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Sociology Presentation Social Inequality Sex and Gender 24,November,2006
Outline <ul><li>Basic notion of sex, gender  </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Equality and Inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Functional...
Definition  of  sex and gender
生物性別 Sex <ul><li>Two biologically differentiated categories, male and female </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual act that closely rel...
社會性別 Gender <ul><li>Normative dispositions and behaviors that cultures assign to each sex </li></ul><ul><li>Provide varied...
社會性別 Gender <ul><li>Gender identification( 性別認同 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One that accept yourself be a male or female </li>...
 
Definition of Gender Equality and Inequality
What is Equality? <ul><li>Never be equal in every respect </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the differentiation of everyone </l...
What is Equality? <ul><li>Equal distribution based on individual need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money, food, shelter </li></ul...
 
Gender inequality <ul><li>Sexism and sex discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One sex is superior than the other one </li>...
Gender inequality <ul><li>Most of the cultures that societies dominated by men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural eviden...
Job <ul><li>同職不同酬 </li></ul><ul><li>職位的限制 </li></ul>
Education <ul><li>教科書的內容 </li></ul><ul><li>男女就學機會 </li></ul><ul><li>課程的設計 </li></ul><ul><li>師生互動 </li></ul>
Public Toilet  <ul><li>身體權利的性別檢討 </li></ul>
Foul Language <ul><li>粗話中透視男女不平等 </li></ul>
Female position in family <ul><li>女性的家庭地位 </li></ul>
Functionalist
Functionalist view <ul><li>Emphasize the gender differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit overall social stability </l...
Functionalist view <ul><li>Woman: expressive, emotionally, supportive role ( Internal ) </li></ul><ul><li>Man: instrumenta...
Criticisms - Functionalist view <ul><li>Gender stereotype </li></ul><ul><li>No explanation why man assigned instrumental r...
Conflict and Interaction perspective
Conflict perspective <ul><li>Labor Market </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s disadvantage is designed to benefits man of capitalist...
Conflict perspective <ul><li>Man: bourgeoisie( 資產階級 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Woman: proletariat( 無產階級 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Woman...
Interaction perspective <ul><li>The consequences of sexism is reinforced by different disciplines of boy and girl in the s...
Interaction perspective <ul><li>Example of Cross-sex conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Men are more likely to: </li></ul><ul>...
Feminist perspective
女性主義 (feminism) <ul><li>女權主義這一術語在 19 世紀 80 年代首次出現在英文之中。並在 1894 年後通用為媒體通用 </li></ul><ul><li>旨在支持男女平等的法律和政治權利。 </li></ul><ul...
女性主義 (feminism) <ul><li>結構 (structural) 和個人 (individual) 的對照解釋 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>分別性別間的權力結構 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>解析有...
三種女性主義觀點 Three perspectives of Feminism <ul><li>Liberal feminism  自由主義女性主義 </li></ul><ul><li>Radical feminism  激進主義女性主義 </...
自由主義女性主義 liberal feminism <ul><li>致力揭露女性所受到的歧視對待 </li></ul><ul><li>為女性的平等權而發言 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>讓女人擁有與男人同等的公民權利 </li><...
自由主義女性主義 liberal feminism <ul><li>性別不公平的存在,沒有人可得益 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>男人與女人都會受損害因為女人的潛能被壓抑 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>目標為主張機...
自由主義女性主義 liberal feminism <ul><li>社教化與「性別角色制約」 </li></ul><ul><li>普遍大眾所見的兩性差異為 社教化 及 「性別角色制約」 的結果,而非天生的 </li></ul><ul><li>一...
激進主義女性主義 radical feminism <ul><li>家庭為壓迫女人的主要工具之一 </li></ul><ul><li>性別歧視為最首要的社會不平等 </li></ul><ul><li>父權體制 - 男人 剝奪 女人權利 </li...
激進主義女性主義 radical feminism <ul><li>家庭為導致婦女受到壓迫的關鍵  </li></ul><ul><li>為女人解放而戰的革命運動 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shulamith Firestone...
激進主義女性主義 radical feminism <ul><li>分離主義  父權以外有獨立的組織 </li></ul><ul><li>The Leeds Revolutionary Feminist Group </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>父權體制與 資本主義 一同在壓迫女性 </li></ul><ul><li>更強調資本主義對女性的壓抑 </li></ul><ul><li>19 世紀所有偉大的社會主義者都認識到婦女的從屬性問題和解放女性的必要。 </li></u...
馬克思主義女性主義 Marxist feminism <ul><li>每一個社會主義者都認識到工人對資本家的依賴性。 </li></ul><ul><li>強調經濟是決定性系統的原動力,兩性關係的運轉依賴並貫穿社會經濟結構、性與性別結構。 </l...
