(Second)  Language Acquisition Student’s Name/ ID  :  Yuri  9722616    Betty  9722609   Vivian 9722607 Instructor : Philip...
Question 4 of Chapter 3 - Please define the “Total Physical Response” (TPR) method and “The Natural Approach”. <ul><li>TPR...
Background of TPR   <ul><li>Promoter : Dr. James J. Asher, a professor emeritus of psychology at San José State University...
Background of TPR <ul><li>The human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Premise of TPR <ul><li>The way that children learn language : </li></ul>Communication  between parents and their children ...
Classroom usage of TPR <ul><li>In the classroom, the teacher and students take on roles similar to that of the parent and ...
Classroom usage of TPR <ul><li>More  complex grammar  and detailed scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>To practice and teach vario...
Advantages of TPR <ul><li>Students enjoy getting up out of chairs and moving around </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers do not requ...
Problems of TPR <ul><li>Most useful for  beginners  only </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of the opportunity to express own thoughts...
The activity of TPR-  Simon says <ul><li>Three or more players (most often  children ).  </li></ul><ul><li>One of the peop...
The activity of TPR-  Simon says <ul><li>It is the spirit of the command, not the actions that matters; if Simon says &quo...
The other activities of TPR <ul><li>A classic 1980s electronic toy named  Simon  by computer games inventor Ralph H. Baer....
The other activities of TPR <ul><li>There is also a classic Simon Says-like mode called Tricky Mickey in the 1989 Milton B...
Application of TPR- TPRS <ul><li>Teaching Proficiency through Reading and  Storytelling  (TPRS) </li></ul><ul><li>Promoter...
Application of TPR- TPRS <ul><li>The method built on Stephen Krashen's theories of language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li...
The National Approach <ul><li>Theory of language   : </li></ul><ul><li>The essence of language is the  meaning </li></ul><...
The National Approach <ul><li>Objective   : </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to give beginners and intermediate learner basic  c...
The National Approach <ul><li>Activity type   : </li></ul><ul><li>Activities allowing comprehensible input, about thing of...
The National Approach <ul><li>Teacher roles   : </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher is the primary source of comprehensible inpu...
The National Approach <ul><li>Problem solving activity : </li></ul><ul><li>Task and series---“car-wash” </li></ul><ul><li>...
The National Approach <ul><li>Drawbacks : </li></ul><ul><li>Vague interface between learning and acquisition </li></ul><ul...
The Natural Approach & The CLT  THE NATURAL APPROACH THE COMMUNICATIVE TEACHHINR(CLT) Theory of language  <ul><li>The esse...
The Natural Approach & The CLT  THE NATURAL APPROACH THE COMMUNICATIVE TEACHHINR(CLT) Activity type <ul><li>Activities all...
<ul><li>Thanks for your attention! </li></ul>
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(Second) Language Acquisition語言習得\The questions of Ch3-group discussion

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(Second) Language Acquisition語言習得\The questions of Ch3-group discussion

