1. Spelling Rules
A consolidation unit for S1 – S3
2. SPELLING SHEET 1A
Words ending in 'tion' and 'sion' are often confused. There is no surefire rule for remembering them
but the following advice may be of help.
The best way to remember such words is to group them in your memory according to how they are
It is also helpful if you use certain 'base' words to make up longer words.
vision/ revision/ television/ visionary etc.
sion ssion tion cion
vision mission mention suspicion
revision permission detention
television transmission contention
explosion intermission nation
decision missionary national
1. Write in you jotter the word list shown above. Add to that list any more words you can think of.
Put them in the appropriate column.
2. Write the following sentences into your jotter, filling in the blank spaces with words containing
'ion'. The first letter of the missing word is given.
a. My mother says I watch too much t________________.
b. We built an e ________________ on to the house.
c. He left school without the teacher's p________________.
d. There was a loud e________________ when the bomb went off.
e. The old man collected his p________________ at the Post Office.
f. The old woman wore a t________________ costume.
g. The boy was given d________________ as a punishment.
h. At the crucial moment the t________________ was almost too much to bear.
i. I can offer no e________________ for my unusual behaviour.
j. The United Nations is an i________________ organisation.
3. SPELLING SHEET 1B
As with the 'ion' words overleaf, there is no easy way of remembering 'ous' and 'ious' words apart from
trying to group similar words in your memory.
1. Write the word list shown above into your jotter. Write down any other words you can think of
and remember to put them in the appropriate column.
2. Write the following sentences into your jotter filling in the blank spaces with words ending in
'ous' or 'ious'. The first letter of the missing word is given.
a. The guard-dog looked extremely f________________.
b. The cake looked d________________.
c. The policeman was s________________ of the strange looking man.
d. The diamond was very p________________.
e. He was a f________________ film actor.
f. The giant looked e________________ beside the boy.
g. The lion let out a t________________ roar as we approached.
h. The young girl succeeded because she had been very i________________.
i. Climbing up the steep cliff was very h________________.
j. The man was f________________ when he saw what the boy had done to his prize flowers.
4. SPELLING SHEET 2A
There are various means of making words plural (i.e. mean more than one of something.)
Some words remain the same: deer/ deer; fish/ fish; sheep/sheep
Some words simply add 's': ant/ ants; wedge/ wedges; house/ houses
Hissing sounds add 'es': glass/glasses; flash/flashes; match/matches; bunch/bunches;
Final 'f' sometimes changes to 'ves'. leaf/leaves
Final 'y' after a consonant changes to 'ies'. berry/berries
Final 'y' after a vowel simply adds an 's'. key/keys; play/ plays; guy/guys
Some plurals are irregular. mouse/mice; child/children
add s dge + s final e + s f - ves
sticks badges noises thieves
girls bridges gloves knives
stations smudges flames themselves
ss +es sh +es tch +es nch +es x +es
dresses bushes stitches lunches foxes
classes smashes witches crunches boxes
dresses squashes despatches inches
final y – ies vowel + y - add s irregular plurals
cities displays crises
lorries valleys mice
SPELLING SHEET 2B
1. Write the plurals of these words into your jotter:
wolf echo baby box stairway
child wife woman tooth brush
2. Write the singular form of these words into your jotter.
geese roofs tomatoes matches lorries
lives heroes hooves cities gases
3. Write the plural of these words in your jotter.
shelf calf knife life
thief wife wolf elf
4. Write the singular of these words into your jotter.
leaves wives halves
thieves wolves scarves
5. Write the plural of these words in your jotter.
city cherry baby pony berry poppy
fairy lorry lady story jelly daisy
6. Complete these pairs using the singular or plural as appropriate.
Write the completed pairs into your jotter.
a. One donkey, many ____________________.
b. One cross, four ____________________.
c. One ____________________, many armies
d. One leaf, several ____________________.
e. One ____________________, two halves
f. One deer, a herd of ____________________.
6. SPELLING SHEET 3A
SILENT E/ DOUBLING CONSONANTS
When we add a silent 'e' to the end of a word, we can change the sound of the vowel in the word and
sometimes make a new word. For example: spit + e = spite; spat + e = spate
We often want to add an ending to a word, e.g. 'ed', 'est' or 'er'. When we do this, we do not always
wish to change the sound of the vowel in the word. In order to keep the silent 'e' away from the vowel,
we double the final consonant in the word before adding the ending.
For example: stop + ed = stopped; stop + er = stopper.
