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Polsci lecture #1

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Political Science Mr. Erickson Calata …

Political Science Mr. Erickson Calata
PUP BSE 1-1
State


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  • Learning Objectives: 1.) To clearly define what politics is about as a distinctly human activity and to deepen our appreciation for politics. 2.) To discern the proper locus, purpose, need and use for politics. 3.) To distinguish politics as but one means of achieving particular ends. 4.) To identify the conditions when politics becomes necessary. 5.) To offer an answer to the question: is politics good or bad?
  • Learning Objectives: 1.) To clearly define what politics is about as a distinctly human activity and to deepen our appreciation for politics. 2.) To discern the proper locus, purpose, need and use for politics. 3.) To distinguish politics as but one means of achieving particular ends. 4.) To identify the conditions when politics becomes necessary. 5.) To offer an answer to the question: is politics good or bad?
  • Learning Objectives: 1.) To clearly define what politics is about as a distinctly human activity and to deepen our appreciation for politics. 2.) To discern the proper locus, purpose, need and use for politics. 3.) To distinguish politics as but one means of achieving particular ends. 4.) To identify the conditions when politics becomes necessary. 5.) To offer an answer to the question: is politics good or bad?
  • Learning Objectives: 1.) To clearly define what politics is about as a distinctly human activity and to deepen our appreciation for politics. 2.) To discern the proper locus, purpose, need and use for politics. 3.) To distinguish politics as but one means of achieving particular ends. 4.) To identify the conditions when politics becomes necessary. 5.) To offer an answer to the question: is politics good or bad?
  • Learning Objectives: 1.) To clearly define what politics is about as a distinctly human activity and to deepen our appreciation for politics. 2.) To discern the proper locus, purpose, need and use for politics. 3.) To distinguish politics as but one means of achieving particular ends. 4.) To identify the conditions when politics becomes necessary. 5.) To offer an answer to the question: is politics good or bad?
  • Learning Objectives: 1.) To clearly define what politics is about as a distinctly human activity and to deepen our appreciation for politics. 2.) To discern the proper locus, purpose, need and use for politics. 3.) To distinguish politics as but one means of achieving particular ends. 4.) To identify the conditions when politics becomes necessary. 5.) To offer an answer to the question: is politics good or bad?
  • Learning Objectives: 1.) To clearly define what politics is about as a distinctly human activity and to deepen our appreciation for politics. 2.) To discern the proper locus, purpose, need and use for politics. 3.) To distinguish politics as but one means of achieving particular ends. 4.) To identify the conditions when politics becomes necessary. 5.) To offer an answer to the question: is politics good or bad?
  • Note also that politics is properly located in society. Strictly speaking, politics is confined to the state. However, we can relax our conception of politics somewhat to see it in other areas.
  • “ Diverse groups hold together, firstly, because they have a common interest in sheer survival and, secondly, because they practice politics.”  Crick, p. 24
  • Transcript

    • 1. P o lit ic s a n d G o ve rna nc e W it hC o n s t it u t io n
    • 2. Meaning of The term political science is the systematic study of the state and the government
    • 3. Meaning of Political Science is a social science regarding the practice and theory of politics, the analysis of political systems, and the study of political behavior.
    • 4. Meaning of Political science is the study of politics. -public policy, -national politics, -political theory, -international relations.
    • 5. BriefHistory of The Ancient Greeks • 2,500 years ago, Greek civilization emerged • city states (‘the polis’) the center of political life • the polis was center of the universe • ‘idiot’ - word to describe someone with no interest in politics
    • 6. BriefHistory of Plato (427-347 BC)• Founder of a lyceum (school) for politics and law (first of its kind)• philosopher whose pedagogy was based on a dialogue b/w student & teacher• his political philosophy presented essentially in The Republic• Deductive theory• advocated a system of ‘enlightened dictatorship’ by ‘philosopher-kings’
    • 7. BriefHistory of Plato (427-347 BC) • Philosopher-Kings were selected from childhood • subjected to an incredibly intensive education in ethics, theoretical and practical politics, etc. • groomed to lead from a very early age • “who shall guard the guardians?” a key question
    • 8. E T YM O L O G IC A L D E F IN IT IO N Greek The word politics has its origins in Ancient Greece. All of the cities in Ancient Greece, such as Athens, Sparta, and Corinth, were referred to as city-states and the Greek word for a city-state was polis (πολις)
    • 9. E T YM O L O G IC A L D E F IN IT IO N Latin word “Politicus “ – an adjective used to describe anything “of the state”. 
