10 (migration not included!)If... Tanzania has a pop. of 1,000,000 and 15,000 are born last year... what was the CBR? 15,000 CBR = 1,000,000 1000 click to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    31. 31. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes “Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 people • Crude death rate (CDR): deaths per 1000 people • Fertility: number of children per woman in her lifetime • Doubling time: how long it takes for population to double • 70 / overall growth rate (it’s a math thing...) • Natural increase rate: (CBR-CDR) ÷ 10 (migration not included!)If... Tanzania has a pop. of 1,000,000 and 15,000 are born last year... what was the CBR? 15,000 CBR = 1,000,000 1000 CBR = 15 click to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    32. 32. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes “Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 people • Crude death rate (CDR): deaths per 1000 people • Fertility: number of children per woman in her lifetime • Doubling time: how long it takes for population to double • 70 / overall growth rate (it’s a math thing...) • Natural increase rate: (CBR-CDR) ÷ 10 (migration not included!)If... Tanzania has a pop. of 1,000,000 and 15,000 If... Afganistan has a growth rate of 4.8%, how are born last year... what was the CBR? long will it take for the population to double? 15,000 CBR = 1,000,000 1000 CBR = 15 click to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    33. 33. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes “Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 people • Crude death rate (CDR): deaths per 1000 people • Fertility: number of children per woman in her lifetime • Doubling time: how long it takes for population to double • 70 / overall growth rate (it’s a math thing...) • Natural increase rate: (CBR-CDR) ÷ 10 (migration not included!)If... Tanzania has a pop. of 1,000,000 and 15,000 If... Afganistan has a growth rate of 4.8%, how are born last year... what was the CBR? long will it take for the population to double? 15,000 CBR 70 = Doubling Time = 1,000,000 1000 4.8 CBR = 15 click to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    34. 34. 3.1.2 Calculating population changes “Calculate and explain, from given data, the values of crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.” (3) • Crude birth rate (CBR): natality (births) per 1000 people • Crude death rate (CDR): deaths per 1000 people • Fertility: number of children per woman in her lifetime • Doubling time: how long it takes for population to double • 70 / overall growth rate (it’s a math thing...) • Natural increase rate: (CBR-CDR) ÷ 10 (migration not included!)If... Tanzania has a pop. of 1,000,000 and 15,000 If... Afganistan has a growth rate of 4.8%, how are born last year... what was the CBR? long will it take for the population to double? 15,000 CBR 70 = Doubling Time = 1,000,000 1000 4.8 CBR = 15 14.5 years click to read more about this subject click to find the data on any country
    35. 35. Data Analysis
    36. 36. World birth rates ranked from highest to lowest
    37. 37. World birth rates ranked from highest to lowest1 Democratic Republic of the 52 Haiti 27.9 104 Saint Lucia 19.1 149 Australia 12.4Congo 49.6 53 Honduras 7.9 2 105 Vietnam 18.8 150 Martinique2 Guinea-Bissau 49.6 54 Zimbabwe 27.9 106 Colombia18.7 ( France) 12.43 Liberia 49.6 55 Bolivia 27.3 107 Indonesia18.7 151 Cyprus 12.24 Niger 49.0 56 Tajikistan27.3 108 Bhutan 18.5 152 France5 Afghanistan 48.2 57 Pakistan 27.2 109 Guam ( United (metropolitan) 12.26 Mali 48.1 58 Laos 26.8 States) 18.5 153 United Kingdom 12.07 Angola 47.3 59 Syria 26.7 110 Mongolia18.4 154 Norway 12.08 Burundi 47.1 60 Cambodia 26.4 111 Turkey 18.4 155 Luxembourg 11.59 Uganda 46.6 61 Jordan 25.9 112 French Polynesia 156 Moldova 11.410 Sierra Leone 46.2 62 Federated States of ( France) 18.3 157 Sweden 11.311 Chad 45.5 Micronesia 25.9 113 Lebanon 18.2 158 Denmark11.212 Rwanda 44.5 63 Philippines 25.8 114 Myanmar18.2 159 Finland 11.213 Burkina Faso 44.0 64 Gabon 25.7 115 Grenada 18.0 160 