An 'i' changes the sound of the vowel in the same way as an 'e'. If we do not want to change the sound
of the vowel, we also have to double the consonant before adding 'ing' to a word.
For example: tap + ing = tapping; slip + ing = slipping
silent 'e' double cons. double cons. double cons.
before 'ing' before 'ed' before 'er'
shake tapping tapped manner
cone modelling stopped shopper
shine nipping tinned slipper
scheme begging tunnelled jeweller
cute cutting strutted runner
1. Write in your jotter the new words made by:
a. adding 'ing' to the words below:
swim, rob, chop, slip.
b. adding 'est' to the words below:
big, thin, hot, slim.
c. adding 'ed' to the words below:
rob, stop, trot, slip, skid, scrub.
2. Write in your jotter the shorter words that these words have been made from.
sitting scrubbing letting fanning hitting hugging
slapping hopping dripping clapping cutting whipping
7. SPELLING SHEET 3B
SILENT E/ DOUBLING CONSONANTS
3. Complete these sets of words and write the completed sets in your jotter .
flap flapping flapped
shop ____________________ ______________________
slip ____________________ slipped
drag ____________________ ____________________
____________________ fitting ____________________
4. Write in your jotter the new words that are created by adding:
a. 'ing' or 'est' to each of the words below:
big quarrel travel beg dip
trot stop mad thin pat
b. 'er' or 'ed' to each of the words below:
knit jewel stab bolt run
drop tap swim big hop
c. 'ing' to the following words:
swim stop drop plan knit
sit scrub beg tap whip
win shut skip slip spin
8. SPELLING SHEET 4A
DROPPING E/Y TO I
Words ending in 'e' drop the 'e' before adding 'ing'.
For example: dance + ing = dancing; slice + ing = slicing.
Words ending in a 'y' after a consonant, change the 'y' to 'i' when adding 'es', 'ed', 'er' and 'est'.
For example: happy + er = happier; carry + ed = carried.
Words ending in a 'y' after a vowel, do not change the 'y' when adding a different ending to the word.
For example: joy + less = joyless; play + fully = playfully.
dropping final 'e' changing y to i when
before 'ing' additions are made
1. Make new words by adding 'ing' to the words below. Write the new words in your jotter.
bite love blame come save care
dance lose slide smoke snore wipe
2. Complete the following sets of words. Write the answers in your jotter.
a. cry crying cried
b. try ____________________ ____________________
c. fry ____________________ ____________________
d. fly ____________________ ____________________
e. cry ____________________ ____________________
9. SPELLING SHEET 4B
DROPPING E/Y TO I
3. Make the following words plural (mean more than one). Write the plural words in your jotter.
fairy family copy berry
city story fly daisy
4. Complete the following table of words. Write the completed table in your jotter.
a. happy happier happiest
b. slippy ____________________ ____________________
c. pretty ____________________ ____________________
d. busy ____________________ ____________________
e. ____________________ merrier ____________________
f. ____________________ ____________________ fanciest
g. lovely ____________________ ____________________
10. SPELLING SHEET 5A
OF/OFF TWO/TOO/TO THERE/THEIR/THEY'RE
I ate a bit of bread / Switch off the light.
I bought two books.
Is it too big or too small?
If you get a sweet, I want one too.
I walked to Lanark.
He was going to jump the fence.
They lost their coats.
There are spaces here and there.
"They're just silly," said the girl pointing at the boys.
1. Write the following passage into your jotter filling in the spaces with of or off.
_____ course I am aware _____ the situation. No good can come _____ it. It is a stroke _____ luck that
we got _____ as lightly as we did. Take no more notice _____ it. Switch _____ the light and put it out
_____ your mind. You can deal with it in the morning. Never do today what you can put _____ till
2. Write the following sentences into your jotter, filling in the spaces with two, too or to.
a. _____ men walked up _____ the door.
b. There was _____ much work for the _____ men _____ do.
c. _____ more men came _____ help them,
d. My _____ sisters work _____ hard.
e. My _____ brothers do _____ little.
f. Go _____ the grocer's and buy _____ kilograms of potatoes.
g. I gave _____ pounds _____ my little sister.
h. I tried _____ carry the bag but it was _____ heavy.
i. The rescuers were _____ late _____ save the man.
j. _____ times _____ makes four.
