GM Crops in the Developing
What are GM crops?
• Definition-An organism whose genetic
characteristics have been altered using
the techniques of genetic engineering.
• The term genetically modified organism
is used to refer to any microorganism,
plant, or animal in which genetic
engineering techniques have been used
to introduce, remove, or modify specific
parts of its genome.
GM Social Issues
• Much of the current social debates on genetically
modified have focused on the potential risks of GM
crops for human health.
• “Reports on hundreds of villagers and cotton
handlers who developed skin allergy in
India.”(Maghari and Ardekani, 2011)
• “Recent studies have revealed that Bacillus
thuringiensis corn expresses an allergenic protein
which alters overall immunological reactions in the
body.”(Maghari and Ardekani, 2011)
• Europe requires all GM food to be labeled unless GM
ingredients amount to 0.9 percent or less of the total.
• The U.S. does not require labels on the view that
genetically modified food is not materially different than
Environmental Impact of GMO
• “There are concerns that the release of GM crops will result
in such plants becoming agricultural weeds and, therefore,
add to the already large agricultural weed management
burden of farmers.”(Conner and others, 2003)
• “It is also feared that such plants may invade natural
habitats and, as a consequence, compromise their
biodiversity values.”(Conner and others, 2003)
Economic Impact of GMOs
• “India is an important grower of cotton on a global scale. It ranks third in
global cotton production after the United States and China; with 8-9
million hectares grown each year.”(Bennett and others, 2004)
• “In March 2002, the Indian government permitted commercial cultivation
of genetically modified Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton. The Bt gene
produces a protein that is toxic to bollworms.”(Bennett and others, 2004)
• Study of cost vs. production next slide
• Yellow using standard cotton
• The green using the Bt cotton
• Cost about the same when factoring in
• Yield is where the Bt cotton really
makes it mark
and others, 2004)
• Peoples right to know what they are putting in
there bodies safe or unsafe
• Beneficence the worlds job to feed its people
to do good GMOs can help along the way
• The balance of likely benefits over harms to
consumers and the environment from GM
Bennett. R.M. Ismael. Y. Kambhampati. U. Morse. S. Economic Impact of Genetically
Modified Cotton in India. The Journal of Agro biotechnology management & economics.
Volume 7 number 3 article 1. accessed 11/8/13. http://www.agbioforum.org/v7n3/v7n3a01morse.htm
Conner. A.J. Glare. T.R. Nap. J.P. The release of genetically modified crops into the
Environment. The Plant Journal. 33, 19–46. Accessed 11/8/13
Maghari. B.M. Ardekani. A.M. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns. Avicenna
Journal of Medical Biotechnology. 3(3): 109–117. Accessed 11/8/13.
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