    • 10. SCOPE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE 2. P o l i t i c a l- e nT rh e oo y o f ti e b d r yd o c t r in e s r e la t in g t ot h e o r ig in , f o r m ,b e h a v io r a n d p u r p o s e so f the s ta te .
    • 11. SCOPE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE2 . P u b lic- m d t h i ndi s ta n d i o n Ae mo s ra tt e c h n iq u e s u s e d ina c tu a l ma na g e me nt o fs t a t e a f f a ir s .
    • 12. SCOPE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE3 . P u b licl iL at wt i o n s u p o n mi ag o ve rnme nta u t h o r it y .
    • 13. FUNCTION AND IMPORTANCE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE“ T h e f u n c t io n o f p o lit ic a l s c ie n c e is t o d is c o v e r t h e p r in c ip le s t h a t s h o u ld b e a d h e r e d t o in p u b lic a f f a ir s t h a t e v e n t u a lly w o u ld s e rve a s a mo d e l tha t c a n b e a p p lie d t o
    • 14. GOALS IN THE STUDY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE1. E d u c a t i o n f o r c it iz e n s h ip - t h e p r im a r y o b je c t iv e o f t h e p o lit ic a l s c ie n c e c u r r ic u lu m is t o e q u ip s t u d e n t s t o d is c h a r g e t h e o b lig a t io n s o f d e m o c r a t ic c it iz e n s h ip
    • 15. GOALS IN THE STUDY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE2 . A n e s s e n t ia l f a c t o r f o r s o c ia l t r a n s f o r m a t io n - P h ilo s o p h y in t e r p r e t s t h e w o r ld in v a r io u s w a y s , b u t t h e p o in t , h o w e v e r , is t o c h a n g e it .
    • 16. What is Politics?
    • 17. What is Politics?Man is a political animal -AristotleIf this is true, then politics is not onlyprevalent in our lives, but inevitable.We must understand politics tomeaningfully participate in it.
    • 18. What is Politics? “Politics is the gentle art of getting votes from the poor and campaign funds from the rich by promising to protect each from the other.” - Oscar Ameringer
    • 19. What is Politics? “I have never regarded politics as the arena of morals. It is the arena of interest.” - Aneurin Bevan
    • 20. What is Politics? Contemporary Politics - Some Preliminary Definitions “Who gets what, when & how” Harold Lasswell, 1936 “Politics is the exercise of power” Robert Dahl (and other ‘realists’)“Politics involves the authoritative allocation of values for a society” David Easton, The Political System, 1953
    • 21. What is Politics?The processes whereby a society makes bindingdecisions who pays how much tax? Flat tax versus progressive/regressive schemes Who controls social security investments? How to regulate commercial activity? How much can a polluter pollute? What content is permissible in radio/television/movies? How to regulate civil activity? Should/can same sex partners marry? Should terminally ill be able to choose to die?
    • 22. Theory of Politics 1) Politics a Good Thing Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) 2) Politics a Necessary Thing Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) John Locke (1632-1704) 3) Politics an Unnecessary Evil! Karl Marx (1818-1883) Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921)
    • 23. Why study politics?• “Primitive” societies man was one with nature. – Development of strict hierarchies• Men are “political animals” • Aristotle (Politics)• Bible full of political intrigue.
