Chapter 3: Attention and Consciousness http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/grafs/demos/11.html http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/grafs/demos/12.html
The concentration of mental energy that must be used to process incoming information
Both conscious and preconscious
Tip of the tongue experiences
How quickly do you process the second word?
Faster if you have been primed with a related word.
NURSE DOCTOR CAT DOG
Marcel (1983) Condition Subliminally Present Prime Consciously Present Prime Prime PALM PALM Mask XXXX Target PINE OR WRIST PINE OR WRIST Response Body part or Plant? Body Part or Plant? Reaction time How fast? How fast?
Marcel’s Procedure with Participants
PALM XXXX PINE PINE It’s a Plant. Umm, It’s a Plant. Subliminal Condition Conscious Condition
Marcel (1983) Results Condition Subliminally Present Prime Consciously Present Prime Targets: PINE or WRIST Found faster RT for both target words Found faster RT for one of two target words, slower RT for the other target Interpretation Both meanings were primed Only one meaning is primed, the other inhibited
Priming Can Speed or Slow Processing
Target stimuli (e.g., BUTTER) are processed faster if preceded by a related word (e.g., BREAD)
Negative Priming Effect
Target stimuli (e.g., PINE) is processed slower if preceded by a word related to target’s alternate meaning (PALM relating to hand)
Bowers, Regehr, Balthazard & Parker (1990) Which of these triads is coherent? What is the 4 th word that ties them together? BALL 0 Triad A Triad B Basket Swan Room Army Foot Mask
Bowers (et.al.) Results
Even if participants could not generate the 4 th word, they still selected the coherent triad
Results demonstrate preconscious processing
You know you know the word but you cannot fully retrieve the word
Paradigms used to generate TOT states
Show pictures of famous people or politicians and have participants name them
Ask general knowledge questions to generate TOTs
What is the name of Dagwood Bumstead’s dog?
Who wrote Paradise lost?
What is a wheeled hospital cart called?
Do any of these questions put the answer on the tip of your tongue?
Controlled vs. Automatic Processing
Requires no conscious control
Requires conscious control
Is Typing Automatic or Controlled for You?
Do you type without thinking where your fingers are? Are you a search and peck typer?
If you do type without using attention, what happens when you think about the letters as you are typing them?
Automization - 2 Explanations
Integrated components theory-Anderson
Practice leads to integration; less and less attention is needed
Instance Theory - Logan
Retrieve from memory specific answers, skipping the procedure; thus less attention is needed
Effect of Practice on Automization
Rate of learning slows as amount of learning increases
Negative- Acceleration Curve
Decrease in responsiveness when exposed to a repeated stimulus
People who smoke do not notice the smell of cigarettes on their clothes, but nonsmokers do
People get used to hearing the chiming of their clocks
Change in familiar stimuli causes one to notice it again
Smokers who quit, suddenly notice how much their clothes smell of smoke
If clock breaks, suddenly owner notices the clock isn’t chiming
Allows psychologists to test abilities of Infants and animals
Measure subject’s arousal to see if a change occurs when pattern or sound is changed
If animal or infant dishabituates to a change, then they can detect the change
If the animal or infant does not dishabituate to a change in stimuli, they did not detect the change
Functions of Conscious Attention
Signal Detection Theory (SDT) Decision Signal Present Absent Present Hit False Alarm Absent Miss Correct Rejection
Vigilance and SDT
Vigilance is attending to a set of stimuli over a length of time in order to detect a target signal
Vigilance decreases rapidly over time (fatigue), thus misses and false alarms increase
Actively searching for a target
Number of targets and distracters influence accuracy
Feature search versus conjunctive search
Conjunctive vs. Feature Search Which box is it easier to detect a letter that is different? The box on top is a feature search The box on the bottom is a conjunction search L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L T L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L O L L L L L L L L L L L L
Treisman’s Feature-Integration Theory
Individual Feature processing is done in parallel. Simultaneous processing is done on the whole display and if feature is present-- we detect it.
Conjunctive searching requires attention to the integration or combination of the features. Attention to particular combination of features must be done sequentially to detect presence of a certain combination.
Another Feature Search T T T T T T T Is there a red T in the Display? T T Target is defined by a single feature According to feature integration theory the Target should “pop out” No attention required T T T T T T T T
Another Conjunction Search X T T X T T T Is there a red T in the Display? X X Target is defined by two Features: shape and color According FIT, the features must be combined and so attention is required Need to examine one by one X X T X T T
Disagrees with Treisman’s FIT theory
Similarity between targets and distracters is important; not number of features to be combined
The more shared features among items in display, the more difficult to detect a particular target
Some findings cannot be explained by FIT
Cave and Wolf (1990)
All searches have 2 phases
Selectivity of Attention
Cocktail Party Problem
How are we able to follow one conversation in the presence of other conversations?
Cherry’s Shadowing Technique The lawyer defended his client as the trial began. He was able The doctor went to the park to find the homeless man. He was … .. The doctor went to the park….. Listen to two different conversations and repeat one of the messages, may be binaural or dichotic Attended Ear Unattended Ear 0
Cherry’s Study Results
Noticed in unattended ear:
Change in gender
Change to a tone
Did not notice in unattended ear:
Changed topic, same speaker
If speech was played backwards
Models of Selective Attention
Do they have a filter?
Where does the filter occur?
Broadbent’s Model Long Term Memory Working Memory Sensory Filter Sensory Stores
Only one sensory channel is allowed
Stimuli filtered at sensory level
Broadbent’s Model Could Not Explain
Participant’s name gets through
Participants can shadow meaningful messages that switches from one ear to another
Effects of practice on detecting information in unattended ear (e.g., detect digit in unattended ear for naïve and practiced participants)
Treisman Attenuation Model Long Term Memory Working Memory Attenuation of Unattended Sensory Stores Filter weakens the strength of unattended information. Arrow colors represent different levels of strength If arrow reaches circle, info will be activated in working memory Note some circles are closer due to different thresholds of information 0
Late Selection Theory Long Term Memory Working Memory Sensory Stores All stimuli is processed to the level of meaning, relevance determines further Processing and action Deutsch & Deutsch (1963) 0
Note physical characteristics
Controlled processes occur serially
Occur in working memory
Model A represents Kahneman (1973) model
Model B represents individual pools for each modality
red yellow green blue red blue yellow green blue red
Say the color the words are printed in as quickly as you can What errors do you make? Reading i nterferes with your ability to state the color and your reaction time is slower
Divided Attention Research
How many tasks can you do at once?
e.g. driving & talking, radio, phone...
Dual Task Paradigm
Neisser & Becklen (1975) superimposed film study
Ability to divide attention improves with practice
No built in, fixed limit, to # of tasks a human can perform simultaneously
Pashler’s PRP Effect
Dual Task Paradigm: Two tasks at once
Task 1 may require a verbal response to an auditory stimulus
Task 2 may require a participant to push a button in response to a visual stimulus.
Results indicate that responses to the second task are delayed
Known as the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect
Complex Mental Processes
Access to conscious Mental Processes
Some say we do (Ericsson & Simon)
Some say we do not (Nisbett & Wilson)
Evidence on both sides:
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Not everyone who is overly hyperactive, inattentive, or impulsive has ADHD
Behavior must be demonstrated to a degree that is inappropriate for the person's age