Netherlands 11.114 Somalia 42.9 65 Namibia 25.7 116 Réunion ( France) 18.0 161 Barbados11.015 Timor-Leste 42.1 66 Tonga 25.6 117 Kuwait 17.9 162 Republic of16 Malawi 40.7 67 Belize 25.2 118 Costa Rica 17.8 Macedonia 10.917 Benin 40.2 68 Botswana24.9 119 Argentina17.5 163 Estonia 10.818 Nigeria 39.9 69 Nicaragua 24.9 120 Bahrain 17.1 164 Georgia 10.819 Guinea 39.8 70 Saudi Arabia 24.9 121 Guyana 17.1 165 Spain 10.820 Mozambique 39.5 71 Bangladesh 24.8 122 Bahamas 16.9 166 Russia 10.721 Eritrea 39.3 72 Paraguay 24.8 123 Tunisia 16.7 167 Portugal 10.522 Zambia 39.3 73 Samoa 24.7 124 New Caledonia 168 Belgium 10.423 Kenya 39.2 74 Egypt 24.2 ( France) 16.4 169 Canada 10.324 Tanzania 39.0 75 French Guiana 125 Albania 16.3 170 Cuba 10.325 Equatorial Guinea 38.5 ( France) 23.9 126 Azerbaijan 16.2 171 Slovakia 10.026 Yemen 38.3 76 Dominican 127 Qatar 16.2 172 Malta 9.827 Ethiopia 38.2 Republic 23.5 128 United Arab 173 Romania 9.828 Togo 36.8 77 Libya 23.4 Emirates 16.2 174 Poland 9.529 Madagascar 36.4 78 Maldives 23.4 129 Ireland 15.5 175 Channel Islands ( United30 Central African 79 Western Sahara 23.3 130 Uruguay 15.1 Kingdom)9.4Republic 36.1 80 India 23.0 131 Chile 15.0 176 Belarus 9.431 Palestinian 81 El Salvador 22.8 132 Sri Lanka15.0 177 Greece 9.3territories 35.9 82 Uzbekistan 22.6 133 Mauritius14.8 178 Hungary 9.332 Côte dIvoire 35.3 83 South Africa 22.3 134 Guadeloupe 179 South Korea 9.333 Senegal 35.2 84 Oman 22.1 ( France) 14.8 180 Latvia 9.334 Republic of the 85 Kyrgyzstan 21.8 135 Trinidad and 181 Austria 9.2Congo 35.1 86 Turkmenistan 21.8 Tobago 14.8 182 Czech Republic 9.235 Gambia 34.9 87 Brunei 21.5 136 Thailand 14.6 183 Italy 9.236 Cameroon 34.5 88 Venezuela 21.4 137 Iceland 14.3 184 Switzerland 9.237 Comoros33.4 89 Fiji 21.1 138 Aruba 185 Ukraine 9.238 Guatemala 33.2 90 Ecuador 21.0 ( Netherlands) 14.1 186 Lithuania9.139 Mauritania 32.5 91 Peru 20.9 139 United States 14.0 187 Croatia 9.040 São Tomé and 92 Algeria 20.8 140 New Zealand 13.7 188 Slovenia 9.0Príncipe 32.4 93 Panama 20.8 141 Montenegro 13.6 189 Bulgaria 8.941 Iraq 31.7 94 Malaysia 20.6 142 U.S. Virgin Islands ( United 190 Bosnia and42 Sudan 31.5 95 Morocco20.5 States) 13.4 Herzegovina 8.843 Solomon Islands 30.5 96 Iran 20.3 143 Puerto Rico ( United 191 Japan 8.344 Ghana 29.6 97 Saint Vincent and the States) 13.3 192 Germany8.245 Papua New Guinea29.6 Grenadines 20.1 144 North Korea 13.2 193 Singapore8.246 Lesotho 29.0 98 Jamaica 19.9 145 Peoples Republic of China 194 Hong Kong ( Peoples Republic of47 Cape Verde 28.9 99 Israel 19.7 (mainland only) 13.1 China) 7.648 Vanuatu 28.8 100 Kazakhstan 19.7 146 Serbia 12.8 195 Macau ( Peoples Republic of49 Djibouti 28.7 101 Suriname19.5 147 Armenia 12.5 China) 7.650 Swaziland28.5 102 Mexico 19.3 148 Netherlands51 Nepal 28.1 103 Brazil 19.2 Antilles 12.5
    38. 38. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm
    39. 39. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3)les source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm se co no m ica lly de ve lo pe d co un tr y (L ED C s)
    40. 40. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models s) C “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) ED (M yles tr source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm un se co co no d pe m lo ica ve lly de de lly ve ica lo om pe d on co ec un e tr or y m (L ED C s)
    41. 41. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models s) C “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) ED (M yles tr source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm un se co co no d pe m lo ica ve lly de de lly ve ica lo om pe d on co ec un e tr or y m (L ED C s)
    42. 42. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models s) C “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) ED (M yles tr source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm un se co co no d pe m lo ica ve lly de de lly ve ica lo om pe d on co ec un e tr or y m (L ED C s)
    43. 43. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm
    44. 44. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm
    45. 45. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm
    46. 46. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm
    47. 47. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm
    48. 48. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm
    49. 49. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm
    50. 50. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm
    51. 51. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm
    52. 52. 3.1.3.a. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source: http://geographyfieldwork.com/PopulationStructure.htm
    53. 53. 3.1.3.b. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source image 1: http://www.geographyalltheway.com/igcse_geography/population_settlement/population/demographic_transition.htm source image 2: http://content.answers.com/main/content/img/oxford/Oxford_Geography/0198606737.demographic-transition.1.jpg
    54. 54. 3.1.3.b. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source image 1: http://www.geographyalltheway.com/igcse_geography/population_settlement/population/demographic_transition.htm source image 2: http://content.answers.com/main/content/img/oxford/Oxford_Geography/0198606737.demographic-transition.1.jpg
    55. 55. 3.1.3.b. Demographic transition models “Analyze age/sex pyramids and diagrams showing demographic transition models.” (3) source image 1: http://www.geographyalltheway.com/igcse_geography/population_settlement/population/demographic_transition.htm source image 2: http://content.answers.com/main/content/img/oxford/Oxford_Geography/0198606737.demographic-transition.1.jpg
    56. 56. 3.1.4 Using models to make predictions “Discuss the use of models in predicting the growth of human populations.” (3)
    57. 57. 3.1.4 Using models to make predictions “Discuss the use of models in predicting the growth of human populations.” (3)
    58. 58. 3.1.4 Using models to make predictions “Discuss the use of models in predicting the growth of human populations.” (3)
    59. 59. 3.1.4 Using models to make predictions “Discuss the use of models in predicting the growth of human populations.” (3)
    60. 60. 3.1.4 Using models to make predictions “Discuss the use of models in predicting the growth of human populations.” (3)
    61. 61. 3.1.4 Using models to make predictions “Discuss the use of models in predicting the growth of human populations.” (3)
    62. 62. 3.1.4 Using models to make predictions “Discuss the use of models in predicting the growth of human populations.” (3)
    63. 63. 3.1.4 Using models to make predictions “Discuss the use of models in predicting the growth of human populations.” (3)
    64. 64. Assignment: Population power pointIn pairs, create a power point (with a maximum of: 3 slides with 6 lines of text per page) aboutyour assigned country. Include the following: • Age/sex pyramid • Stage in a demographic transition model • Explanation and calculate of: crude birth rate, crude death rate, fertility, doubling time and natural increase rate.Also, be prepared to answer questions like these...Sample Questions: 1. Is the population of your country increasing or decreasing? What is the major factor contributing to this change? 2. What do you think the population of your region will be in 2020? Justify your prediction. 3. What might be some of the implications for health care, education and economy in your country? 4. If you were the premier of this country, why might you want to reverse the trend in one of the components of population? What policies might you implement to reverse this trend? 5. What policies are currently being used (anywhere) to affect one of the components of population?DUE:
    65. 65. 3.2 RESOURCES: NATURAL CAPITAL By Peter Stanley, International School of Tanganyika, 2008
    66. 66. 3.2.1 Natural capital“Explain the concept of resources in terms of natural income.” (3)
    67. 67. 3.2.1 Natural capital“Explain the concept of resources in terms of natural income.” (3)• Ecological goods anything nature produces and we use and/or make money from (commodities like timber, grain, coffee, gold, water, etc.)
