Final defense


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  • Research questions into one slide Similar and different findings
  • For instance, the Swiss traditionally prefer a homogeneous education, although their system is rather decentralized
  • work, interaction, and general
  • qualitative approaches emphasize description, understanding, and interpretation of the stressful events by interviewing subjects or using open-ended questionnaires (Parkes, 1985)
  • because those who are ultimately called on to implement the new best practices were part of the process of validating those evidence-based practices
  • There are two ways in social validity, social comparison and subjective judgment.
  • A pilot study was administrated to a native English-speaking teacher and 37 students of Department of English at National Taichung Institute of Technology in Taichung, Taiwan. One class of the fourth graders was taught English related to English conversation and oral skills for fifty minutes a class, two classes a week, and totally eighteen weeks for a semester. In order to understand the culture shock of the native English teacher in Taiwan, both of face-to-face interview and post-questionnaire were used in this pilot study.
  • the communication problems exist in not only teaching students but also working with local English teachers and administrators at schools.
  • For confidentiality, all of the participants remained anonymous throughout the whole data analysis and discussion.
  • Due to increase this study’s internal validity, member checking used and an audit trail consisting of interview recording files and transcriptions will be used to ensure the reliability of this research.
  • Numbers!
  • Group interview stimulates the respondents and support them in remembering events, and that they can lead beyond the answers of the single interviewee
  • In order to increase this study’s internal validity,
  • the participants thought most of the problems of cross-cultural adjustment of the NESTs were produced by cultural distances.
  • In this model, cross-cultural incidents that may be caused by the culture, language, and communication problems are filtered by three main working factors: the NSETs’ own intercultural communication competence, the culture, and the organizations of schools in different nations. Also, the three teaching factors, namely the NSETs’ teaching styles, Taiwanese students’ learning styles, and learner autonomy, may play another key role in cross-cultural incidents. Some stimuli may cause cultural problems and intensify culture shock for the NSETs. During the adjustment period, effective training in cross-cultural relations and local language courses, and collecting information on the perspectives of culturally relevant others, can provide clear guidance in the process .
  • Final defense

    1. 1. Presenter : Yi-Chun Tsai Advisor : Dr. Chin-Ying Lin May 18, 2010
    2. 2. Introduction I Literature Review II Methodology III Results IV Conclusions V
    3. 3. Background of the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Purposes of the Study 3 Research Questions 4
    4. 4. <ul><li>Background of the Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In academia, the emergence of globalization as a dominant discourse has generated heated debates on issues, such as whether the world is becoming more homogenous or heterogeneous. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ke, 2008) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Background of the Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While most of the published literature on expatriation has focused on the training and selection , little literature is known about the process that expatriates find most useful in adjusting to living/working in a foreign country . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Palthe, 2004) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Statement of the Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a limited amount of research that has focused on native speaking-English teachers (NSETs) in Taiwan, especially related to their cross-cultural adjustment on educational organization and working. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Purposes of the Study </li></ul>to explore the notion of the factor---the cross-cultural adjustment of the NSETs at schools in Taiwan <ul><ul><li>to investigate the view with respect to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>administrators/students for the NSETs in Taiwan </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Research Question 1 </li></ul><ul><li>How do the native speaking-English teachers adjust themselves to the culture shock at schools in Taiwan? </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the different working/teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expectations between the native </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>speaking-English teachers and the administrators/students? </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Research Question 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of training effectiveness for native speaking-English teachers may improve their adjustment in Taiwan? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Academic Culture Culture in Organizations Culture in Educational Administration Culture Shock World Culture Cross-cultural Adjustment
    12. 12. <ul><li>World Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by human as a member of society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Atkinson, 2004 ) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Academic Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In school settings, culture influences the shared beliefs and expectations of cultural groups for the curricular content to be taught, the manner in which instruction is provided, and who should provide it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Jackson, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Culture in Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Schein, 2004) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Culture in Educational Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Some characteristics of school culture that we tend to regard as fixed are attributable to differences in national culture and expectations . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Krisei, 2004) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Culture Shock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a generic expression for a collection of anecdotal experiences which occur to the traveler to a new culture , principally stress , deprivation and confusion . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Taylor, 2008) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Cross-cultural Adjustment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It follows logically that the various antecedents to adjustment may have different degrees of impact on each facet of adjustment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Palthe, 2004) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Research Design 1 Pilot Study 2 Participants 3 Instruments 4 Data Analysis 5
    19. 19. <ul><li>Case Study Method </li></ul><ul><li>It refers to a method that complements survey and experimental techniques, one which provides detailed information about the research. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Gomm et al., 2000) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Qualitative approaches </li></ul><ul><li>With qualitative approaches, respondents have more freedom to express their feelings, so cultural differences and cross-cultural adjustment could be better captured. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Liu & Spector, 2005) </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Social Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Socially valid findings may be achieved through the use of participatory action research, which, in its theoretical orientation, helps bring the results of research closer to adoption . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Forster & Mash, 1999) </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Subjective Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>As one of social validity method, it is a popular method for quantifying subjective judgment utilizes the dominant eigenvector of a matrix of paired comparisons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Schlosser, 2003) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Participants </li></ul>Members of Department of English at NTIT 1 NSET Interview 37 Students Questionnaires 3 Interviews
