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Perception&coordination 1st@2nd meeting

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  • Control of the body’s billions of cells is accomplished mainly by two communication systems: the nervous system and the endocrine system. Both systems transmit information from one part of the body to abother, but they do it in different ways. The nervous system transmits information very rapidly by nerve impulses conducted from one body to another. The nervous system transmits information very rapidly by nerve impulses conducted from one body area to another.The endocrine system transmits information more slowly by chemicals secreted by ductless glands into the bloodstream and then circulated from the glands to other parts of the body.Nerve impulses and hormones communicate information to body structures, increasing or decreasing their activities as needed for healthy survival.
  • Organs of the NS includes: brain, spinal cord and the numerous nerves of the body.... Special sense organs such as eyes, ears and the microscopic sense organs of the skins are part of the NS...The system as a whole consists of 2 principal divisions:CNS – because brain and spinal cord occupy a midline and central location in the body.PNS – nerves that extend to outlying or peripheral parts of the body.
  • A subdivision of the PNS is the ANS: it consists of structures that regulates the body’s autonomic or involuntary functions.
  • Schwann Cells wrap around some axons outside of the CNS.Fibers of axons wrapped around by myelin is called myelinated fibers. (ONLY in PNS)
  • Axons in the brain and cord have no neurolimma and is clinically significant because it plays an essential part in the regeneration of cut and injured axons. Therefore the potential for regeneration in the brain and spinal cord is far less than it is in the peripheral nervous system.
  • Comes from Greek word: “Glue”-works not just as a physical glue but helps bring the various functions of the nervous tissue together into a coordinated whole.One of the most common types of brain tumor develops from a glia which is called – GLIOMA.
  • They usually remain stationary, but in inflamed or degenerating brain tissue, they enlarge, move about, and act as microbe-eating scavengers. They surround the microbes, draw them into their cytoplasm, and digest them. (PHAGOCYTOSIS)
  • Recall that Schwann cells also form myelin sheaths but do so only in the peripheral nervous system.
  • EFFECTS:Hard, plaquelike lesions replace the destroyed myelin, and affected areas invaded by inflammatory cells. As the myelin around the axons is lost, nerve conduction is impaired.Manifestation: weakness, incoordination, visual impairment, and speech disturbances occur.
  • Manifestation: weakness, incoordination, visual impairment, and speech disturbances occur.Incidence: occurs in both sexes and in all age groups (common in women between ages 20-40 y/o)Cause: thought to be related to autoimmunity and to viral infections in some individuals.MS is relapsing and chronic in nature.No treatment yet but early diagnosis and treatment can slow or stop its progression.
  • Patients usually show deficits reflecting damaged function of the area in which the tumor is located.Because these tumors often develop in deep areas of the brain, they are difficult to treat. Untreated gliomas may grow to a size that disrupts normal brain function, perhaps leading to death.
  • The tumors are benign, appearing first as small nodules in the Schwann cells of cutaneous nerves. In some cases, involvement spreads as large, disfiguring fibrous tumors appear in many areas of the body, including muscles, bones, and internal organs.Most malignant tumors of glia and other nervous tissues do not originate there but instead are secondary tumors resulting from metastasis of cancer cells from the breast, lung or other organs.
  • White in color (Peripheral Nerves) – because PN have a myelin sheath which is colored white.Bundles of axons in the CNS may be myelinated and thus form the white matter of the brain and the spinal cord.Brain and cord tissue composed of cell bodies and unmyelinated axons and dendrites is called gray matter because of its gray appearance.Endoneurium – thin wrapping of fibrous connective tissue that covers a nerve.Fasciles – Groups of wrapped axonsPerineurium – outer covering of a fascicleEpineurium – outer covering of the whole nerve.
  • White in color (Peripheral Nerves) – because PN have a myelin sheath which is colored white.Bundles of axons in the CNS may be myelinated and thus form the white matter of the brain and the spinal cord.Brain and cord tissue composed of cell bodies and unmyelinated axons and dendrites is called gray matter because of its gray appearance.Endoneurium – thin wrapping of fibrous connective tissue that covers a nerve.Fasciles – Groups of wrapped axonsPerineurium – outer covering of a fascicleEpineurium – outer covering of the whole nerve.