    • 24. Why study politics?Important issues liberty / justice stability / order / anarchy / terrorism regulating important sets of activities
    • 25. Politics and its objects• Ideas and interests – Democracy, Justice, feminism etc.• State/Government• Institutions – Legislatures, Federalism, Political parties etc.• Citizens/Communities• Processes – Elections, Socialization, Policy making etc.
    • 26. The Conciliation of Interests• Politics is a complex activity.• When interests are uniform, there are no politics.• “The unique character of political activity lies…in its publicity.”• People cannot opt out of politics.• Politics presupposes an established order.
    • 27. Is politics the only way to conciliate interests?• Certainly, there are many ways to reconcile differences.• Politics is a particular way of reconciling differences. – Tolerance, respect, support and compromise are the language of politics. – Politics itself admits differences.
    • 28. Summary• Politics is the conciliation of diverse interests in society• Politics is a particular way of reconciling differences: it is a civilizing activity.• Political predicaments arise when decisions have to be made and alternative solutions are mutually exclusive.
    • 29. B. Concepts of State and Government
    • 30. M E A N IN G O F S T A T E• A s t a t e is a c o m m u n it y o f pe rs ons more or le s s n u m e r o u s , p e r m a n e n t ly o c c u p y in g a d e f in it e p o r t io n o f t e r r it o r y , in d e p e n d e n t o r e x t e r n a lly
    • 31. ELEMENTS OF A STATE1. P e o p l e - Th e ma s s of the p o p u la t io n liv in g w it h in t h e s ta te .
    • 32. ELEMENTS OF A STATE1. T e r r i t o r y - d e ma rc a te d a re a t h a t r ig h t ly b e lo n g s t o the p o p u la t io n
    • 33. “ t e r r it o r y ”• t e r r e s t r ia l, f lu v ia l, m a r it im e a n d a e r ia l• s h o u ld b e p e r m a n e n t a n d la r g e e n o u g h t o b e s e lf -s u f f ic in g
    • 34. ELEMENTS OF A STATE1. G o v e r n m e n t - R e fe rs to the a g e nc y t o w h ic h t h e w ill o f t h e s t a t e is f o r m u la t e d , e xpre s s e d, a n d c a r r ie d o ut.
    • 35. ELEMENTS OF A STATE1. S o v e r e i g n t y- M a y b e d e f in e d a s the s u p re me p o w e r o f the s ta te to c omma nd a nd e n f o r c e o b e d ie n c e t o it s w ill f r o m t h e p e o p le w it h in it s ju r is d ic t io n a n d c o r o lla r y t o h a v e
    • 36. “ s o v e r e ig n t y ”a. I n t e r n a l – p o w e r o f the s t a t e t o r u le w it h in it s t e r r it o r yb. E x t e r n a l – t h e fre e d o m o f th e s ta te to c a rry o u t it s a c t iv it ie s w it h o u t
    • 37. ORIGIN OF STATES2. D i v i n e r i g h t t h e o r y - t h e s t a t e is o f d iv in e c r e a t io n a n d t h e r u le r is o r d a in e d b y G o d t o g o v e r n t h e p e o p le .3. N e c e s s i t y o r f o r c e t h e o r y - s ta te s mus t ha ve b e e n c re a te d th ro u g h fo rc e b y
    • 38. ORIGIN OF STATES3 . P a t e r n a lis t ic t h e o r y - u n d e r t h e a u t h o r it y o f t h e fa the r o r m o the r.( s ta g e s ., n e x t s lid e )4 . S o c ia l c o n t r a c t t h e o r y - t h e o r y ju s t if ie s t h e r ig h t o f t h e p e o p le t o r e v o lt
    • 39. ORIGIN OF STATES5 . C o n f lic t t h e o r y - The conflict theory looks at how certain social interactions occur through conflict. People engage in conflict everyday to gain more power then others in society.
    • 40. NATURAL STAGESFAMILY CLAN TRIBE NATION STATE
    • 41. S TA TED IS T IN G U IS H E D F R O M N A T IO N “ T h e s t a t e is a p o lit ic a l c o n c e p t w h ile a n a t io n is a n e t h n ic c o nc e p t.”
