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  • 04/12/10
  • Since the schema is the key issue in this paper, the master researcher of schema, Bartlett, defined schema as... 04/12/10
  • The researcher, Chang, tried to described schema more. Schema is as... 04/12/10
  • Therefore, as the topic of this paper, schema adjustment in cross-cultural encounter, the background... 04/12/10
  • the U-shaped curve claims the up and down emotions that intercultural workers experience. It starts from honeymoon, culture shock, adjustment and integration. The W-shaped curve joins two U curves together. The low to high line points out the low emotional point occurred in the entry period and adjustment increased over time. The period of the curves depends on how long the encounter adjust the culture shock. 04/12/10
  • Working experience of international service 04/12/10
  • Working experience of international service 04/12/10
  • Critical incident analysis include positive or negative experiences that have been a significant occurrence 6 Qs for their preparation for working abroad, challenges and the process of adjustment 04/12/10
  • Cultural shock is a catalyst that raises expatriate workers’ awareness of their existing schemas. 04/12/10
  • Among the experiences mentioned by the expatriate workers, some incidents brought dramatic shocks or uneasy emotions , which aroused mental tension. 04/12/10
  • Mental tension often altered the individuals who were forced to initiate a new dialogue with themselves in order to reach a new balance and perspective concerning their environment. 04/12/10
  • Expatriate workers actually used strategies of networking, observing and participation for an important reason, that is, to search for information regarding culturally relevant others . 04/12/10
  • In this model, cross- cultural incidents are filtered by the existing schema. Some stimuli may cause cultural shocks and enhance the individuals’ awareness regarding their own mental framework. In addition, some cultural shocks may seriously challenge sojourners’ existing schemas and create mental tension, which leads to the reopening of a mental dialogue. During the process, collecting information with respect to the perspectives of culturally relevant others in the community is critical, so that their directions of adjustment can be more clearly guided. 04/12/10
  • 3. In the practice of tolerance, one’s enemy is the best teacher 04/12/10
  • 1. Interview Questions+Participant Selection 04/12/10
  • Seminar

    1. 1. Schema adjustment in cross-cultural encounters: A study of expatriate international aid service workers Presenter : Yi-Chun Vivian Tsai Instructor : Dr. Pi-Ying Teresa Hsu April 13, 2010
    2. 2. Chang, W. W. (2009). Schema adjustment in cross-cultural encounters: A study of expatriate international aid service workers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33 (1), 57-68. An associate professor at Graduate Institute of International Workforce Education and Development, National Taiwan Normal University
    3. 3. Contents I. Introduction II. Methodology III. Results IV. Implications V. Reflection
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Definition of Schema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The schema has been defined as a mental structure that stores people’s common knowledge learned from their life experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Bartlett, 1932) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Definition of Schema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A schema has been described as general knowledge , and it is stored in people's mind, affecting how they select, perceive, interpret, and respond to information from the outside world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Chang, 2009) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>Background of the Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For expatriate workers and sojourners who physically go abroad to pursue their goals and missions, learning how to function well in a new culture is a major task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Chang, 2009) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Introduction <ul><li>Background of the Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each curve represents a part of adjustment reality that was derived from different sample populations. </li></ul></ul>Low to high line W-shaped curve U-shaped curve 1955 Lysgaard 1963 Gullahorn & Gullahorn 1998 Word, Okura, Kennedy, & Kojima
    8. 8. Introduction <ul><li>Statements of the Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural adjustment involves a psychological process of reaching a harmonious status between the individual and environment, such an explanation covered the environmental aspect but overlooked the psychological influence within individuals . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Hannigan, 1990) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Introduction <ul><li>Purposes of the Study </li></ul>to explore the expatriate workers’ cross-cultural experiences <ul><ul><li>to identify the components that influenced the expatriate workers’ schema adjustment </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Methodology 22 expatriate workers 11:11 15 (68%) 3-5 years 4 (18%) 6-10 years 2 (9%) 11-15 years 1 (5%) 20 years 30 to 60 (1 was below 30) Educational assistance services (13) International medical (9) Participants Age Male: Female Organizations Working experience
    11. 11. Methodology Burma the Dominican Republic India Malawi Pakistan Panama Thailand Vietnam Working locations
    12. 12. Methodology Theoretical Framework <ul><li> Beamer’s schemata model </li></ul><ul><li>to explain the events and phenomena in practice </li></ul>Semi-structured Interviews Field Observation <ul><li>Critical incident analysis </li></ul><ul><li>6 interview questions </li></ul><ul><li>4 days in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>General understanding of daily basis </li></ul><ul><li>Data Collection </li></ul>
    13. 13. Methodology <ul><li>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>To break down, examine, and categorize the original data </li></ul><ul><li>To create small categories </li></ul><ul><li>To group data in a higher level category </li></ul><ul><li>To use the software Atlas/ti to code </li></ul><ul><li>To review the data by the researcher , two research assistants and three parties </li></ul>Interview Transcripts Open Coding Axial Coding Triangulation
    14. 14. Results Schema awareness Mental tension Mental dialogue Culturally relevant others Cross- cultural interaction
    15. 15. Results <ul><li>Schema Awareness : Cultural shock </li></ul>Dr. Beti In my idea, it was rude to ask people's age when you barely knew them. However, later I realized that this is just a common way to begin a social conversation in their culture.
    16. 16. Results <ul><li>Mental tension : Uneasy emotions </li></ul>Shine In international work, you would find many things that you always took for granted were not what you thought. You would challenge your own limitations .
    17. 17. Results <ul><li>Mental dialogue : New perspective </li></ul>Dr. Beti “ How you would face yourself and solve the problems .” Through these challenges and conflicts, “I felt I grew a lot.”
    18. 18. Results <ul><li>Culturally relevant others : Information </li></ul>Kui & Shing You have to keep in contact with them [local people]. Hanging out with local people and being friends with them is one of the best ways to learn their values
    19. 19. Results <ul><li>Cross-cultural incidents & schema adjustment </li></ul>
    20. 20. Implications Creating opportunities for schema awareness Practicing schema adjustment through scenarios and cognitive task analysis Including positive and negative experiences in learning resources
    21. 21. Reflection
    22. 22. Reflection ?
    23. 23. Thank You !