馬克思主義女性主義 Marxist feminism <ul><li>早期的馬克思主義女權主義者的爭論總圍繞住”拋棄本質先於存在論” </li></ul><ul><li>婦女受壓迫在歷史上和當前都是私有制的直接結果。 </li></ul>
馬克思主義女性主義 Marxist feminism <ul><li>女性主義就是共產主意的合理性之一 </li></ul><ul><li>傳統的馬克思主義者 : </li></ul><ul><li>對婦女的特殊壓迫主要是由我們在家庭內的傳統地...
<ul><li>資本主義的出現加劇了婦女的卑微處境 </li></ul><ul><li>傳統馬克思主義女權主意者認為 , 婦女的解放要求進行更為根本的家庭變革 </li></ul><ul><li>性別平等不是意志的產物,而是特殊歷史環境的產物 ...
馬克思主義女性主義 Marxist feminism <ul><li>Margaret Benston  班斯頓  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>女性雖有工作機會,但仍要負責「家務」 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Summary of four perspectives
Application of liberal feminism
Family  <ul><li>Toys </li></ul><ul><li>Family member : the number of female> the number of male ? </li></ul><ul><li>The be...
Family  <ul><li>the dressing of children </li></ul><ul><li>How the family member educate/ bring up their children </li></u...
School <ul><li>Boy school and Girl school </li></ul><ul><li>School uniform </li></ul><ul><li>The rule of school </li></ul>...
Mass Media <ul><li>The vocabulary used by the editor </li></ul><ul><li>Television; film; book’s story </li></ul>
Mass Media <ul><li>Male go outside for working, Female stay at home for cooking ; Male is more powerful and energetic than...
Peer Group <ul><li>shopping attitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>girl dress like girl </li></ul></ul>
Work place <ul><li>the Sex of boss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the employee would like to more obey male boss </li></ul></ul><ul...
Government (the state)
Solution - liberal feminism <ul><li>More moderate than other two perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform </li></ul></ul>...
Solution - liberal feminism <ul><li>Acceptable to existing value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
References <ul><li>David B. Brinkerhoff (ed al.) (2002)  Essentials of Sociology.  (US:wadsworth group). </li></ul><ul><li...
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Transcript of "Sociology Presentation."

  1. 1. Sociology Presentation Social Inequality Sex and Gender 24,November,2006
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Basic notion of sex, gender </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Equality and Inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalist view </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict and Interaction perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Feminist perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal feminism 自由主義女性主義 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical feminism 激進主義女性主義 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marxist feminism 馬克思主義女性主義 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application of feminism </li></ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition of sex and gender
  4. 4. 生物性別 Sex <ul><li>Two biologically differentiated categories, male and female </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual act that closely related to this biological differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female ->uterus and breast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male -> penis and beard </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 社會性別 Gender <ul><li>Normative dispositions and behaviors that cultures assign to each sex </li></ul><ul><li>Provide varied Gender roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rights and obligations( 職責 ) that are normative for men and women in a particular time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A social norms reinforced and legitimize( 合法化 ) patterns of male dominance </li></ul>
  6. 6. 社會性別 Gender <ul><li>Gender identification( 性別認同 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One that accept yourself be a male or female </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender expectation( 性別理想 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A culture that expected man and woman what to do </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Definition of Gender Equality and Inequality
  8. 9. What is Equality? <ul><li>Never be equal in every respect </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the differentiation of everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Near uniformity achieved in certain aspect </li></ul><ul><li>Figuring out what should be more equally shared and; </li></ul><ul><li>Shared by whom </li></ul>
  9. 10. What is Equality? <ul><li>Equal distribution based on individual need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money, food, shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equal opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equal political power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy (have a opportunity to participate the government of the state) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Gender inequality <ul><li>Sexism and sex discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One sex is superior than the other one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major institutions of society controlled by men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex harassment( 性騷擾 ) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Gender inequality <ul><li>Most of the cultures that societies dominated by men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In US 1996, 840,000 women were raped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Peru, 70% women were boated by their husband </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Job <ul><li>同職不同酬 </li></ul><ul><li>職位的限制 </li></ul>
