(Second) Language Acquisition Student’s Name/ ID  : Vivian 9722609   Betty  9722609   Yuri  9722616 Instructor : Philip Li...
SLA –Question of Chapter 1 <ul><li>Question 3 : </li></ul><ul><li>What are primary differences between a behaviorist’s, a ...
Content <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitivistism </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivistism </li></ul><ul><li>Compara...
Behaviorism <ul><li>Behaviorism is a study of  the behavior of organisms (including humans) by focusing centrally on publi...
Behaviorism <ul><li>B.F. Skinner’s classic, Verbal behavior (1957)  : </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner’s theory of verbal behavio...
Behaviorism <ul><li>The Audiolingual Method : </li></ul><ul><li>It is known as the Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP...
Behaviorism <ul><li>The aids of the ALM   : </li></ul><ul><li>There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids. ...
Cognitivistism <ul><li>Cognitive psychologies asserted that meaning, understanding , and knowing were significant data for...
Cognitivistism <ul><li>Chomsky  </li></ul><ul><li>human language cannot be scrutinized simply in term of observable stimul...
Cognitivistism <ul><li>Interest in the ultimate question  why </li></ul><ul><li>1.  What  underlying  factors-  innate,  <...
Constructivistism  <ul><li>Constructivism- A Multidisciplinary Approach : </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivists think that all...
Constructivistism  <ul><li>Constructivism- A Multidisciplinary Approach : </li></ul><ul><li>註 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ever...
Constructivistism  <ul><li>Constructivism- A Multidisciplinary Approach : </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers studying first and...
Constructivistism  <ul><li>Constructivism: Cognitive constructivism, social constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>1.Nowadays, J...
Constructivistism  <ul><li>Constructivism: Cognitive constructivism, social constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>2.Two branche...
Constructivistism  <ul><li>Constructivism: Cognitive constructivism, social constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>2.Two branche...
Comparative 1970’s-meaningful communication Silent Way Community Language Krashen- Natural Approach   <ul><li>Jean Piaget ...
Discussion  <ul><li>★ First language acquisition ( FLA ) </li></ul><ul><li>* Behaviorist of FLA=  Behaviorism of SLA </li>...
Discussion  <ul><li>★ First language acquisition ( FLA ) </li></ul><ul><li>* Behaviorist of FLA=  Behaviorism of SLA </li>...
Discussion  <ul><li>Gouin- Series Method </li></ul><ul><li>-1.use target language </li></ul><ul><li>2.No translation </li>...
Discussion  Georgi Lozanov’s(1979) -Suggestopedia <ul><li>Chomsky  –human language cannot be scrutinized simply in term of...
Discussion  1970’s-meaningful communication Silent Way Community Language Krashen- Natural Approach   1.The goal is to bui...
<ul><li>Thank you for listening ! </li></ul>
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(Second) Language Acquisition語言習得\The questions of Ch1-group discussion

  1. 1. (Second) Language Acquisition Student’s Name/ ID : Vivian 9722609 Betty 9722609 Yuri 9722616 Instructor : Philip Lin Date : Sep. 29th, 2008
  2. 2. SLA –Question of Chapter 1 <ul><li>Question 3 : </li></ul><ul><li>What are primary differences between a behaviorist’s, a cognitivist’s and a Constructivist’s understanding of language and language learning? Name some scholars and teaching techniques associated with each approach. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Content <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitivistism </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivistism </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  4. 4. Behaviorism <ul><li>Behaviorism is a study of the behavior of organisms (including humans) by focusing centrally on publicly observable responses that can be objectively and scientifically perceived, recorded, and measured . </li></ul><ul><li>Typical behavioral models were classical and operant conditioning , rote verbal learning , instrumental learning , discrimination learning , and other empirical approaches to studying human behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>A behaviorist might consider effective language behavior to be the production of correct responses to stimuli . If a particular response is reinforced, it then becomes habitual, or conditioned. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Behaviorism <ul><li>B.F. Skinner’s classic, Verbal behavior (1957) : </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner’s theory of verbal behavior was an extension of his general theory of learning by operant conditioning . Operant conditioning refers to conditioning in which the human being gives a response, or operant without necessarily observable stimuli; that operant is maintained (learned) by reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Skinner, verbal behavior, like other behavior, is controlled by its consequences . When consequences are rewarding, behavior is maintained and is increased in strength and perhaps frequency. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Behaviorism <ul><li>The Audiolingual Method : </li></ul><ul><li>It is known as the Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) or the “Army Method”. Characteristic of these coursed was a great deal of oral activity-pronunciation and pattern drills and conversation practice-with virtually none of the grammar and translation found in traditional classes. ( H. Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principle , P.23 ) </li></ul><ul><li>The characteristics of the ALM : </li></ul><ul><li>New material is presented in dialogue form. </li></ul><ul><li>There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and overlearning. </li></ul><ul><li>Structures patterns are taught using repeating skills . </li></ul><ul><li>There is little or no grammatical explanation . </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context. </li></ul><ul><li>Great importance is attached to pronunciation . </li></ul><ul><li>Very little use of the mother tongue. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Behaviorism <ul><li>The aids of the ALM : </li></ul><ul><li>There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of the ALM : </li></ul><ul><li>There is a great effort to get students to produce error-free utterances. </li></ul><ul><li>The drawback of the ALM : </li></ul><ul><li>1.Language was not really acquired through a process of habit </li></ul><ul><li>formation and overlearning. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Errors were not necessarily to be avoided at all costs. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Structural linguistics did not tell us everything about </li></ul><ul><li>language that we needed to know. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cognitivistism <ul><li>Cognitive psychologies asserted that meaning, understanding , and knowing were significant data for psychological study and tried to discover psychological principles of organization and function. </li></ul><ul><li>Discover underlying motivations and deeper structures of human behavior by using a rational approach. </li></ul><ul><li>They freed themselves from the strictly empirical study typical of behaviorists and employed the tool to derive explanations for human behavior. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cognitivistism <ul><li>Chomsky </li></ul><ul><li>human language cannot be scrutinized simply in term of observable stimuli and response or the volumes of raw data gathered by field linguists. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferdinad de Saussure- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Parole (What skinner “observes&quot; and what Chomsky called performance) </li></ul><ul><li>b. language (akin to the concept of competence, or our unobservable language ability) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cognitivistism <ul><li>Interest in the ultimate question why </li></ul><ul><li>1. What underlying factors- innate, </li></ul><ul><li>psychological social, or environmental </li></ul><ul><li>circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>2. Why the person did </li></ul><ul><li>3. What the person’s motivation and </li></ul><ul><li>psychological state </li></ul><ul><li>4. What might have been the cause of the </li></ul><ul><li>behavior </li></ul>
  11. 11. Constructivistism <ul><li>Constructivism- A Multidisciplinary Approach : </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivists think that all human beings construct their own version of reality, and therefore multiple contrasting ways of knowing and describing are equally legitimate. Moreover, they think this theory is based on the idea that the dialectic (註 1 ) or interactionist (註 2 ) process of development and learning through the child's active construction should be facilitated and promoted by adults. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, named often associated with constructivism, Piaget stressed the importance of individual cognitive development as a relatively solitary act. Biological timetables and stages of development were basic; social-interaction was claimed only to trigger development at the right moment in time. On the other hand, Vygotsky (1978), described as a “social” constructivist by some, insisted that social interaction was foundational in cognitive development and rejected the notion of predetermined stages. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Constructivistism <ul><li>Constructivism- A Multidisciplinary Approach : </li></ul><ul><li>註 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything is transient and finite, existing in the medium of time (this idea is not accepted by all dialecticians). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything is made out of opposing forces/opposing sides (contradictions). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual changes lead to turning points, where one force overcomes the other (quantitative change leads to qualitative change). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change moves in spirals not circles. (Sometimes referred to as &quot;negation of the negation&quot;) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>註 2 </li></ul><ul><li>promotes the idea that nothing in society is determined, and </li></ul><ul><li>that people can break free of a label as individuals ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Constructivistism <ul><li>Constructivism- A Multidisciplinary Approach : </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers studying first and second language acquisition. They figured out that in many ways constructivist perspectives arte a natural successor to cognitive studies of universal grammar, information processing, memory, artificial intelligence, and interlanguage systematicition. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Constructivistism <ul><li>Constructivism: Cognitive constructivism, social constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>1.Nowadays, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky’s theories are not by any means new to the scene of language studies. Yet, in a variety of post-structuralist theoretical positions, constructivism emerged as a prevailing paradigm only in the last part of the twentieth century, and is now almost orthodoxy. A refreshing characteristic of constructivism is its integration of linguistic, psychological, and sociological paradigms, in contrast to the professional chasms that often divided those disciplines in the previous century. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Constructivistism <ul><li>Constructivism: Cognitive constructivism, social constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>2.Two branches of constructivism: </li></ul><ul><li>cognitive version: emphasis is placed on the importance of learners constructing their own representation of reality. “Learners must individually discover and transform complex information if they are to make it their own, [suggesting] a more active role for students in their own learning than is typical in many classrooms”(Slavin, 2003, pp.257-258), this theory seemed to meet Piaget’s thought, but have taken that long to become widely accepted views. For Piaget, “learning is a developmental process that involves change, self-generation, and construction, each building on prior learning experiences”(Kaufman, 2004, p.304). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Constructivistism <ul><li>Constructivism: Cognitive constructivism, social constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>2.Two branches of constructivism: </li></ul><ul><li>Social version: emphasis that the importance of social interaction and cooperative learning on constructing both cognitive and emotional images of reality. Spivey(1997, p24)noted that constructivist research tends to focus on “individuals engaged in social practices,…on a collaborative group, [or] on a global community.” The champion of social constructivism is Vygotsky (1978), who advocated the view that “children’s thinking and meaning-making is socially constructed and emerges out of their social interactions with their environment” (Kaufman, 2004, p.304). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Comparative 1970’s-meaningful communication Silent Way Community Language Krashen- Natural Approach <ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Lev Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural variables </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative group learning </li></ul><ul><li>Interlangrage variability </li></ul><ul><li>Interactionist hypotheses </li></ul>Constructivism Georgi Lozanov’s(1979) -Suggestopedia <ul><li>Noam Chomsky </li></ul><ul><li>David Ausubel </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis/insight </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation-why </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Mentalism </li></ul><ul><li>Generative linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition/innateness </li></ul><ul><li>Interlanguage systematicity </li></ul><ul><li>Universal grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Deep structure </li></ul>Rationalism & cognitive psychology <ul><li>Audiolingual Method </li></ul><ul><li>Series Method </li></ul><ul><li>(Gouin) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Method </li></ul><ul><li>(1930s-1940s) </li></ul><ul><li>B.F Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Osgood </li></ul><ul><li>Outside performance </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition/habitual </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Observable performance </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>Empiricism/ experience </li></ul><ul><li>Surface structure </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioning/reinforcement </li></ul>Structuralism & behaviorism Approaches Scholars Typical Themes School of Thought
  18. 18. Discussion <ul><li>★ First language acquisition ( FLA ) </li></ul><ul><li>* Behaviorist of FLA= Behaviorism of SLA </li></ul><ul><li>* Nativist of FLA= Cognitive of SLA </li></ul><ul><li>Noam Chomsky </li></ul><ul><li>Eric Lenneberg </li></ul><ul><li>McNeill </li></ul><ul><li>Innate predispositions (LAD/UG) </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic/rule-governed acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Creative construction </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pivot” grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel distributed processing </li></ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Biologically </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Rule-governed </li></ul>Nativist <ul><li>B.F Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>MacCorquodale </li></ul><ul><li>Tabula rasa </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli : linguistic responses </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Observable </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Habitual </li></ul>Behaviorist Scholar Typical Themes School of Thought