    68. 68. 3.2.1 Natural capital“Explain the concept of resources in terms of natural income.” (3)• Ecological goods anything nature produces and we use and/or make money from (commodities like timber, grain, coffee, gold, water, etc.)• Ecological services nature provides a service to us (erosion protection from forests)
    69. 69. 3.2.1 Natural capital“Explain the concept of resources in terms of natural income.” (3)• Ecological goods anything nature produces and we use and/or make money from (commodities like timber, grain, coffee, gold, water, etc.)• Ecological services nature provides a service to us (erosion protection from forests)• “resources”
    70. 70. 3.2.1 Natural capital“Explain the concept of resources in terms of natural income.” (3)• Ecological goods anything nature produces and we use and/or make money from (commodities like timber, grain, coffee, gold, water, etc.)• Ecological services nature provides a service to us (erosion protection from forests)• “resources”
    71. 71. 3.2.1 Natural capital“Explain the concept of resources in terms of natural income.” (3)• Ecological goods anything nature produces and we use and/or make money from (commodities like timber, grain, coffee, gold, water, etc.)• Ecological services nature provides a service to us (erosion protection from forests)• “resources”
    72. 72. 3.2.1 Natural capital“Explain the concept of resources in terms of natural income.” (3)• Ecological goods anything nature produces and we use and/or make money from (commodities like timber, grain, coffee, gold, water, etc.)• Ecological services nature provides a service to us (erosion protection from forests)• “resources”
    73. 73. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)
    74. 74. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital
    75. 75. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)
    76. 76. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy
    77. 77. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food)
    78. 78. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone
    79. 79. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!)
    80. 80. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!) • forests (local temperature and water filtration)
    81. 81. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!) • forests (local temperature and water filtration)
    82. 82. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!) • forests (local temperature and water filtration)
    83. 83. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!) • forests (local temperature and water filtration)
    84. 84. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!) • forests (local temperature and water filtration)
    85. 85. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!) • forests (local temperature and water filtration)
    86. 86. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!) • forests (local temperature and water filtration)
    87. 87. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!) • forests (local temperature and water filtration)
    88. 88. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!) • forests (local temperature and water filtration)
    89. 89. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!) • forests (local temperature and water filtration)
    90. 90. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Renewable natural capital• Self-producing (living) and self-maintaining (ecosystems)• Needs solar energy • can be sold/marketed (wood, ethanol, food) • but some give essential services when left alone • elephants (habitat maintenance - NO IVORY!) • forests (local temperature and water filtration)
    91. 91. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1) finish Tuesday... Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    92. 92. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Replenishable natural capital finish Tuesday... Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    93. 93. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Replenishable natural capital• is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal finish Tuesday... Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    94. 94. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Replenishable natural capital• is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal • groundwater finish Tuesday... Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    95. 95. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Replenishable natural capital• is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal • groundwater • wind finish Tuesday... Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    96. 96. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Replenishable natural capital• is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal • groundwater • wind finish Tuesday... • ozone layer Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    97. 97. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Replenishable natural capital• is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal • groundwater • wind finish Tuesday... • ozone layer Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    98. 98. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Replenishable natural capital• is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal • groundwater • wind finish Tuesday... • ozone layer Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    99. 99. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Replenishable natural capital• is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal • groundwater • wind finish Tuesday... • ozone layer Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    100. 100. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Replenishable natural capital• is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal • groundwater • wind finish Tuesday... • ozone layer Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    101. 101. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Replenishable natural capital• is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal • groundwater • wind finish Tuesday... • ozone layer Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    102. 102. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Replenishable natural capital• is non-living but is also often dependent on the solar “engine” for renewal • groundwater • wind finish Tuesday... • ozone layer Watch Movie slide 12 after the test.