  13. 15. Education <ul><li>教科書的內容 </li></ul><ul><li>男女就學機會 </li></ul><ul><li>課程的設計 </li></ul><ul><li>師生互動 </li></ul>
  14. 16. Public Toilet <ul><li>身體權利的性別檢討 </li></ul>
  15. 17. Foul Language <ul><li>粗話中透視男女不平等 </li></ul>
  16. 18. Female position in family <ul><li>女性的家庭地位 </li></ul>
  17. 19. Functionalist
  18. 20. Functionalist view <ul><li>Emphasize the gender differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit overall social stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialize particular role in family and even society – division of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase the expertise of each sex of its task </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent competition </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen family bonds( 男主外、女主內 ) </li></ul>
  19. 21. Functionalist view <ul><li>Woman: expressive, emotionally, supportive role ( Internal ) </li></ul><ul><li>Man: instrumental, practical role ( External ) </li></ul>
  20. 22. Criticisms - Functionalist view <ul><li>Gender stereotype </li></ul><ul><li>No explanation why man assigned instrumental role and woman to expressive role </li></ul><ul><li>Limited one’s ability because of the prescribed role, esp. on women </li></ul>
  21. 23. Conflict and Interaction perspective
  22. 24. Conflict perspective <ul><li>Labor Market </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s disadvantage is designed to benefits man of capitalist class </li></ul><ul><li>Women need to rearing children made it difficult for women to work </li></ul><ul><li>Women did most of House work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Man had more time to work </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Conflict perspective <ul><li>Man: bourgeoisie( 資產階級 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Woman: proletariat( 無產階級 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Woman’s work always be devalued and be exploited </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to benefit man </li></ul>
  24. 26. Interaction perspective <ul><li>The consequences of sexism is reinforced by different disciplines of boy and girl in the school age from teacher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys discouraged from playing “dress-up” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls discouraged from running and crawling </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Interaction perspective <ul><li>Example of Cross-sex conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Men are more likely to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore the topic which chosen by opposite sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize the effort of opposite sex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflected the conversational dominance of males (political) </li></ul>
  26. 28. Feminist perspective
  27. 29. 女性主義 (feminism) <ul><li>女權主義這一術語在 19 世紀 80 年代首次出現在英文之中。並在 1894 年後通用為媒體通用 </li></ul><ul><li>旨在支持男女平等的法律和政治權利。 </li></ul><ul><li>源自拉丁文「 femina 」 </li></ul><ul><li>女權主義的發展不單是不平衡的,而常常被捲入深刻的理論分歧。 </li></ul>
  28. 30. 女性主義 (feminism) <ul><li>結構 (structural) 和個人 (individual) 的對照解釋 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>分別性別間的權力結構 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>解析有形無形的集體壓迫形式 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>如貞操觀念形成女性害怕被強暴的恐懼 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>強調建立雙重視野 (double visions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>同時關注正論及反論 </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. 三種女性主義觀點 Three perspectives of Feminism <ul><li>Liberal feminism 自由主義女性主義 </li></ul><ul><li>Radical feminism 激進主義女性主義 </li></ul><ul><li>Marxist feminism 馬克思主義女性主義 </li></ul>
  30. 32. 自由主義女性主義 liberal feminism <ul><li>致力揭露女性所受到的歧視對待 </li></ul><ul><li>為女性的平等權而發言 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>讓女人擁有與男人同等的公民權利 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>力倡通過法令禁止反女性的歧視做法 ( 賦予女人種種在工作上應享有的權利 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>如:照顧子女為由離開崗位而不扣薪資, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>招聘中不能指明性別傾向,如「只請男工」等 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. 自由主義女性主義 liberal feminism <ul><li>性別不公平的存在,沒有人可得益 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>男人與女人都會受損害因為女人的潛能被壓抑 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>目標為主張機會平等的權利,平等的伴侶關係 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Mary Wollstonecraft 沃史東克拉夫特 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>特別為教育及工作方面 </li></ul><ul><li>男人 被評價據其 個人能力 </li></ul><ul><li>女人 被評價據其是否 一個稱職的女性 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>被剝奪像男人一樣去追尋自己興趣的權利 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. 自由主義女性主義 liberal feminism <ul><li>社教化與「性別角色制約」 </li></ul><ul><li>普遍大眾所見的兩性差異為 社教化 及 「性別角色制約」 的結果,而非天生的 </li></ul><ul><li>一生下來,男與女就被以不同的方式教育 ( 社教化 ) 阻礙 / 抑壓 女性去發展其完整的人類潛能 </li></ul><ul><li>透過立法,如性別歧視條例、平等工支條例來實現性別平等 </li></ul>
