Race and Ethnicity PresentationPresentation Transcript
+Race and Ethnicity In the College Environment Presented by Brittany Maffett & Dakota Farquhar- Caddell
+ Overview Ethnic Identity Activity Race vs. Ethnicity Definition of Minority Ethnic Identities Ethnic Minority Focused Institutions Themes Across the Literature Regarding Students of Ethnic Minority Groups Panel Discussion with DSA Students and Staff
+ Race vs. Ethnicity Race: No biological premise "An unstable and decentered complex of social meanings constantly being transformed by political struggle" Ethnicity: Relates to cultural factors such as nationality, culture, ancestry, language, and beliefs
+ Minority Ethnic Identities African American Native American Native American American Indian Differs by institution Latino/a/Hispanic “Hispanic” term is an English-language term “Latino/a” is of Spanish origin Some prefer neither, but instead to be identified by their nation origin Asian American
+ African American Students Demographics and Involvement in Higher Education Number of African Americans enrolling in college has been increasing over the past three decades Far more females enrolled in institutions of higher education than males (64.2% vs 35.8%) Driven to obtain the highest degree possible 24% of African Americans purse terminal degrees as compared to 17% of the general population
+ African American Students Student Development Theory Nigrescence African Americans develop through 5 stages “Resocializing experience” forcing students to reexamine their self worth and role in a predominant White society Becoming Afrocentric is important to these students and sometimes trust of White faculty and staff is difficult Be cognizant of this process and intentional about creating an environment that allows for immersion into Africanism and encourages acceptance on one’s heritage African American men that report high levels of Afrocentric identity have lower academic success than other men
+ African American Students Motivations and Values Overall, almost one-third of Black students stated that spiritual growth and following religious teachings were important compared to less than 20% of White and Asian students Most religious population in terms of racial groups Attending for future financial gain, but more so value familial relationships and community involvement Twice as likely as Caucasian students to report they are open to involvement in interracial relationships Less likely to abuse alcohol and other substances Less accepting of homosexuality More likely to identify themselves as “far left or liberal” than the general student population
+ African American Students Academic Achievement Low retention rates African American students are not as academically prepared for college as much as their White or Asian counterparts Programs put into place to raise retention rates Social support groups, outside activities, academic success support Being involved in too many groups/organizations results in a lower GPA Paradoxical result of raising retention, but lowering GPA
+ African American Students Programs and Services Faculty-student mentoring programs Peer mentoring programs Living – Learning community
+ Native American Students Demographics and Enrollment in Higher Education 561 different Native American cultures represented in the United States In relation to majority, Native American students tend to come from poorer families 1% of undergraduate enrollments, but increasing slightly over the past 25 years Average lower standardized tests
+ Native American Students Student Development Theory Horse’s theory Highly personal Mix of racial identity and spiritual identity development “Indian people believe spirituality has been the cornerstone of their survival through generations of adversity and oppression. Spirituality includes our interconnectedness with each other, the sacredness of our inner spirit, our efforts to nurture and renew ourselves daily, balance and harmony, and our responsibility to be lifelong learners” (p. 167)
+ Native American Students Cultural Themes Surface Themes Family support Structured social support Faculty/staff warmth Exposure to college experiences and vocations Independence and assertiveness Reliance on spiritual resources Deep Themes Dealing with racism A non-linear path Paradoxical cultural pressures: balancing being successful in college and maintain their identity as a member of their reservation community
+ Native American Students Academic Achievement Career development – finding a vocation can reduce frustration and increase motivation to complete a degree Programs than focus on developing independence and assertiveness Cultural counseling centers Mentoring groups Financial aid Better family understanding and relations Cultural celebrations
+ Latino/a/Hispanic Students Demographics and Enrollment in Higher Education Demographics Hispanic high school graduates are the fastest growing ethnic/racial group in the United States Highest drop-out rates Rates for college enrollment are increasing College Enrollment Increase from 724,900 in 1990 to 1.7 million in 2004 Significant increase, still lower than White and Black racial groups By 2004, 68.8% were Hispanic women and 41.2% were Hispanic men Gender gap is a continuing trend and inclusive of all ethnic groups