  19. 19. Discussion <ul><li>★ First language acquisition ( FLA ) </li></ul><ul><li>* Behaviorist of FLA= Behaviorism of SLA </li></ul><ul><li>* Nativist of FLA= Cognitive of SLA </li></ul>* Language was one manifestation of the cognitive and affective ability to deal with the world and others. * The generative rules were proposed under the nativistic framework were abstract, formal, explicit and quite logical with form of language deeper functional levels of meaning. <ul><li>Constructivist </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition and language </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of language </li></ul><ul><li>discourse </li></ul>Functional (no scholar) Traits Typical Themes School of Thought
  20. 20. Discussion <ul><li>Gouin- Series Method </li></ul><ul><li>-1.use target language </li></ul><ul><li>2.No translation </li></ul><ul><li>3.No analysis of grammar rules </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Method </li></ul><ul><li>(1930s-1940s) </li></ul><ul><li>-oral communication skills were build up in a carefully trade profession organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive class. </li></ul><ul><li>Audiolingual Method </li></ul><ul><li>ALM was firmly grounded in linguistic and psychological theory. </li></ul><ul><li>conditioning and habit-formation--drill , pattern practices </li></ul>* Focused on publicly observable response-those that can be objectively perceived, recorded, and measured. * The unrealizable of observation of states of consciousness, thinking , concept formation, or the acquisition of knowledge made such topics impossible to exam in a behavioral framework. * The scientific method was rigorously and therefore such concept as consciousness and intuition were regarded as mentalistic, illegitimate domain of inquiry. * Bases on certain learning modals (a) operate condition –Skinner (b) instructional learning (c) discrimination learning (d) rote verbal learning More interest in th e what question 1.what question about human behavior-objective measurement of behavior in controlled circumstance 2.what happen 3.the physical description Structural Linguistics and Behavioral Psychology Approach Difference Schools of thought
  21. 21. Discussion Georgi Lozanov’s(1979) -Suggestopedia <ul><li>Chomsky –human language cannot be scrutinized simply in term of observable stimuli and response or the volumes of raw data gathered by field linguists. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferdinad de Saussure - </li></ul><ul><li>Parole (What skinner “observes&quot; and what Chomsky called performance) </li></ul><ul><li>language (akin to the concept of competence, or our unobservable language ability) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive psychologies asserted that meaning, understanding , and knowing were significant data for psychological study and tried to discover psychological principles of organization and function. </li></ul><ul><li>Discover underlying motivations and deeper structures of human behavior by using a rational approach. </li></ul><ul><li>They freed themselves from the strictly empirical study typical of behaviorists and employed the tool to derive explanations for human behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in the ultimate question why </li></ul><ul><li>1.what underlying factors- innate, psychological social, or environmental circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Why the person did </li></ul><ul><li>3.What the person’s motivation and psychological state </li></ul><ul><li>4.What might have been the cause of the behavior </li></ul>Generative Linguistics and Cognitive Psychology Approach Difference Schools of thought
  22. 22. Discussion 1970’s-meaningful communication Silent Way Community Language Krashen- Natural Approach 1.The goal is to build the basic communication skills necessary for everyday language situations. 2.the initial task of teachers was to provide comprehensible input ,that is ,spoken language that is understandable to the learner or just a little beyond the learner’s level <ul><li>The characteristic is its integration of linguistic psychological and sociological paradigms </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis both the learner’s role in construction meaning out of available linguistic input and the importance of social interaction in creating a new linguistic system. </li></ul><ul><li>Two branches of constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive & social </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive- Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>“ Learners must individually discover </li></ul><ul><li>and transform complex information if they are make by their own” </li></ul><ul><li>“ learning is a developmental process that involves change ,self-generation, and construction ,each building on prior learning experiences” </li></ul><ul><li>Social constructivism- Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>“ individuals engaged in social practices....on a collaborative group, or on a global community” </li></ul><ul><li>emphasizes the importance of social interaction and cooperative learning in constructing both cognitive and emotional image of reality. </li></ul><ul><li>e. ZPD </li></ul><ul><li>(Zone of proximal development) </li></ul><ul><li>--the distance between learner’s existing developmental state and their </li></ul><ul><li>Potential development </li></ul>Constructive structure Approach Difference Schools of thought
  23. 23. <ul><li>Thank you for listening ! </li></ul>

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