  33. 35. 激進主義女性主義 radical feminism <ul><li>家庭為壓迫女人的主要工具之一 </li></ul><ul><li>性別歧視為最首要的社會不平等 </li></ul><ul><li>父權體制 - 男人 剝奪 女人權利 </li></ul><ul><li>男人為統治者;女人為附屬者 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kate Millett( 米列 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>甚於婦女間相互敵視 – 職業婦女 / 家庭主婦 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>必透過男人以得社經利益及地位 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>此價值被內化 – 需透過女性奪回政治權力解決 </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. 激進主義女性主義 radical feminism <ul><li>家庭為導致婦女受到壓迫的關鍵 </li></ul><ul><li>為女人解放而戰的革命運動 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shulamith Firestone 法爾史東 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>發動生物革命,透過科技 ( 試管嬰兒 ) 消除男女根本上的生物差異 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>非單一理論 </li></ul><ul><li>拒絕男性的協助 </li></ul>
  35. 37. 激進主義女性主義 radical feminism <ul><li>分離主義  父權以外有獨立的組織 </li></ul><ul><li>The Leeds Revolutionary Feminist Group </li></ul><ul><li>婦女至上主義者:女人優越過男人 </li></ul><ul><li>母系社會 </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>父權體制與 資本主義 一同在壓迫女性 </li></ul><ul><li>更強調資本主義對女性的壓抑 </li></ul><ul><li>19 世紀所有偉大的社會主義者都認識到婦女的從屬性問題和解放女性的必要。 </li></ul>馬克思主義女性主義 Marxist feminism
  37. 39. 馬克思主義女性主義 Marxist feminism <ul><li>每一個社會主義者都認識到工人對資本家的依賴性。 </li></ul><ul><li>強調經濟是決定性系統的原動力,兩性關係的運轉依賴並貫穿社會經濟結構、性與性別結構。 </li></ul>
  38. 40. 馬克思主義女性主義 Marxist feminism <ul><li>早期的馬克思主義女權主義者的爭論總圍繞住”拋棄本質先於存在論” </li></ul><ul><li>婦女受壓迫在歷史上和當前都是私有制的直接結果。 </li></ul>
  39. 41. 馬克思主義女性主義 Marxist feminism <ul><li>女性主義就是共產主意的合理性之一 </li></ul><ul><li>傳統的馬克思主義者 : </li></ul><ul><li>對婦女的特殊壓迫主要是由我們在家庭內的傳統地位造成的 </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>資本主義的出現加劇了婦女的卑微處境 </li></ul><ul><li>傳統馬克思主義女權主意者認為 , 婦女的解放要求進行更為根本的家庭變革 </li></ul><ul><li>性別平等不是意志的產物,而是特殊歷史環境的產物 </li></ul>馬克思主義女性主義 Marxist feminism
  41. 43. 馬克思主義女性主義 Marxist feminism <ul><li>Margaret Benston 班斯頓 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>女性雖有工作機會,但仍要負責「家務」 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>應把這類「家務」轉成社會活動 ( 工作 ) ,使女性能真正解放,獲得平等 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mariarosa Dalla Costa & Selma James 柯斯塔和詹姆士 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>主張訂立「家務計酬」 </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. Summary of four perspectives
  43. 45. Application of liberal feminism
  44. 46. Family <ul><li>Toys </li></ul><ul><li>Family member : the number of female> the number of male ? </li></ul><ul><li>The behaviors of family member </li></ul>
  45. 47. Family <ul><li>the dressing of children </li></ul><ul><li>How the family member educate/ bring up their children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>being a brother, should make a concession with his sister. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>girl should more obedient, graceful and quiet </li></ul></ul>
  46. 48. School <ul><li>Boy school and Girl school </li></ul><ul><li>School uniform </li></ul><ul><li>The rule of school </li></ul><ul><li>Art lesson </li></ul>
  47. 49. Mass Media <ul><li>The vocabulary used by the editor </li></ul><ul><li>Television; film; book’s story </li></ul>
  48. 50. Mass Media <ul><li>Male go outside for working, Female stay at home for cooking ; Male is more powerful and energetic than female; the news which argued by most of the hongkongers. “Why the editor always uses Male to be a fireman or worker ( a symbol) but not a woman? “ </li></ul>
  49. 51. Peer Group <ul><li>shopping attitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>girl dress like girl </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. Work place <ul><li>the Sex of boss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the employee would like to more obey male boss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employer may have some sexual requirement to employee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e.g. clerk= female ; worker= male </li></ul><ul><li>male do the heavy work such as, change the drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>the example of government is the Central Allocation </li></ul>
  51. 53. Government (the state)
  52. 54. Solution - liberal feminism <ul><li>More moderate than other two perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual change </li></ul></ul>
  53. 55. Solution - liberal feminism <ul><li>Acceptable to existing value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislations e.g. 狂迷嘴對嘴狼吻官恩娜、偷拍阿嬌更衣 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More feasible in the modern society </li></ul>
  54. 56. References <ul><li>David B. Brinkerhoff (ed al.) (2002) Essentials of Sociology. (US:wadsworth group). </li></ul><ul><li>Richard T.Schaefer (2007) Sociology. (New York: McGraw-hill). </li></ul><ul><li>Nigel Warburton (1995) Philosophy2 nd. (New York: Routledge). </li></ul><ul><li>林麗珊 (2001) 女性主義與兩性關係 . ( 台北 : 五南圖書出版公司 ). </li></ul><ul><li>吳逸驊 (2004) 圖解社會學 . ( 台北 : 易博士文化 ). </li></ul>

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