    103. 103. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)
    104. 104. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital
    105. 105. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital• inventories, any use implies liquidating part of the stock
    106. 106. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital• inventories, any use implies liquidating part of the stock • minerals
    107. 107. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital• inventories, any use implies liquidating part of the stock • minerals • fossil fuel
    108. 108. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital• inventories, any use implies liquidating part of the stock • minerals • fossil fuel
    109. 109. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital• inventories, any use implies liquidating part of the stock • minerals • fossil fuel
    110. 110. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital• inventories, any use implies liquidating part of the stock • minerals • fossil fuel
    111. 111. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital• inventories, any use implies liquidating part of the stock • minerals • fossil fuel
    112. 112. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital• inventories, any use implies liquidating part of the stock • minerals • fossil fuel
    113. 113. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital• inventories, any use implies liquidating part of the stock • minerals • fossil fuel
    114. 114. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital• inventories, any use implies liquidating part of the stock • minerals • fossil fuel
    115. 115. 3.2.2 Renewable, replenishable and non-renewable“Define the terms renewable, replenishable and non‑renewable natural capital.” (1)Non-renewable natural capital• inventories, any use implies liquidating part of the stock • minerals • fossil fuel
    116. 116. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)
    117. 117. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space
    118. 118. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological
    119. 119. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems”
    120. 120. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...
    121. 121. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    122. 122. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    123. 123. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    124. 124. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    125. 125. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    126. 126. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    127. 127. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    128. 128. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    129. 129. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    130. 130. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    131. 131. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    132. 132. 3.2.3 Dynamic nature of resources“Explain the dynamic nature of the concept of a resource.” (3)Influencing the status of a resource over time and space• Cultural, Economic, Technological • sounds like “environmental value systems” • Uranium... nuclear tech...value increases... Chernobyl... support decreases...• What about ethanol, oil, solar... discuss the following cartoons
    133. 133. 3.2.4 Intrinsic value of environment“Discuss the view that the environment can have its own intrinsic value.” (3)
    134. 134. 3.2.4 Intrinsic value of environment“Discuss the view that the environment can have its own intrinsic value.” (3) The “inward” value of nature regardless of it’s use to humans.
    135. 135. 3.2.4 Intrinsic value of environment“Discuss the view that the environment can have its own intrinsic value.” (3) The “inward” value of nature regardless of it’s use to humans. • includes ethical, spriritual and philosophical perspective
    136. 136. 3.2.4 Intrinsic value of environment“Discuss the view that the environment can have its own intrinsic value.” (3) The “inward” value of nature regardless of it’s use to humans. • includes ethical, spriritual and philosophical perspective • hard to quantify
    137. 137. 3.2.4 Intrinsic value of environment“Discuss the view that the environment can have its own intrinsic value.” (3) The “inward” value of nature regardless of it’s use to humans. • includes ethical, spriritual and philosophical perspective • hard to quantify • Some ideas include: ‘biodiversity’ and ‘rate of depletion’
    138. 138. 3.2.4 Intrinsic value of environment“Discuss the view that the environment can have its own intrinsic value.” (3) The “inward” value of nature regardless of it’s use to humans. • includes ethical, spriritual and philosophical perspective • hard to quantify • Some ideas include: ‘biodiversity’ and ‘rate of depletion’ • How would you debate aesthetic value with an economist?
    139. 139. 3.2.4 Intrinsic value of environment“Discuss the view that the environment can have its own intrinsic value.” (3) The “inward” value of nature regardless of it’s use to humans. • includes ethical, spriritual and philosophical perspective • hard to quantify • Some ideas include: ‘biodiversity’ and ‘rate of depletion’ • How would you debate aesthetic value with an economist? • health benefits? societal well being?