  • During every moment of our lives, nerve impulses speed over neurons to and from our spinal cords and brains. If all impulse conuction ceases, life itself ceases. Only neurons can provide the rapid communication between cells that is necessary for maintaining life. Hormonal messages are the only other kind of communications the body can send, and they travel much slower than impulses. They can move from one part of the body to another only via circulating blodd. Compared with impulse conduction, circulation is a very slow process.Nerve impulses (Action Potential) – can travel over trillions of routes- routes made up of neurons also know as the neuron pathways.
  • Two-neuron arc (simplest form) – composed of two neurons: sensory and motor neuronThree – neuron arc – sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons.IMPULSE CONDUCTIONStarts with receptors. Receptors are beginnings of dendrites of sensory neurons which are located at some distance from the spinal cord (tendons, skin, or mucous membranes). (IN THE FIGURE IT IS LOCATED AT THE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE)Strech receptors are stimulated as a result of a tap on the patellar tendon.Knee-Jerk Reflex – only sensory and motor neurons are involved.The nerve impulse that is generated stimulation of the stretch receptors travels along the length of the sensory neuron’s dendrite to its cell body located in the dorsal (posterior) root ganglion. (GANGLION – is a group of nerve-cell-bodies located in the PNS. It is located near the spinal cord.The axon of the sensory neuron travels from the cell body in the dorsal root ganglion and ends near the dendrite of another neuron located in the gray matter of the spinal cord.A microscopic space separates the axon ending of one neuron from the dendrites of another neuron. This space is called SYNAPSE.The nerve impulse stops at the synapse, chemical signals are sent across the gap, and the impulse then continues along the dendrites, cell body, and axon of the motor neuron.The motor neuron axon forms a synapse with a structure called an effector, an organ that put nerve signals “into effect.” (EFFECTORS are muscles or glands, and muscle contractions and gland secretion are the only kinds of reflexes operated by these effectors.)The response to impulse conduction over a reflex arc is called a REFLEX.
  • Ipsilateral - on the same sideMonosynaptic – only one synapse
  • 3 Terms to Help Understand Nerve ImpulsePolarization – A state at which a resting neuron has a slight positive charge on the outside and a negative charge on the inside because of normally an excess of sodium ions on the outside of the membrane.Depolarization – A state at which a section of the membrane is stimulated wherein Na+ channels open and Na+ rushes inward resulting to the membrane temporarily becomes positive and the outside becomes negative.Repolarization – Recovery of a section of a membrane marked by return of potassium ions inside the cell and the rushing out of Na+ ions outside of the cell.If the traveling impulse encounters a section of membrane covered with insulating myelin, it simply “jumps” around the myelin. Called saltatory conduction, this type of impulse travel is much faster than is possible in nonmyelinated sections.
  • Pre-synaptic NeuronPost-Synaptic NeuronSynaptic Knob – is a tiny bulge at the end of a terminal branch of a presynaptic neuron’s axon. (many vesicles containing neurotransmitters).Synaptic Cleft – is the space between the synaptic knob and the plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron.The plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron has protein molecules embedded in it opposite each synaptic knob. These serve as receptors to which neurotransmitter molecules bind.
  • Pre-synaptic NeuronPost-Synaptic NeuronSynaptic Knob – is a tiny bulge at the end of a terminal branch of a presynaptic neuron’s axon. (many vesicles containing neurotransmitters).Synaptic Cleft – is the space between the synaptic knob and the plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron.The plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron has protein molecules embedded in it opposite each synaptic knob. These serve as receptors to which neurotransmitter molecules bind.
  • Pre-synaptic NeuronPost-Synaptic NeuronSynaptic Knob – is a tiny bulge at the end of a terminal branch of a presynaptic neuron’s axon. (many vesicles containing neurotransmitters).Synaptic Cleft – is the space between the synaptic knob and the plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron.The plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron has protein molecules embedded in it opposite each synaptic knob. These serve as receptors to which neurotransmitter molecules bind.
  • Acetylcholine – released at synapses in the spinal cord and at neuromuscular (nerve-muscle junctions).Cathecholamines – plays a role in sleep, motor function, mood, and pleasure recognition.Endorphins & Enkephalins – released at spinal cord and brain synapses in the pain conduction pathway. These neurotransmitters inhibit conduction of pain impulses. They are natural pain killers.Nitric Oxide – NO diffuses directly across the plasma membrane of neurons rather than being released from vesicles. NO is important during the male sexual response in regulating smooth muscles in the blood vessels of the penis to allow for penile erection. Sildenafil (Viagra) treats male erectile dysfunction by promoting same response in the Penis as NO.