    24. 24. <ul><li>Results of Pilot Study </li></ul>The native speaking-English teacher had different beliefs and expectations on teaching from Taiwanese students. <ul><ul><li>The communication problems also exist in working with local English teachers and administrators at schools. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>3 individual interviews </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 hours for each </li></ul><ul><li>17 questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Response rate: 82.4% </li></ul><ul><li>A group interview with 6 volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>2 hours </li></ul>The Department of Applied English at a university in Central Taiwan
    26. 26. <ul><li>Native speaking-English Teachers </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Local Administrators </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Taiwanese Students </li></ul>
    29. 29. NESTs <ul><li>In-Depth Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face interview </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 hours and recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Member checking </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Native speaking-English teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Documentary Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Describing </li></ul><ul><li>Classifying </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Administrators </li></ul>Open-ended Questionnaires Educational organization and administration in schools Hiring the native English-speaking teachers in schools Administration assistants AE AH Teaching assistants TE TH Full-time teachers FE FH Part-time teachers PE PH Administrators
    31. 31. Students <ul><li>Group Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face interview </li></ul><ul><li>Two hours and recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Member checking </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Documentary Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Describing </li></ul><ul><li>Classifying </li></ul><ul><li>Translating </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>The investigator’s position including the basis for selecting informants , and an audit trail consisting of interview tapes and transcriptions , will be used to ensure the reliability of this research. </li></ul><ul><li>(Flick, 2006) </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Member checking will be used and the in-depth interview and the open-ended questionnaires of this study will be applied the between-method of methodological triangulation . </li></ul><ul><li>(Denzin, 1986; Flick, 2005) </li></ul>
    34. 34. NSETs Interview s Administrators Questionnaires Students Interview s Data Analysis
    35. 35. Research Q1 Culture Shock NSETs Interviews Part I + II Administrators Questionnaires Part II + III
    36. 36. Research Q2+Q3 Expectations and Trainings NSETs Interviews Part I + II Administrators Questionnaires Part IV + V Students Interview Part IV + V
    37. 37. <ul><li>Research Question 1 </li></ul><ul><li>How do the native speaking-English teachers adjust themselves to the culture shock at schools in Taiwan? </li></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>Research Question 1 </li></ul>NSETs They adjusted themselves to the culture shock with the intercultural friendship, new hobbies, and computer-mediated communication .
    39. 39. <ul><li>Intercultural Friendship </li></ul>Andy Max I have couple of Taiwanese friends . You know, if it’s emergency, I ask them for translation or go with me somewhere. I have a Taiwanese wife , and she helps me with a lot of things. But::: ya, I still have some (Taiwanese) friends they can help certainly.
    40. 40. <ul><li>New Hobbies </li></ul>Andy Roy Taichung is clean and the weather is better. Most of my partners like to do things like travel during our free time. I do a lot of reading, I keep these activities since I lived in America... Since I came to Taiwan, I’ve been learning Chinese .
    41. 41. <ul><li>Computer-mediated Communication </li></ul>Andy Roy I call my parents 24 hours a day on the Net if I want to, Also, I can connect with my friend around the world by e-mail . I think the best way for homesick is using “ Skype ”. I video-chat with my parents, brothers at least twice a week.
    42. 42. <ul><li>Research Question 1 </li></ul>NSETs The way to deal with the communication problems with department and school was ignoring them or asking for the translators .
    43. 43. <ul><li>Research Question 1 </li></ul>Max Roy For the most part, yeah, I think about to get ignore about Chinese ... For the most part I guess we need to know things they’ve never been talked . Right now, I pass the e-mail to my wife who would do the translation for me.
    44. 44. <ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the different working/teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expectations between the native </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking- English teachers and the administrators/students? </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul>NESTs Administrators The different working expectations were focused on the school polices, communication problems, and language and cultural obstacles.
    46. 46. <ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul>Andy Roy I think school listen to students more than listen to teachers. If students complain the teacher in America, that maybe the teacher was too serious or too boring. When we talk to school what we need done, they do that past a long period. I wonder they may not really understand what we need.
    47. 47. <ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul>
    48. 48. <ul><li>Research Question 2 </li></ul>NESTs Students The different teaching expectations were the teaching and learning method/strategy/style, learner autonomy, and cultural and communication problem .
    49. 49. <ul><li>Research Question 3 </li></ul>Max Roy I’ve tried to create funny environment for students... you know... to improve their English. Actually, for my class, it’s very important to do what they want to learn. The bad part is students here are not very independent . They are hard to get some work on their own or take responsibility for their own education
    50. 50. <ul><li>Research Question 3 </li></ul>Pan Kao Taiwanese English teachers have the same background like us, so they know what our needs are. Also, they are more organized in teaching . I think the most difficult part of for me is the culture is different… It causes the different standard of teaching and grading
    51. 51. <ul><li>Research Question 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of training effectiveness for native speaking- English teachers may improve their adjustment in Taiwan? </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><li>Research Question 3 </li></ul>NSETs Students Administrators The culture and language (Chinese) course were the effectiveness trainings for native speaking- English teachers that may improve their adjustment in Taiwan.
    53. 53. Conclusions 1 Limitations 2 Suggestions 3
    54. 54.
    55. 55.
    56. 56. Future studies that aim at finding more assisting for improving cross-cultural adjustment The research design should be modified and avoided ambiguous for the future study It would be beneficial to replicate this study on larger and different populations