Diabetes insipidus A disorder caused by the inadequate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It is different than diabetes mellitus or “sugar diabetes”.
Characterizations of Diabetes insipidus Diabetes insipidus is characterized by intense thirst, polydipsia, and the excretion of large amounts of urine, polyuria. It is a result of the body not producing, or not responding properly to a hormone called ADH or vasopressin.
Intake and Excretion The kidneys remove excess fluids from our bloodstream, and conserve fluids when our body water levels are decreased. The amount of fluids in the body remain balanced through the intake and excretion of fluids. The intake is governed by our thirst and the excretion is largely controlled by our bodies response to the antidiuretic hormone ADH.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) ADH, also called vasoprssin, is made in the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland. ADH is released into the bloodstream and “tells” the kidney tubules to reabsorb water back into the bloodstream instead of excreting it. Diabetes insipidus occurs when the urinary system does not respond to ADH and therefore does not properly regulate fluid control.
Types of Diabetes insipidus Central diabetes insipidus- usually caused by damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, a tumor in the location, and illness such an meningitis. This type disrupts the production, storage, and release of ADH. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus- occurs when there is a defect in the kidney tubules making the kidneys unable to respond to ADH. Gestational diabetes insipidus- occuring only during pregnancy when an enzyme from the placenta destroys ADH in the mother.
Treatment Depending on the type of diabetes insipidus treatment can be: Synthetic hormone called Desmopressin Prescribing a certain amount of water intake Low salt diet Diuretics which might decrease urine production in people with diabetes insipidus
References www.mayoclinic.com www.diabetesinsipidus.org Fremgen, Bonnie F. and Suzanne S. Frucht. Medical Terminology; A living language. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2009