Rocky JamesDr. Daniel Heath JusticeWilliam WhiteINSTITUTIONAL IMPACTS OF COLONIZATIONON THE MENTAL HEALTH OFINDIGENOUS GAY, BISEXUAL, AND TRANSGENDER MEN
2011Fear Based Learning The nature of oppression occurred through targeting the sexuality of children who lacked the intellectual and emotional capacity to understand what was happening to them, their brothers and sisters, and their identity as Indigenous people
2011Fear Based Learning It occurred in the relationship between students and Indian Residential School administrators: Priests, Nuns, and Support Staff. Physical, emotional and sexual abuse also occurred between students. Something identified as student on student on abuse.
2011Fear Based Learning 60% Mortality Rate Children who did not die in school because of sexual abuse, malnutrition, or murder were not provided with emotional tools to resolve multiple traumatic experiences
The Indian Residential SchoolsAdjudication Secretariat Levels of Harm and Abuses Sexual Abuse Level 1 • One or more incidents of fondling or kissing. • Nude photographs taken of the Claimant. • The act of an adult employee or other adult lawfully on the premises exposing themselves. • Any touching of a student, including touching with an object, by an adult employee or other adult lawfully on the premises which exceeds recognized parental contact and violates the sexual integrity of the student.
The Indian Residential SchoolsAdjudication Secretariat Levels of Harm and Abuses Sexual Abuse Level 3 • One or more incidents of oral intercourse. • One or more incidents of digital anal/vaginal penetration. • One or more incidents of attempted anal/vaginal penetration (excluding attempted digital penetration). • Repeated, persistent incidents of masturbation.
The Indian Residential SchoolsAdjudication Secretariat Levels of Harm and Abuses Sexual Abuse Level 5 • Repeated, persistent incidents of anal or vaginal intercourse. • Repeated, persistent incidents of anal/vaginal penetration with an object.
Coping1) Fully Self-Actualized – Survivors who resisted oppression and initiated personal, community, and national reconciliation efforts2) Partially Self-Actualized – Survivors who after decades of keeping their abuse secret, have just initiated reconciliation3) Vulnerable Members – Survivors who refuse to reach out for help
The Indian Residential SchoolsAdjudication Secretariat Levels of Harm and Abuses Harm Level 1 Modest Detrimental Impact. Evidenced by: Occasional short-term, one of: anxiety, nightmares, bed-we tting, aggression, panic states, hyper-vigilance, retali atory rage, depression, humiliatio n, loss of self-esteem
The Indian Residential SchoolsAdjudication Secretariat Levels of Harm and Abuses Harm Level 3 Continued detrimental impact. Evidenced by: difficulties with interpersonal relationships, occasional obsessive-compulsive and panic states, some post-traumatic stress disorder, occasional sexual dysfunction, addiction to drugs, alcohol or substances, a long term significantly disabling physical injury resulting from a defined sexual assault, or lasting and significant anxiety, guilt, self-blame, lack of trust in others, nightmares, bed- wetting, aggression, hyper- vigilance, anger, retaliatory rage and possibly self-inflicted injury
The Indian Residential SchoolsAdjudication Secretariat Levels of Harm and Abuses Harm Level 5 Continued harm resulting in serious dysfunction. Evidenced by: psychotic disorganization, loss of ego boundaries, personality disorders, pregnancy resulting from a defined sexual assault or the forced termination of such pregnancy or being required to place for adoption a child resulting therefrom, self- injury, suicidal tendencies, inability to form or maintain personal relationships, chronic post-traumatic state, sexual dysfunction, or eating disorders.
The Indian Residential SchoolsAdjudication Secretariat Levels of Harm and Abuses Child with SL5 and H5 who Grows Up to be a Parent
The Indian Residential Schools Adjudication Secretariat Levels of Harm and AbusesFamily Tree of the Indian Residential School Experience
The Indian Residential Schools Adjudication Secretariat Levels of Harm and AbusesFamily Tree of Lateral Violence
Impact on Mental Health From a First Nations PerspectiveNora Bernard James GloadeGrandmother, IRS Survivor, National Leader 24 Year Old Grandson
Impact on Mental Health From a First Nations PerspectiveRe-victimization State of EmergencyAPTN National News CTV National NewsA 63 year-old elder hung himself the day Early this month leaders with the Cowichan Tribe declared a state of emergency. Thebefore his hearing for residential school alert came after an alarming spike in thecompensation number of suicides, and suicide attempts.Penelakut Elder committed suicide day he Between January and May of this year 52 suicide alerts within the large BC Fristwas to recount residential school Nation resulted in four members takingexperiences for settlement payout their own lives. Even after the cry for help went out to all levels of government seven more suicide attempts have taken place.
Impact on Mental Health From a First Nations PerspectiveFrom an Elder’s Perspective• When the youth don’t know, you know the people around them are not talking, so they are kept in the dark• The education system doesn’t teach what happened, so the youth are dealing with things that they don’t know affect them• Education demystifies what happened. This is the Intergenerational impact. People commit suicide because they feel like they can’t cope with it
Impact on Mental Health From a First Nations PerspectiveContinued Acts of Colonization in Coast Salish Territory: Cesna?em Failure to See Eye to Eye
Lateral Violence as a Barrier to Policy Development Indian Residential School Experience Family Tree of Failure to Change Indian Residential Health Inequities… Experience Continued Acts of Lateral Violence Colonization Increased Risk of…
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