  • Brain – is protected in the cranial cavity of the skullSpinal Cord – is surrounded in the spinal cavity by the vertebal column.In addition, the brain and spinal cord are covered by protective membranes called meninges.
  • Many important reflex centers lie in the brainstem. The cardiac, respirtory, and vasomotor centers (vital centers).Impulses from these centers control heartbeat, respirations, and blood vessel diameter. (for regulating blood pressure)
  • Trauma to this area can cause a coma, and it has been linked to several different medical conditions, including narcolepsy.Among other functions, it contributes to the control of sleep, walking, sex, eating, and elimination. Perhaps the most important function of the RAS is its control of consciousness; it is believed to control sleep, wakefulness, and the ability to consciously focus attention on something. In addition, the RAS acts as a filter, dampening down the effect of repeated stimuli such as loud noises, helping to prevent the senses from being overloaded.Anesthetic EffectsOne intuitive hypothesis, first proposed by Magoun, is that anesthetics might achieve their potent effects by reversibly blocking neural conduction within the reticular activating system, thereby diminishing overall arousal. However, further research has suggested that selective depression of the RAS may be too simplistic an explanation to fully account for anesthetic effects.[15] This remains a major unknown and point of contention between experts of the reticular activating system.PathologiesSchizophreniaPTSDNarcolepsyDepression
  • Lies under the occipital lobe of the cerebrum.Gray matter composes the outer layer, and white matter composes the bulk of the interior.Plays essential part in the production of normal movements. (tumor)Cannot coordinate muscles, clumsy in everything he does, drunken man when he walks.Cannot draw a straight line.Loses ability to make precise movements.
  • Some neurons in the hypothalamus function in a surprising way; they make hormones that the posterior pituitary gland secretes into the blood. (e.g. ADH)Some neurons in the hypothalamus function as endocrine (ductless) glands. Their axons secrete chemicals called releasing hormones into the blood, which then carries them to the anterior pituitary gland.Releasing hormones – control the release of certain anterior pituitary hormones.
  • Almost all sensations are accompanied by a feeling of some degree of pleasantness or unpleasantness. The way that these pleasant and unpleasant feelings are produced is unknown except that they seen to be associated with the arrival of sensory impulses in the thalamus.
  • Look closely –ridges and grooves- ridges called convolutions or gyri; grooves are called sulci. The deepest sulci are called fissure. The longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum into right and left halves or hemispheres.These halves are almost separate structures except for their midportions, which are connected by a structure called corpus callosum.
  • Look closely –ridges and grooves- ridges called convolutions or gyri; grooves are called sulci. The deepest sulci are called fissure. The longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum into right and left halves or hemispheres.These halves are almost separate structures except for their midportions, which are connected by a structure called corpus callosum.
  • Look closely –ridges and grooves- ridges called convolutions or gyri; grooves are called sulci. The deepest sulci are called fissure. The longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum into right and left halves or hemispheres.These halves are almost separate structures except for their midportions, which are connected by a structure called corpus callosum.
  • Look closely –ridges and grooves- ridges called convolutions or gyri; grooves are called sulci. The deepest sulci are called fissure. The longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum into right and left halves or hemispheres.These halves are almost separate structures except for their midportions, which are connected by a structure called corpus callosum.
  • Oxygen supply to portions of the brain is disrupted, and neurons cease functioning. If the lack of oxygens is prolonged, the neurons die. If damage occurs in a motor control area of the brain, the victim can no longer voluntarily move the parts of the body controlled by the affected areas. Because the paths of motor neurons in the cerebrum cross over the brainstem, paralysis appears on the side of the body opposite to the side of the brain n which the CVA occured. Hemiplegia – refers to paralysis (loss of voluntary muscle control) on one whole side of the body.
  • What makes dementia causing lesions develop in the brains of individuals? – it is not known yet...There is some evidence that this disease has a genetic basis.donepezil (Aricept) for mild to moderate ADmemantine (Namenda) moderate to advanced AD
  • Huntington's disease is a disorder passed down through families in which nerve cells in certain parts of the brain waste away, or degenerate specifically the basal ganglia.caused by an autosomal dominant mutation on either of an individual’s two copies of a gene called Huntington.People who have the Huntington’s disease have severe mood swings, have sudden movements and also suffer memory loss, sometimes simple tasks such as reading and writing also become an ordeal for them.
