Biological Molecules

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Summary of important biological molecules for 9th grade bio unit.

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Biological Molecules

  1. 1. Biological Molecules By Brad Kremer
  2. 2. Water   (H2O) •Universal   solvent •Polar   •Required
  3. 3. Carbon  Dioxide  (CO2) • C  and  O • respira6on   output   (heterotrophs) • photosynthesis   input   (autotrophs) • stored  in   biomass Image credit: http://bioh.wikispaces.com Trace how carbon moves through different trophic levels.
  4. 4. Image credit: http://www.dec.ny.gov
  5. 5. Carbohydrates chains  of  C,  H,  and  O • supply  energy  in  cells  and   food  chains • short-­‐term  energy   (glycogen) • simple  sugars  (glucose)   make  complex  molecules • long  chains,  such  as   cellulose,  are  used  for   cellular  structure C6H12O6 Notice that glucose is a short chain... Image credit: http://www.elmhurst.edu
  6. 6. Carbohydrates … and how these molecules are increasingly complex. Image credit: http://industrialsfloor.com
  7. 7. Proteins most  important  biological   molecule • func6ons: ◦ enzymes ◦ cell  building  blocks ◦ hormones ◦ an6bodies • made  of  chains  of  amino   acids • only  20  amino  acids  make  all   the  1000ʹ′s  of  proteins  in  the   world Image credit: wikimedia.org
  8. 8. Lipids •Hydrophilic   polar  head •Hydrophobic   non-­‐polar  tails Image credit: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu
  9. 9. Nucleo>des• made  of  C,  H,  O,  P,  and  N • 3  parts  of  each  nucleo6de: • nitrogen  base • sugar • phosphate • 4  different  nitrogen  bases  to   know: • adenine • cytosine • guanine • thymine Image credit: http://science.howstuffworks.com Image credit:
  10. 10. Nucleic  Acids two  kinds: • DNA:  sequence  of   nucleo6des  makes  up  the   gene6c  code   • RNA:  translates  the  code   into  specific  proteins

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