    140. 140. 3.2.5 Sustainability“Explain the concept of sustainability in terms of natural capital and natural income.” (3) image source: http://www.sustainablescale.org/
    141. 141. 3.2.5 Sustainability“Explain the concept of sustainability in terms of natural capital and natural income.” (3) • “Living on the ‘interest’ or sustainable income generated by natural capital.” image source: http://www.sustainablescale.org/
    142. 142. 3.2.5 Sustainability“Explain the concept of sustainability in terms of natural capital and natural income.” (3) • “Living on the ‘interest’ or sustainable income generated by natural capital.” • using and maintaining resources (goods and services) wisely, not depleting them. image source: http://www.sustainablescale.org/
    143. 143. 3.2.5 Sustainability“Explain the concept of sustainability in terms of natural capital and natural income.” (3) • “Living on the ‘interest’ or sustainable income generated by natural capital.” • using and maintaining resources (goods and services) wisely, not depleting them. • put it all in a sentence... (natural income, natural capital, sustainability). image source: http://www.sustainablescale.org/
    144. 144. 3.2.6 Sustainable development“Discuss the concept of sustainable development.” (3)
    145. 145. 3.2.6 Sustainable development“Discuss the concept of sustainable development.” (3)Come up with a your own definition...
    146. 146. 3.2.6 Sustainable development“Discuss the concept of sustainable development.” (3)Come up with a your own definition...• First definition was: “Development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (The Brundtland Report, UN, 1987)
    147. 147. 3.2.6 Sustainable development“Discuss the concept of sustainable development.” (3)Come up with a your own definition...• First definition was: “Development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (The Brundtland Report, UN, 1987)• In other words... maximizing economic production must now be constrained
    148. 148. 3.2.6 Sustainable development“Discuss the concept of sustainable development.” (3)Come up with a your own definition...• First definition was: “Development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (The Brundtland Report, UN, 1987)• In other words... maximizing economic production must now be constrained • depends on:
    149. 149. 3.2.6 Sustainable development“Discuss the concept of sustainable development.” (3)Come up with a your own definition...• First definition was: “Development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (The Brundtland Report, UN, 1987)• In other words... maximizing economic production must now be constrained • depends on: • reducing ecological distruction
    150. 150. 3.2.6 Sustainable development“Discuss the concept of sustainable development.” (3)Come up with a your own definition...• First definition was: “Development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (The Brundtland Report, UN, 1987)• In other words... maximizing economic production must now be constrained • depends on: • reducing ecological distruction • improving material quality of life of worlds poor
    151. 151. 3.2.6 Sustainable development“Discuss the concept of sustainable development.” (3)Come up with a your own definition...• First definition was: “Development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (The Brundtland Report, UN, 1987)• In other words... maximizing economic production must now be constrained • depends on: • reducing ecological distruction • improving material quality of life of worlds poor TED Video: “Inspired ideas...” Alex Steffen
    152. 152. 3.2.6 Sustainable development“Discuss the concept of sustainable development.” (3)Come up with a your own definition...• First definition was: “Development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (The Brundtland Report, UN, 1987)• In other words... maximizing economic production must now be constrained • depends on: • reducing ecological distruction • improving material quality of life of worlds poor TED Video: “Inspired ideas...” Alex Steffen TED Video: “Sustainable City” Jaime Lerner
    153. 153. What does this map tell us?
    154. 154. What does this map tell us? Who uses the resources/energy?
    155. 155. What does this map tell us? Who uses the resources/energy? Who has the resources?
    156. 156. What does this map tell us? Who uses the resources/energy? Who has the resources?lights require electricity... requires resources... requires money to access and refine/convert
    157. 157. What does this map tell us? Who uses the resources/energy? Who has the resources?lights require electricity... requires resources... requires money to access and refine/convert Is this sustainable at a country level? Is this sustainable at a global level?
    158. 158. 3.2.7 Sustainable yield“Calculate and explain sustainable yield from given data.” (3)
    159. 159. 3.2.7 Sustainable yield“Calculate and explain sustainable yield from given data.” (3)• rate of increase in natural capital
    160. 160. 3.2.7 Sustainable yield“Calculate and explain sustainable yield from given data.” (3)• rate of increase in natural capital • what we can use without exploiting the stock
    161. 161. 3.2.7 Sustainable yield“Calculate and explain sustainable yield from given data.” (3)• rate of increase in natural capital • what we can use without exploiting the stock • ie. annual sustainable yield for a given crop can be estimated as the annual gain......below....