  • Convulsions - involuntary muscle contractions resulting from severe forms of seizures.Epilepsy-recurring or chronic form of seizure episodes resulting from specifc causes such as tumors, trauma, or chemical imbalances.Drug of Choice:Phenobarbital, phenytoin (dilantin), valproic acid... Newer drugs: gabapentin (Neurontin), lamotrigine (Lamictal)Action: block neurotransmiters in affected areas thus blocking synaptic transmission.
  • Coup and Contrecoup Head Injury After Blunt Trauma1, Coup injury: impact against object; a, site of impact and direct trauma to brain; b, shearing of subdural veins; c, trauma to base of brain. 2, Contrecoup injury: impact within skull; a, site of impact from brain hitting opposite side of skull; b, shearing forces through brain. These injuries occur in one continuous motion—the head strikes the wall (coup) and then rebounds (contrecoup).
  • The radioactive substance shows up as a bright spot on the image.Different substances are taken by brain cells in different amounts, depending on the level of tissue activity thereby enabling radiologists to determine the functional characteristics of specific parts of the brain.
  • There is a lytic deposit noted in the right fronto-parietal skull vault with soft tissue in the vicinity. No intracranial space occupying lesion. On ultrasound, a mass is noted in the superior aspect of right kidney, in keeping with adrenal mass.In a young child, the only diagnosis for these appearances is metastaticneuroblastoma.
  • Sharper than a CT scan.
  • Sharper than a CT scan.
  • The spinal cord is unique to the nervous system of vertebrates. In an adult human it is about 45 cm (18 in.) long and roughly as thick as a finger. Spinal nerves from the spinal cord branch off to various parts of the body. 
  • Spinal Tracts – bundles of myelinated nerve fibers.
  • H-shapedcore of the spinal cord (gray matter) is composed mainly of dendrites and cell bodies of neurons.Columns of white matter form the outer portion of the spinal cord, and bundles of myelinated nerve fibers –the spinal tracts- make up the white columns.
  • Nervous tissue is not a sturdy tissue. Even moderate pressure can kill nerve cells, so nature safeguards the chief organs made of this tissue.Meninges – a tough fluid-containing membrane which surrounds the cord and brain. Meninges are covered by a bone.3 Layers of Spinal MeningesDura Mater – tough layer that lines the vertebral canalPia Mater – innermost membrane covering the spinal cord itselfArachnoid Mater – membrane between the dura and the pia mater. It resembles a cobweb with fluid spaces in it. Arachnoid in greek means “cob-web like”.
  • Nervous tissue is not a sturdy tissue. Even moderate pressure can kill nerve cells, so nature safeguards the chief organs made of this tissue.Meninges – a tough fluid-containing membrane which surrounds the cord and brain. Meninges are covered by a bone.3 Layers of Spinal MeningesDura Mater – tough layer that lines the vertebral canalPia Mater – innermost membrane covering the spinal cord itselfArachnoid Mater – membrane between the dura and the pia mater. It resembles a cobweb with fluid spaces in it. Arachnoid in greek means “cob-web like”.
  • CSF -is a clear, colorless, bodily fluid, that occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular systemaround and inside the brain and spinal cord. In essence, the brain "floats" in it.It fills spaces in the brain called ventricles.
  • These four spaces are filled with cerebrospinal fluid and protect the brain by cushioning it and supporting its weight.The two lateral ventricles extend across a large area of the brain. The anterior horns of these structures are located in the frontal lobes. They extend posteriorly into the parietal lobes and their inferior horns are found in the temporal lobes.The third ventricle lies between the two thalamic bodies. The massaintermedia passes through it and the hypothalamus forms its floor and part of its lateral walls.The fourth ventricle is located between the cerebellum and the pons.The four ventricles are connected to one another.The two foramina of Munro, which are also know as the interventricular foramina, link the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle.The Aqueduct of Sylvius which is also called the cerebral aqueduct connects the third and fourth ventricles.The fourth ventricle is connected to the subarachnoid space via two lateral foramina of Luschka and by one medial foramen of Magendie.