+ Latino/a/Hispanic Students Student Development Theory Foundational concepts Vulnerability is key in establishing trust. “Latinos, among others, are not accepting the dictum to learn in only one way, nor are they willing to give up their own cultural contexts and cognitive styles as did earlier immigrant groups in the country” (p.325) Dual identities: between home, community, and school environment “Prefer to learn in multiple ways without compromising their cultural preferences in their academic communities too” “Developing interpersonal competence” First-generation parents lack a natural understanding “Going to college is not all about the student; it is also about the family” (p.337)
+ Latino/a/Hispanic Students Academic Achievement Pre-College Issues and Trends Poor preparation In most measures of achievement Latino students fall behind peers of other races Choosing between attending school full time or part time Attending part time or at two-year institutions is considered a risk factor for not obtaining a college degrees
+ Latino/a/Hispanic Students Challenges in the System Retention The more selective an institution is, the higher likely Latino students will persist and succeed High costs inhibit retention Living at home vs. living on campus Undocumented students Lack of access to resources Lack rights that legal citizens have Can not work in their field after graduation Effected by political strife and concern for safety
+ Latino/a/Hispanic Students Programs and Services Models and suggestions Target both parents and students Programs that help transition from high school to college – specifically geared with Latino population in mind Programs within departments Ex: UT Austin’s Hispanic Center of Excellence College of Pharmacy Benefits Financial Greater goals in life Inter-generational effects
+ Asian American Students Demographics and Enrollment in Higher Education Immigration boom in early 1970s primarily contributed to the increase of Asian American population Asian American enrollment increased to more than 987,000 over the 10-year period between 1993 and 2003, up 43.5%
+ Asian American Students Student Development Theory Identity Development Bi-cultural Typically, strong cultural influences from their parents Subject to societal pressures and influences Ethnic identity may vary based on family interactions, social contexts, geographic location, psychological proximity to Asian American political movements
+ Asian American Students Model Minority Myth Created a lack of oversight provided by administrators The false perception that Asian Americans are all “well-adjusted and high achieving has led student service and outreach programs to overlook the issue needs of these students, and even exclude them from receiving services or benefits Differences in Asian American subpopulations make it difficult for those from disadvantaged background to receive the aid and support that they need
+ Asian American Students Campus Alienation Racism Marginalization Cultural barriers Limited understanding on how Asian Americans internalize and cope with racism Inter-group prejudice existing within the Asian American community More wealthy Asian Americans distancing themselves from less educated and poorer Asian Americans Lack of Asian American leadership
+ Asian American Students Academic Achievement Academic Achievement Cultural emphasis on respect or elders, academic achievement, gain good jobs and comfortable lifestyle Highest six-year retention rate of any demographic: 62% Furthering stereo type that Asian Americans are “overly successful” (p. 399) Natural propensity to pursue career opportunities in science or math related fields Based on parental and familial influences Seen as high prestige
+ Voices @VirginiaTech
+ Ethnic Minority Focused Institutions
+ Ethnic Minority Focused Institutions Historically Black Colleges and Universities Hispanic Serving Institutions Tribal Colleges and Universities
+ Historically Black Colleges and Universities 105 HBCU’s Founded with the intention to educate the descendants of slaves. Many struggle to survive with limited financial resources, criticisms to their missions, and academic achievement gaps. Represents 3% of all colleges, 2% of all students, and confer 17% of all Bachelor’s degrees earned by African American students
+ Historically Black Colleges and Universities Students are often underprepared and come from low-income backgrounds. These institutions generally have more flexible admissions standards and have academic achievement similar to that of Blacks and predominately white institutions. Huge sense of pride and cultural ties to traditions. High involvement with Greek Community through the National PanHellenic Council
+ Hispanic Serving Institutions 234 HSIs recognized by the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Institutions (HACU). These institutions must be a nonprofit, accredited college, university or system, where total Hispanic enrollment constitutes a minimum of 25% of the total enrollment. They make up 6% of college and universities and educate nearly 50% of all Hispanic students in the US.