  1. 1. (Second) Language Acquisition Student’s Name/ ID : Yuri 9722616 Betty 9722609 Vivian 9722607 Instructor : Philip Lin Date : Oct. 27th, 2008
  2. 2. Question 4 of Chapter 3 - Please define the “Total Physical Response” (TPR) method and “The Natural Approach”. <ul><li>TPR </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Premise </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom of usage </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>The Natural Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Objective & Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Activity type & Material </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of T & Ss </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving activities </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Compare with CLT </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background of TPR <ul><li>Promoter : Dr. James J. Asher, a professor emeritus of psychology at San José State University, to aid learning second languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject : TPR is primarily intended for ESL/EAL teacher, although the method is used in teaching other languages as well. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background of TPR <ul><li>The human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning a second Language is internalized through a process of code breaking . </li></ul><ul><li>The process allows for a long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Premise of TPR <ul><li>The way that children learn language : </li></ul>Communication between parents and their children combines both verbal and physical aspects. The child responds physically to the speech of their parent in positively reinforced . For many months the child absorbs the language without being able to speak .
  6. 6. Classroom usage of TPR <ul><li>In the classroom, the teacher and students take on roles similar to that of the parent and child respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Students must respond physically to the words of the teacher. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Classroom usage of TPR <ul><li>More complex grammar and detailed scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>To practice and teach various things </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom language and other vocabulary connected with actions </li></ul><ul><li>Imperatives and various tenses </li></ul><ul><li>Story-telling </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy with dyslexia or related learning disabilities </li></ul>
  8. 8. Advantages of TPR <ul><li>Students enjoy getting up out of chairs and moving around </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers do not require a lot of preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude-free , working well with a mixed ability class </li></ul><ul><li>Good for kinesthetic learners </li></ul><ul><li>Class size need not be a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Work effectively for children and adults </li></ul>
  9. 9. Problems of TPR <ul><li>Most useful for beginners only </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of the opportunity to express own thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>To overuse TPR easily– “Any novelty, if carried on too long, will trigger adaptation.” </li></ul><ul><li>A challenge for shy students </li></ul><ul><li>An unnaturally heavy emphasis on the use can lead to a learner appearing rude </li></ul>
  10. 10. The activity of TPR- Simon says <ul><li>Three or more players (most often children ). </li></ul><ul><li>One of the people is &quot;it&quot; – i.e., Simon. </li></ul><ul><li>The others must do what Simon tells them to do when asked with a phrase beginning with &quot;Simon says&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>If Simon says &quot;Simon says jump&quot;, the players must jump (players that do not jump are out). </li></ul><ul><li>If Simon says simply &quot;jump&quot;, without first saying &quot;Simon says&quot;, players do not jump; those that do jump are out. </li></ul><ul><li>The last of Simon's followers to stay in wins </li></ul>
  11. 11. The activity of TPR- Simon says <ul><li>It is the spirit of the command, not the actions that matters; if Simon says &quot;Simon says touch your toes&quot;, players only have to show that they are trying to touch their toes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the ability to distinguish between valid and invalid commands, rather than physical ability, that matters here. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The other activities of TPR <ul><li>A classic 1980s electronic toy named Simon by computer games inventor Ralph H. Baer. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a circular electronic game featuring four colored quadrants. </li></ul><ul><li>The game will flash quadrants in turn and expect you to repeat the sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>If you get the sequence correct, the game will respond with a longer sequence. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The other activities of TPR <ul><li>There is also a classic Simon Says-like mode called Tricky Mickey in the 1989 Milton Bradley game of physical skill Mickey Says , which features Mickey Mouse as its host. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Application of TPR- TPRS <ul><li>Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS) </li></ul><ul><li>Promoter : Blaine Ray, a Spanish language teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Basis : added stories to Asher's methods to help students acquire non-physical language </li></ul>
  15. 15. Application of TPR- TPRS <ul><li>The method built on Stephen Krashen's theories of language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>It became popular in the 1970's and attracted the attention or allegiance of some teachers, but it has not received generalized support from mainstream educators. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The National Approach <ul><li>Theory of language : </li></ul><ul><li>The essence of language is the meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary , not grammar is the heart of language </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of learning : </li></ul><ul><li>There are two ways of L2 language development </li></ul><ul><li>(a) &quot;acquisition”-a natural subconscious process (b) &quot;learning”-a conscious process </li></ul><ul><li>Learning cannot lead to acquisition </li></ul>
  17. 17. The National Approach <ul><li>Objective : </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to give beginners and intermediate learner basic communicative skills (oral/written) and academic learning skills (oral/written) </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus : </li></ul><ul><li>Basic on selection of communicative activities and topics derived from learner needs </li></ul>
  18. 18. The National Approach <ul><li>Activity type : </li></ul><ul><li>Activities allowing comprehensible input, about thing of here-and-now </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on meaning , not form </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of Materials : </li></ul><ul><li>Materials come from realia rather than the textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Primary aim is to promote comprehension and communication </li></ul>
  19. 19. The National Approach <ul><li>Teacher roles : </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher is the primary source of comprehensible input </li></ul><ul><li>Must creative positive low-anxiety climate </li></ul><ul><li>Must choose and orchestrate a rich mixture of classroom activities </li></ul><ul><li>Learner roles : </li></ul><ul><li>Should not try to learn language in the usual sense, but should try to lose themselves in activities involving meaningful communication </li></ul>
  20. 20. The National Approach <ul><li>Problem solving activity : </li></ul><ul><li>Task and series---“car-wash” </li></ul><ul><li>Charts, Graphs, and Maps </li></ul>
  21. 21. The National Approach <ul><li>Drawbacks : </li></ul><ul><li>Vague interface between learning and acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Fossilization problems </li></ul><ul><li>Time of silent period---How long it would be ? </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Natural Approach & The CLT THE NATURAL APPROACH THE COMMUNICATIVE TEACHHINR(CLT) Theory of language <ul><li>The essence of language is the meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary, not grammar is the heart of language </li></ul><ul><li>Language is the system for the expression of meaning ; primary function- interaction and communication. </li></ul>Theory of learning <ul><li>There are two ways of L2 language development “acquisition”-a natural subconscious process, and “learning”-a conscious process. Learning cannot lead to acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Doing activities that involve real communication, carrying out meaningful task, and using language which is meaningful to the learner to promote leaning. </li></ul>Objective <ul><li>Designed to give beginners and intermediate learner basic communicative skills(oral/written):academic learning skills(oral/written) </li></ul><ul><li>Object will reflect the needs of the learner; they will include the functional skills as well as the linguistic objectives. </li></ul>Syllabus <ul><li>Basic on selection of communicative activities and topics derived from learner needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Will include some/all of the following: structures, functions, notions, themes, tasks. Ordering will be guide by learner needs. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Natural Approach & The CLT THE NATURAL APPROACH THE COMMUNICATIVE TEACHHINR(CLT) Activity type <ul><li>Activities allowing comprehensible input, about thing of here-and-now. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on meaning , not form </li></ul><ul><li>Engage learners in communication; involve process such as information sharing, negotiation of meaning and interaction. </li></ul>Learner roles <ul><li>Should not try to learn language in the usual sense, but should try to lose themselves in activities involving meaningful communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Learner as be the negotiator, interact or, giving as well as taking. </li></ul>Teacher roles <ul><li>The teacher is the primary source of comprehensible input. </li></ul><ul><li>Must creative positive low-anxiety climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Must choose and orchestrate a rich mixture of classroom activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator of the communication process, participants’ task, and texts,: needs analyst, counselor, process manger. </li></ul>Roles of Materials <ul><li>Materials come from realia rather than the textbook. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary aim is to promote comprehension and communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary role in promoting communicative language use; task-based materials; authentic. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Thanks for your attention! </li></ul>

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