  • These four spaces are filled with cerebrospinal fluid and protect the brain by cushioning it and supporting its weight.The two lateral ventricles extend across a large area of the brain. The anterior horns of these structures are located in the frontal lobes. They extend posteriorly into the parietal lobes and their inferior horns are found in the temporal lobes.The third ventricle lies between the two thalamic bodies. The massaintermedia passes through it and the hypothalamus forms its floor and part of its lateral walls.The fourth ventricle is located between the cerebellum and the pons.The four ventricles are connected to one another.The two foramina of Munro, which are also know as the interventricular foramina, link the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle.The Aqueduct of Sylvius which is also called the cerebral aqueduct connects the third and fourth ventricles.The fourth ventricle is connected to the subarachnoid space via two lateral foramina of Luschka and by one medial foramen of Magendie.
  • Herniated Nucleus PulposusTears are almost always postero-lateral in nature owing to the presence of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the spinal canal. 
  • . Some vertebrae overlying the spinal cord are not fully formed and remain unfused and open. If the opening is large enough, this allows a portion of the spinal cord to protrude through the opening in the bones.
  • Latin “hidden". This is the mildest form of spina bifidaThe skin at the site of the lesion may be normal, or it may have some hair growing from it; there may be a dimple in the skin, or a birthmark.Many people with this type of spina bifida do not even know they have it, as the condition is asymptomatic in most cases.[3] The incidence of spina bifida occulta is approximately 10% of the population,[4] and most people are diagnosed incidentally from spinal X-rays. A systematic review of radiographic research studies found no relationship between spina bifida occulta and back pain.[5] More recent studies not included in the review support the negative findings.
  • As the nervous system remains undamaged, individuals with meningocele are unlikely to suffer long-term health problems, although cases of tethered cord have been reported. Causes of meningocele include teratoma and other tumors of the sacrococcyx and of the presacral space, and Currarino syndrome.
  • This type of spina bifida often results in the most severe complications.[11]Spina bifida with myeloschisis is the most severe form of myelomeningocele. In this type, the involved area is represented by a flattened, plate-like mass of nervous tissue with no overlying membrane. The exposure of these nerves and tissues make the baby more prone to life-threatening infections such asmeningitis.[12][not specific enough to verify]The protruded portion of the spinal cord and the nerves that originate at that level of the cord are damaged or not properly developed. As a result, there is usually some degree ofparalysis and loss of sensation below the level of the spinal cord defect. Thus, the more cranial the level of the defect, the more severe the associated nerve dysfunction and resultant paralysis may be. People may have ambulatory problems, loss of sensation, deformities of the hips, knees or feet, and loss of muscle tone.
  • Hyperextension Injuries of the SpineHyperextension injuries of the spine can result in fracture or nonfracture injuries with spinal cord damage.
  • Flexion Injury of the SpineHyperflexion produces translation (subluxation) of vertebrae that compromises the central canal and compresses spinal cord parenchyma or vascular structures.
  • Axial Compression Injuries of the SpineIn axial compression injuries of the spine, the spinal cord is contused directly by retropulsion of bone or disk material into the spinal canal.
  • Axial Compression Injuries of the SpineIn axial compression injuries of the spine, the spinal cord is contused directly by retropulsion of bone or disk material into the spinal canal.
  • Transcript

    • 1. PERCEPTION &COORDINATION
    • 2. The Anatomy & PhysiologyThe Nervous System
    • 3. Organs and Divisions of the NervousSystem The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 4. Organs and Divisions of the NervousSystem The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 5. Cells of the Nervous System• Two types of cells found in the nervous system: 1. Neurons or nerve cells - which conducts impulses. 2. Glia or support cells – which supports the neurons. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 6. Neurons• 3 Parts of a Neuron 1. Cell Body – main part of the neuron. 2. Dendrites – one or more branching projections. Transmits impulses to the body or axons. 3. Axon – the one elongated projection. Transmits impulses away from the neuron cell bodies or dendrites The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 7. 3 types of neurons1. Sensory Neurons – transmit impulses to the spinal cord and brain from all parts of the body. (Afferent Neurons)2. Motor Neurons – transmit impulses away from the brain and spinal cord. Impulses are transmitted to only 2 kinds of tissue –muscle and glandular tissue. (Efferent Neurons)3. Interneurons – conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons. (Central or Connecting Neurons) The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 8. 3 types of neurons The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 9. The Axon• It is surrounded by a segmented wrapping material called Myelin.• Myelin is a white, fatty substance formed by Schwann cells. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 10. The Axon• Nodes of Ranvier – these are indentations between adjacent Schwann cells.• Neurolimma – is the outer cell membrane of a Schwann cell. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 11. Glia (neuroglia)• These cells do not specialize in transmitting impulses.• Function: to hold the neurons together and protect them. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 12. 3 Types of Glia1. Astrocytes – also called “star cells”, its branches attach to neurons and to small blood vessels, holding these structures close to each other. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 13. 3 Types of Glia2. Microglia – are the resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, and thus act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS) The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 14. The Process of Phagocytosis The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 15. 3 Types of Glia3. Oligodendrocytes – they produce the fatty myelin sheath that envelops nerve fibers located in the brain and spinal cord. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 16. Disorders of the Nervous Tissue1. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS – It is characterized by myelin loss and destruction accompanied by varying degrees of oligodendrocyte injury and death. The result is demyelination throughout the white matter of the CNS. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 17. Effects of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 18. Disorders of the Nervous Tissue2. TUMORS (neuroma) – Tumors arising in the NS structures. Develops from glia, membrane tissues, and blood vessels. They are usually benign but may still be life threatening. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 19. Disorders of the Nervous Tissue Multiple Neurofibromatosis- is an inherited disease characterized by numerous fibrous neuromas throughout the body. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 20. NERVES • A nerve is a group of peripheral nerve fibers (axons) bundled together. (Also called tracts in the CNS) The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 21. NERVES The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 22. NERVES The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 23. REFLEX ARCS• Reflex Arcs - are neuron pathways in which Nerve impulses are conducted from receptors to effectors.• Conduction of by a reflex arc results in a reflex (that is, contraction by a muscle or secretion of a gland). The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 24. The patellar reflex The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 25. The patellar reflex The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 26. Nerve Impulse• It is a self-propagating wave of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron’s plasma membrane.• Also called Action Potential. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 27. Nerve Impulse • CONDUCTION OF NERVE IMPULSES A. Unmyelinated Fiber B. Myelinated Fiber The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 28. Nerve Impulse The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 29. The Synapse The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 30. The Synapse The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 31. The Synapse The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 32. Neurotransmitters• Chemical substances by which neurons communicate.• They bind to a specific receptor molecules in the membrane of a postsynaptic neuron, opening ion channels and thereby stimulating impulse conduction by the membrane. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 33. NeurotransmittersTypes of Neurotransmitters:1. Acetylcholine2. Catecholamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin)3. Endorphins4. Enkephalins5. Nitric Oxide The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 34. Parkinsons Disease • It is a chronic nervous disorder resulting from a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine in certain parts of the brain. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 35. Central Nervous System • Major Structures: – Brain – Spinal Cord The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 36. Division of the BrainI. Brainstem A. Medulla Oblangata B. Pons C. MidbrainII. CerebellumIII. CerebrumIV. Diencephalon A. Hypothalamus B. Thalamus The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 37. Meninges of the Brain The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 38. Major Regions of the CNS A Sagittal sections of the brain and Spinal Cord B Section of the preserved brain The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 39. Brainstem • Consists of the Medulla Oblangata, Pons, and Midbrain. • Made up of White matter with bits of gray matter scattered through it. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 40. Brainstem FUNCTIONS: • All 3 parts of the brainstem are two- way conduction paths. • Sensory tracts in the brainstem conduct impulses up from the cord to the other parts of the brain. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 41. Brainstem FUNCTIONS: • Motor tracts conduct impulses down from the brain to the cord. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 42. Reticular Activating System• The RAS is composed of several neuronal circuits connecting the brainstem to the cortex.• Play a role in many important functions, including sleep and waking, behavioral motivation, breathing, and the beating of the heart. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 43. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 44. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 45. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 46. Pupils at Different Levels ofConsciousness The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 47. Cerebellum • Second largest partof the human brain. • Recent evidence shows the cerebellum also may have wider coordinating effects, assisting the cerebrum and other regions of the brain. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 48. Cerebellum FUNCTIONS: • Helps control muscle contractions to produce coordinated movements to maintain balance, move slowly, and sustain normal postures. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 49. Diencephalon • Is a small but important part of the brain located between the midbrain below and cerebrum above. • It consists of 2 major structures: the hypothalamus and the thalamus. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 50. Diencephalon HYPOTHALAMUS • Consists mainly of the posterior pituitary gland, pituitary stalk, and gray matter. • Acts as the major center for controlling the ANS; therefore it helps control the functioning of most internal organs. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 51. Diencephalon HYPOTHALAMUS • Controls hormone secretion by anterior and posterior pituitary glands; therefore it indirectly helps control hormone secretion by most other endocrine glands. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 52. Diencephalon HYPOTHALAMUS • Contains centers for controlling appetite, sleep cycle, pleasure, body temperature, water balance, emotions. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 53. Diencephalon THALAMUS • Located just above the hypothalamus, dumbbell-shaped mass of gray matter extending into each cerebral hemisphere. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 54. Diencephalon THALAMUS • Composed chiefly of dendrites and cell bodies of neurons that have axons extending up toward the sensory areas of the cerebrum. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 55. Diencephalon THALAMUS • It helps produce sensations. Its neurons relay impulses to the cerebal cortex from the sense organs of the body. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 56. Diencephalon THALAMUS • It associates sensations with emotions. • It plays a part in the so-called arousal, or alerting mechanism. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 57. The Cerebrum• Largest part of the human brain.• Outer layer of gray matter is the cerebral cortex; made up of lobes; composed mainly of dendrites and cell bodies of neurons.• Interior of the cerebrum composed mainly of white matter (that is nerve fibers arranged in bundles called tracts.) The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 58. The Cerebrum The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 59. The Cerebrum The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 60. The Cerebrum The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 61. The Cerebrum The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 62. Corpus Callosum The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 63. Functions of Major Divisions of theBrain BRAIN AREA FUNCTIONBrain Stem Medulla 2-way conduction pathway between the spinal cord and Oblangata higer brain centers: cardiac, respiratory and vasomotor control center Pons 2-way conduction pathway between areas of the brain and other brain regions of the body; influences respiration Midbrain 2-way conduction pathway; relay for visual and auditory impulsesCerebellum Muscle coordination; maintenance of equilibrium and posture; assists cerebrum. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 64. Functions of Major Divisions of theBrain BRAIN AREA FUNCTIONDiencephalon Hypothalamus Regulation of body temperature, water balance, sleep- cycle control, appetite, and sexual arousal Thalamus Sensory relay station from various body areas to cerebral cortex; emotions and alerting or arousal mechanismsCerebrum Sensory perception, emotions, willed movements, consciousness, and memory The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 65. Cerebrovascular Accident The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 66. Brain Disorders(Destruction of Brain Tissue) Cerebrovascular Accident • It is the destruction of of neurons of the motor area of the cerebrum as result of hemorrhage from or cessation of blood flow through cerebral blood vessels. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 67. Types of Aneurysm The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 68. Physiologic Changes Brought byAneurysm The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 69. Subdural Hematoma The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 70. Brain Disorders(Destruction of Brain Tissue) Cerebral Palsy • A condition resulting to damage of motor control areas of the brain before, during, or shortly after birth which causes paralysis of one or more limbs. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 71. Brain Disorders(Dementia) Dementia • A syndrome that includes progressive loss of memory, shortened attention span, personality changes, reduced intellectual capacity, and motor control deficit. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 72. Brain Disorders(Dementia) Alzheimers Disease (AD)• A disease caused by a lesion in the cerebral cortex during the middle to late adult years. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 73. Alzheimer’s Disease The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 74. Brain Disorders(Dementia) Huntington Disease (HD) • An inherited disease characterized by chorea (involuntary, purposeless movements) that progresses to severe dementia and death. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 75. Huntington’s Chorea The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 76. Seizure Disorders Seizure • These are sudden bursts of abnormal neuron activity that results in temporary changes in brain function. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 77. Coup and Contrecoup Head Injury AfterBlunt Trauma 1. Coup injury 2. Contrecoup injury The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 78. Brain StudiesElectroencephalogram (EEG) A photograph of a person with voltage-sensitive electrodes attached to her skull. An EEG tracing showing activity in four different places in the brain (obtained from four sets of electrodes). The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 79. Brain Studies X-Ray Photography • Traditional radiography of the head. • May reveal tumors or injuries but does not show detail of soft tissue necessary to diagnose many brain problems. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 80. Brain Studies Computed Tomography • CT imaging technique involves scanning the head with revolving x-ray generator. • Images appears as a “slice of brain”. • Hemorrhages, tumors, and other lesions can be detected with CT scanning. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 81. Brain Studies Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) • A variation of CT scan in which a radioactive substance is introduced into the blood supply of the brain. • It determines functional characteristics of specific parts of the brain. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 82. Brain Studies Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) • Similar to PET but uses more stable substances and different detectors. • Used to visualize blood flow patterns in the brain, making it useful in diagnosing CVAs and tumors. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 83. Brain Studies Ultrasonography • Use of high frequency sound waves to reflect off anatomical structures to form an image. • Often used in diagnosis of hydrocephalus or brain tumors. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 84. Brain Studies Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) • A scanning method that utilizes a magnetic field surrounding the head and induces the brain tissues to emit radio waves that can be translated by computers to translate an image. • Used to detect small brain lesions. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 85. Brain Studies Evoked Potential Test (EP) • Similar to EEG but the brain waves observed are caused (evoked) by specifc stimuli, such as a flash of light or a sudden sound. • Changes in color represent changes in brain activity evoked by each stimulus given. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 86. Spinal Cord • A thick, whitish cylinder of nerve tissue that runs down the central canal of the spinal column. • The spinal cord is an extension of the brain, and together with the brain forms the central nervous system. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 87. Spinal Cord • Originates at the lower (inferior) end of the medulla oblongata, at the bottom of the brainstem. • Leaves the skull via a large opening called the foramen magnum, and extends about two-thirds of the way down the spine, as far as the first lumbar vertebra. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 88. Functions of the Spinal Cord• Serves as a primary center for all spinal cord reflexes.• Spinal cord tracts provide two-way conduction paths to and from the brain. – Ascending Tracts: conduct impulses up to the cord to the brain. (sensory tracts) – Descending Tracts: conduct impulses down to the cord from the brain. (motor tracts) The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 89. Structure of the Spinal CordCross section of the spinal cord showing the gray matter in the center,surrounded by white matter pathways (nerve tracts), and spinal nerveroots.
    • 90. Coverings of the Spinal Cord The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 91. Coverings of the Spinal Cord The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 92. Fluid Spaces of the Spinal Cord and the BrainA. Ventricles highlighted within the brain in a left lateral viewB. Ventricles shown above
    • 93. Flow of Cerebrospinal FluidThe fluid produced by filtration of blood by the choroid plexus of each ventricle flows inferiorlythrough the lateral ventricles, interventricular foramen, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, fourthventricle, and subarachnoid space and then to the blood.
    • 94. Flow of Cerebrospinal FluidThe fluid produced by filtration of blood by the choroid plexus of each ventricle flows inferiorlythrough the lateral ventricles, interventricular foramen, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, fourthventricle, and subarachnoid space and then to the blood.
    • 95. Hydrocephalus • It is a medical condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles, or cavities, of the brain. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 96. HydrocephalusA, Hydrocephalus is caused by narrowing or blockage of the pathways for CSF,causing the retention of CSF in the ventricles. B, This condition can be treated bysurgical placement of a shunt or tube to drain the excess fluid. Notice in the crosssections of the brain how the ventricles and surrounding tissue return to theirnormal shapes and size after shunt placement.
    • 97. Spinal Cord Disorders• A spinal disc herniation (prolapsus disci intervertebralis) is a medical condition affecting the spine due to trauma, lifting injuries, or idiopathic (unknown) causes, in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) of an intervertebral disc (discus intervertebralis)allows the soft, central portion (nucleus pulposus) to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 98. Spinal Cord Disorders The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 99. Spinal Cord Disorders The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 100. Spinal Cord DisordersSpina bifida - is a developmentalcongenital disorder caused by theincomplete closing of the embryonic neuraltube. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 101. Spinal Cord Disordersspina bifida occulta- the outer part ofsome of the vertebraeis not completelyclosed. The splits inthe vertebrae are sosmall that the spinalcord does notprotrude. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 102. Spinal Cord DisordersMeningocele -Meningocele is a typeof spina bifida inwhich the spinal corddevelops normally butthe meningesprotrude from a spinalopening. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 103. Spinal Cord Disorders Meningomyelocele – • The unfused portion of the spinal column allows the spinal cord to protrude through an opening. • The meningeal membranes that cover the spinal cord form a sac enclosing the spinal elements. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 104. Spinal Cord Injuries Hyperextension Injuries of the Spine The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 105. Spinal Cord Injuries Flexion Injury of the Spine The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 106. Spinal Cord Injuries Axial Compression Injuries of the Spine The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 107. Spinal Cord Injuries Flexion-Rotation Injuries of the Spine The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system
    • 108. Diagnostic Test •A dx test and at times therapeutic procedure that is performed in order to collect a sample of CSF for biochemical, microbiological, and cytological analysis, or very rarely as a treatment to relieve increased intracranial pressure. The Anatomy & Physiology of the nervous system

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