+ Hispanic Serving Institutions They were not founded with the mission of educating Hispanic students, but were created in response to growing populations of Hispanic persons in certain areas of the country. These institutions help to better address the educational and social needs of the Hispanic population. They intentionally provide academic and student support programs to raise Hispanic student aspirations and enhance their retention and completion rates.
+ Hispanic Serving Institutions Students are often first generation, low-income, and not as academically prepared. They are also more respectful, self-effacing, and more appreciative of the opportunities afforded to them. Parents are often involved in their education and with the universities.
+ Tribal Colleges and Universities 37 TCUs serving 27,000 students represented by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium. Community based educational philosophy with attention to cultural needs. Tribal colleges and universities are founded and controlled by individual Native American tribes.
+ Tribal Colleges and Universities Heavily linked to their culture and the people who work at them as their faculty members built many of them. They are heavily underfunded yet have a commitment to integrity and sharing their story . Tribal colleges often offer programs, curricula, and research opportunities related to their native language and culture.
+ Tribal Colleges and Universities The average student is around 30 years old, female, and has children. Profile is changing to be more inclusive of a younger more male population. The need stems from discouraging numbers of graduates from reservation based schools either not attending mainstream American colleges and universities or dropping out due to inadequate academic preparation and cultural barriers.
+ Themes Across the Literature Regarding Students of Ethnic Minority Groups
+ Themes Faculty Interaction by Student Race/Ethnicity College Access for Minority Students Alienation and Navigating Campus Environments
+ Faculty Interaction by Student Race/Ethnicity Student-faculty relationships reflect positive impacts on student learning with every ethnic group Students groups who reported least satisfactory relationships with faculty were African American and Native American Spending more time with faculty is not enough These sub-populations already spend more time with faculty that White students do Instead of focusing on the frequency of interaction, we must focus on the quality of interaction
+ Faculty Interaction by Student Race/Ethnicity Do different races define effective faculty relationships different? Do they have different expectations on what role faculty are expected to play? Students are more comfortable with faculty members of their own race/ethnicity Student learning is effected by settings outside the classroom. This study states that the role of the faculty with students setting outside the classroom yields an explanation of nearly one quarter of student learning.
+ College Access for Minority Students Assumption that minority students will attend community college A lot of the literature speaks of minority students with the community college system. These institutions usually appeal to minority students due to lesser financial burden on students from lower income and are more flexible to many minority students. High schools are not adequately preparing students to be successful in college No Child Left Behind Act requires states to test students in basic skills in certain grades if they receive federal funding. High school curriculums are preparing to pass standardized test, not necessarily preparing them for the rigor of college coursework.
+ College Access for Minority Students Programs geared towards minority students Formal mentoring programs have provided the most significant increase in enrollment and minority students. TRIO, federally funded program designed to increase and support minority enrollment in higher education The Multicultural Academic Opportunities Program (MAOP) is an academic success community founded in 1993 upon the principles of self-help, mentoring, and peer support.
+ Alienation and Navigating Campus Environments In order for students to succeed at an institution, it is important for students to feel some sense of attachment to the university and find characteristics that match their expectations. Minority students tend to stick together as a way to preserve cultural identity and resist feelings of alienation.
+ Alienation and Navigating Campus Environments Differences on campus by race/ethnicity in campus involvement Socioeconomic Cultural ties on campus Campus Environment Implications Minority retention could be improved by efforts focusing on increasing involvement in campus activities and improving the racial climate on campus.
+ Panel Discussion
+ DSA Student and Staff Panel Members Ray Williams Caleb Keith Student Life Coordinator Director Honors Residential College at East Multicultural Programs and Ambler Johnston Hall Services Lyndsy Manz Shanoya Conner Assistant Director Graduate Assistant Cranwell International Center Multicultural Programs and Services