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(Second) Language Acquisition語言習得\The questions of Ch3-group discussion
 

(Second) Language Acquisition語言習得\The questions of Ch3-group discussion

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(Second) Language Acquisition語言習得\The questions of Ch3-group discussion

(Second) Language Acquisition語言習得\The questions of Ch3-group discussion

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    (Second) Language Acquisition語言習得\The questions of Ch3-group discussion (Second) Language Acquisition語言習得\The questions of Ch3-group discussion Presentation Transcript

    • (Second) Language Acquisition Student’s Name/ ID : Yuri 9722616 Betty 9722609 Vivian 9722607 Instructor : Philip Lin Date : Oct. 27th, 2008
    • Question 4 of Chapter 3 - Please define the “Total Physical Response” (TPR) method and “The Natural Approach”.
      • TPR
      • Background
      • Premise
      • Classroom of usage
      • Advantages
      • Problems
      • Applications
      • Activities
      • The Natural Approach
      • Theory
      • Objective & Syllabus
      • Activity type & Material
      • Roles of T & Ss
      • Problem solving activities
      • Drawbacks
      • Compare with CLT
    • Background of TPR
      • Promoter : Dr. James J. Asher, a professor emeritus of psychology at San José State University, to aid learning second languages.
      • Subject : TPR is primarily intended for ESL/EAL teacher, although the method is used in teaching other languages as well.
    • Background of TPR
      • The human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language.
      • Learning a second Language is internalized through a process of code breaking .
      • The process allows for a long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production.
    • Premise of TPR
      • The way that children learn language :
      Communication between parents and their children combines both verbal and physical aspects. The child responds physically to the speech of their parent in positively reinforced . For many months the child absorbs the language without being able to speak .
    • Classroom usage of TPR
      • In the classroom, the teacher and students take on roles similar to that of the parent and child respectively.
      • Students must respond physically to the words of the teacher.
    • Classroom usage of TPR
      • More complex grammar and detailed scenarios
      • To practice and teach various things
      • Classroom language and other vocabulary connected with actions
      • Imperatives and various tenses
      • Story-telling
      • Strategy with dyslexia or related learning disabilities
    • Advantages of TPR
      • Students enjoy getting up out of chairs and moving around
      • Teachers do not require a lot of preparation
      • Aptitude-free , working well with a mixed ability class
      • Good for kinesthetic learners
      • Class size need not be a problem
      • Work effectively for children and adults
    • Problems of TPR
      • Most useful for beginners only
      • Lack of the opportunity to express own thoughts
      • To overuse TPR easily– “Any novelty, if carried on too long, will trigger adaptation.”
      • A challenge for shy students
      • An unnaturally heavy emphasis on the use can lead to a learner appearing rude
    • The activity of TPR- Simon says
      • Three or more players (most often children ).
      • One of the people is "it" – i.e., Simon.
      • The others must do what Simon tells them to do when asked with a phrase beginning with "Simon says".
      • If Simon says "Simon says jump", the players must jump (players that do not jump are out).
      • If Simon says simply "jump", without first saying "Simon says", players do not jump; those that do jump are out.
      • The last of Simon's followers to stay in wins
    • The activity of TPR- Simon says
      • It is the spirit of the command, not the actions that matters; if Simon says "Simon says touch your toes", players only have to show that they are trying to touch their toes.
      • It is the ability to distinguish between valid and invalid commands, rather than physical ability, that matters here.
    • The other activities of TPR
      • A classic 1980s electronic toy named Simon by computer games inventor Ralph H. Baer.
      • It is a circular electronic game featuring four colored quadrants.
      • The game will flash quadrants in turn and expect you to repeat the sequence.
      • If you get the sequence correct, the game will respond with a longer sequence.
    • The other activities of TPR
      • There is also a classic Simon Says-like mode called Tricky Mickey in the 1989 Milton Bradley game of physical skill Mickey Says , which features Mickey Mouse as its host.
    • Application of TPR- TPRS
      • Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS)
      • Promoter : Blaine Ray, a Spanish language teacher
      • Basis : added stories to Asher's methods to help students acquire non-physical language
    • Application of TPR- TPRS
      • The method built on Stephen Krashen's theories of language acquisition.
      • It became popular in the 1970's and attracted the attention or allegiance of some teachers, but it has not received generalized support from mainstream educators.
    • The National Approach
      • Theory of language :
      • The essence of language is the meaning
      • Vocabulary , not grammar is the heart of language
      • Theory of learning :
      • There are two ways of L2 language development
      • (a) "acquisition”-a natural subconscious process (b) "learning”-a conscious process
      • Learning cannot lead to acquisition
    • The National Approach
      • Objective :
      • Designed to give beginners and intermediate learner basic communicative skills (oral/written) and academic learning skills (oral/written)
      • Syllabus :
      • Basic on selection of communicative activities and topics derived from learner needs
    • The National Approach
      • Activity type :
      • Activities allowing comprehensible input, about thing of here-and-now
      • Focus on meaning , not form
      • Roles of Materials :
      • Materials come from realia rather than the textbook
      • Primary aim is to promote comprehension and communication
    • The National Approach
      • Teacher roles :
      • The teacher is the primary source of comprehensible input
      • Must creative positive low-anxiety climate
      • Must choose and orchestrate a rich mixture of classroom activities
      • Learner roles :
      • Should not try to learn language in the usual sense, but should try to lose themselves in activities involving meaningful communication
    • The National Approach
      • Problem solving activity :
      • Task and series---“car-wash”
      • Charts, Graphs, and Maps
    • The National Approach
      • Drawbacks :
      • Vague interface between learning and acquisition
      • Fossilization problems
      • Time of silent period---How long it would be ?
    • The Natural Approach & The CLT THE NATURAL APPROACH THE COMMUNICATIVE TEACHHINR(CLT) Theory of language
      • The essence of language is the meaning.
      • Vocabulary, not grammar is the heart of language
      • Language is the system for the expression of meaning ; primary function- interaction and communication.
      Theory of learning
      • There are two ways of L2 language development “acquisition”-a natural subconscious process, and “learning”-a conscious process. Learning cannot lead to acquisition.
      • Doing activities that involve real communication, carrying out meaningful task, and using language which is meaningful to the learner to promote leaning.
      Objective
      • Designed to give beginners and intermediate learner basic communicative skills(oral/written):academic learning skills(oral/written)
      • Object will reflect the needs of the learner; they will include the functional skills as well as the linguistic objectives.
      Syllabus
      • Basic on selection of communicative activities and topics derived from learner needs.
      • Will include some/all of the following: structures, functions, notions, themes, tasks. Ordering will be guide by learner needs.
    • The Natural Approach & The CLT THE NATURAL APPROACH THE COMMUNICATIVE TEACHHINR(CLT) Activity type
      • Activities allowing comprehensible input, about thing of here-and-now.
      • Focus on meaning , not form
      • Engage learners in communication; involve process such as information sharing, negotiation of meaning and interaction.
      Learner roles
      • Should not try to learn language in the usual sense, but should try to lose themselves in activities involving meaningful communication.
      • Learner as be the negotiator, interact or, giving as well as taking.
      Teacher roles
      • The teacher is the primary source of comprehensible input.
      • Must creative positive low-anxiety climate.
      • Must choose and orchestrate a rich mixture of classroom activities.
      • Facilitator of the communication process, participants’ task, and texts,: needs analyst, counselor, process manger.
      Roles of Materials
      • Materials come from realia rather than the textbook.
      • Primary aim is to promote comprehension and communication.
      • Primary role in promoting communicative language use; task-based materials; authentic.
      • Thanks for your attention!