    • 42. S TA TE D IS T IN G U IS H E D F R O M N A T IO N“ A s t a t e is n o t s u b je c t to e x te rna l c o ntro l w h ile a n a t io n m a y o rm a y n o t b e in d e p e n d e n t o f e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l. ”
    • 43. S TA TE D IS T IN G U IS H E D F R O M N A T IO N“ A s in g le s t a t e m a y c o n s is t o f o n e o r m o r e n a t io n s o r p e o p le a n d c o n v e r s e l y , a s in g l e n a t io n m a y b e m a d e u p o f s e ve ra l s ta te s .”
    • 44. S TA TE D IS T IN G U IS H E DF R O M G O VE R N M E N T “ …t h e y a r e u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d a s id e n t ic a l. A s o r d in a r ily , t h e a c t s o f the g o ve rnme nt a re the a c ts o f the s ta te .”
    • 45. S TA TE D IS T IN G U IS H E DF R O M G O VE R N M E N T “ A s t a t e c a n n o t e x is t w it h o u t a g o v e r n m e n t , b u t it is p o s s ib le t o ha ve a g o ve rnme nt w it h o u t a s t a t e . ”
    • 46. FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
    • 47. Why must there be government?• Purpose and necessity of government:- Advancement of public welfare-protection and security of people; preservation of the state- Consequence of absence- anarchy
    • 48. “ f o r m s ” o f g o ve rnm e nt re fe r to t h e b a s ic r u le s b y w h ic h a n a t io n c a r r ie s o u t it s p o lic ie st h e r e i s n o s t a n d a r d fo r th e c la s s if ic a t io n o f g o ve rnme ntsa c t u a l
    • 49. A S TO N U M B E R O F P E R S O N S E X E R C IS IN G S O V E R IE G N a . M O N P O WH Y S ARC ER – s u p r e m e a n d f in a l a u t h o r it y is in t h e h a n d s o f a s in g le pe rs on. b . A R IS T O C R A C Y-w h ic h p o lit ic a l p o w e r is e x e r c is e d b y p r iv ile g e d c la s s . c . D E M O C R A C Y -w h i c h
    • 50. C L A S S IF IC A T IO N S O F MONARC HYa . A b s o lu t e m o n a r c h y - w h ic h t h e r u le r r u le s b y d iv in e r ig h t .b . L im it e d m o n a r c h y - w h ic h t h e r u le r r u le s in a c c o r d a n c e w it h
    • 51. C L A S S IF IC A T IO N S O F DEMOC RAC Ya . P u r e d e m o c r a c y- t h r o u g h p e o p le in a m a s s m e e t in g .b . In d ir e c t d e m o c r a c y -s e l e c t body of pe rs ons c ho s e n b y the p e o p le t o a c t a s
    • 52. A S TO E XTE N T O F P O WE R S E X E R C IS E D B Y TH E C E N TR A L O R N A T IO N A L G O V E R N M E N T• Un it a r y - c o n t r o l o f n a t io n a l a n d lo c a l a f f a ir s is e x e r c is e d b y t h e c e n t r a l o r n a t io n a l g o ve rnme nt• F e de r al – p o w e rs o f the g o v e r n m e n t a r e d iv id e d b e tw e e n to s e ts o f o rg a ns , o ne o f the
    • 53. A S T O T H E R E L A T IO N S H IPO F TH E B E TWE E N TH EE X E C U T IV E A N D T H EL E G IS L A T IV E B R A N C H E S O FT H EP G O l i a R N M E a r y – a. a r V E m e n t N T le g is la t iv e a n d e x e c u t iv e b o d ie s a r e fu s e d to g e th e r c. P r e s i d e n t i a l – t h e e x e c u t iv e is c o n s t it u t io n a lly
    • 54. T H A N K YO U F O RL I S T E N aN G A o u ! G O D Th I n k y N D B LES S