    162. 162. to sustainability and economic gro3.2.7 Sustainable yield Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Int: International summits on sust development have highlighted th involved in economic developmen“Calculate and explain sustainable yield from given data.” (3) globe, yet the viewpoints of enviro and economists may be very diffe 3.2.7 Calculate and explain sustainable 3 Sustainable yield (SY) may be calc• rate of increase in natural capital yield from given data. rate of increase in natural capital, t • what we can use without exploiting the stock which can be exploited without d original stock or its potential for re • ie. annual sustainable yield for a given crop can For example, the annual sustainab a given crop may be estimated sim be estimated as the annual gain......below.... annual gain in biomass or energy and recruitment. See figures 1 and Figure 1 total biomass total biomass SY = at time t + 1 – at time t Equations from the energy energy syllabus Figure 2 SY = (annual growth and recruitment) – (annual death and emigration)
    163. 163. to sustainability and economic gro3.2.7 Sustainable yield Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Int: International summits on sust development have highlighted th involved in economic developmen“Calculate and explain sustainable yield from given data.” (3) globe, yet the viewpoints of enviro and economists may be very diffe 3.2.7 Calculate and explain sustainable 3 Sustainable yield (SY) may be calc• rate of increase in natural capital yield from given data. rate of increase in natural capital, t • what we can use without exploiting the stock which can be exploited without d original stock or its potential for re • ie. annual sustainable yield for a given crop can For example, the annual sustainab a given crop may be estimated sim be estimated as the annual gain......below.... annual gain in biomass or energy and recruitment. See figures 1 and Figure 1 total biomass total biomass SY = at time t + 1 – at time t Equations from the energy energy syllabus Figure 2 SY = (annual growth and recruitment) – (annual death and emigration)
    164. 164. to sustainability and economic gro3.2.7 Sustainable yield Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Int: International summits on sust development have highlighted th involved in economic developmen“Calculate and explain sustainable yield from given data.” (3) globe, yet the viewpoints of enviro and economists may be very diffe 3.2.7 Calculate and explain sustainable 3 Sustainable yield (SY) may be calc• rate of increase in natural capital yield from given data. rate of increase in natural capital, t • what we can use without exploiting the stock which can be exploited without d original stock or its potential for re • ie. annual sustainable yield for a given crop can For example, the annual sustainab a given crop may be estimated sim be estimated as the annual gain......below.... annual gain in biomass or energy and recruitment. See figures 1 and Figure 1 total biomass total biomass SY = at time t + 1 – at time t Equations from the energy energy syllabus Figure 2 SY = (annual growth and recruitment) – (annual death and emigration)
    165. 165. to sustainability and economic gro3.2.7 Sustainable yield Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Int: International summits on sust development have highlighted th involved in economic developmen“Calculate and explain sustainable yield from given data.” (3) globe, yet the viewpoints of enviro and economists may be very diffe 3.2.7 Calculate and explain sustainable 3 Sustainable yield (SY) may be calc• rate of increase in natural capital yield from given data. rate of increase in natural capital, t • what we can use without exploiting the stock which can be exploited without d original stock or its potential for re • ie. annual sustainable yield for a given crop can For example, the annual sustainab a given crop may be estimated sim be estimated as the annual gain......below.... annual gain in biomass or energy and recruitment. See figures 1 and Figure 1 total biomass total biomass SY = at time t + 1 – at time t Equations from the energy energy syllabus Figure 2 SY = (annual growth and recruitment) – (annual death and emigration)
    166. 166. to sustainability and economic gro3.2.7 Sustainable yield Rio Earth Summit (1992) leading to Int: International summits on sust development have highlighted th involved in economic developmen“Calculate and explain sustainable yield from given data.” (3) globe, yet the viewpoints of enviro and economists may be very diffe 3.2.7 Calculate and explain sustainable 3 Sustainable yield (SY) may be calc• rate of increase in natural capital yield from given data. rate of increase in natural capital, t • what we can use without exploiting the stock which can be exploited without d original stock or its potential for re • ie. annual sustainable yield for a given crop can For example, the annual sustainab a given crop may be estimated sim be estimated as the annual gain......below.... annual gain in biomass or energy and recruitment. See figures 1 and Figure 1 total biomass total biomass SY = at time t + 1 – at time t Equations from the energy energy syllabus Figure 2 SY = (annual growth and recruitment) – (annual death and emigration)

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