11. SPELLING SHEET 5B
OF/OFF TWO/TOO/TO THERE/THEIR/THEY'RE
3. Write the following sentences into your jotter filling in the spaces with there or their.
a. _____ are four cows in the field.
b. _____ is a man at the door.
c. _____ house stands on a hill.
d. _____ mother is coming to see us.
e. _____ toys are in _____ room.
f. Once, _____ was a beautiful princess.
g. _____ is no room in the hall.
h. I am going to speak to _____ father about it.
i. I am sure _____ is no truth in _____ story.
j. Who is _____ ?
4. Write the following sentences into your jotter filling in the spaces with two, too, to, there, their or
a. The _____ boys went _____ _____ beds.
b. _____ not coming home tonight because _____ scared of what you will say _____ them.
c. I was _____ when they decided _____ swim back _____ the shore and get _____ clothes.
d. The bus was going _____ fast _____ stop in time.
e. “ _____ over _____ ,” he said, pointing _____ them.
f. Twenty and _____ makes twenty-two.
g. The _____ men decided _____ pick up _____ coats.
h. Jim went _____ the pictures and Agnes wanted _____ go _____ .
i. "_____ dead," he said. "I shot both of them."
j. I wanted _____ go _____ the shop over _____.
12. SPELLING SHEET 6A
When you add 'full' to a word to make a new word, you drop the final l of 'full'.
For example: care + full = careful; joy + full = joyful.
When you add 'fully' to a word to make a new word, the 'fully' remains the same.
For example: thank + fully = thankfully; use + fully = usefully.
You will also notice that when you add something to a word ending in a consonant then a y, the y
changes to i.
For example: mercy + full = merciful; beauty + full = beautiful
Similarly: mercy + fully = mercifully; beauty + fully = beautifully.
When you add something to a word ending in a vowel and then a y, the y remains unchanged
For example: joy + full = joyful; play + full = playful
Similarly: joy + fully = joyfully; play + fully = playfully
1. Complete the following table of words using ful or fully.
Write the table in full in your jotter.
a. beauty beautiful beautifully
b. mercy ____________________ ____________________
c. joy ____________________ ____________________
d. play ____________________ ____________________
e. truth ____________________ ____________________
13. SPELLING SHEET 6A
2. When we add 'ful' to a word, we make an ADJECTIVE - a word which describes a NOUN.
a. Add 'ful' to the following words to create adjectives. Write each of the words into your jotter in
care; cheer; use.
3. When we add 'fully' to a word, we make an ADVERB - a word describing how we do something.
b. Add 'fully' to the following words to create adverbs. Write each of the words into your jotter in
beauty; grace; joy.
14. SPELLING SHEET 6A
I BEFORE E
i before e EXCEPT AFTER C when the word sounds like 'bee'.
As you can see the i before e rule only applies to words making the 'ee' sound.
For example: shield; brief; ceiling; receive.
It does not apply to words which make any other sound.
For example: height; leisure; weight; their.
There are several exceptions to this rule: seize, weir and weird.
ie ei(after c) ei
piece ceiling height
shield receive leisure
believe receipt heifer
brief deceive weight
thief deceit neighbour
1. Put ie or ei in each of these words. Note that they all make an 'ee' sound. Write the completed
words in your jotter.
sh _ _ Id
dec _ _ ve
f _ _ ld
th_ _ f
c _ _ling
misch _ _ f
p _ _ce
s _ _ ge
y _ _ Id
gr _ _ f
bel _ _ve
rec _ _ pt
br _ _ f
misch _ _ f
s _ _ ze (careful!)
n _ _ ce
2. Put ie or ei in each of these words. Note that none of them make an 'ee' sound. Write the
completed words in your jotter.
th _ _ r h _ _ ght w _ _ght
n _ _ gh l _ _ sure h _ _ fer
_ _ ght n _ _ ghbour _ _ ghty
15. SPELLING SHEET 6B
I BEFORE E
3. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with either ie or ei. Write the completed sentences
into your jotter.
a. The farmer had _ _ ght cows in three f _ _ Ids.
b. The farmer's n _ _ ghbour had _ _ ght h _ _ fers.
c. What is the h _ _ ght of the c _ _ ling?
d. Kidnappers tried to s _ _ ze my n _ _ ce.
e. The young rascals got up to all sorts of misch _ _ f.
f. The farmer did not bel _ _ ve the w _ _ ght of the barley y _ _ Id.
g. The false rec _ _ pt did not dec _ _ ve me.
h. The th _ _ f stole th _ _ r br _ _ fcases.
i. The ch _ _ f lost his sh _ _ ld during the s _ _ ge.
j. I do not have much l _ _ sure time.
16. SPELLING SHEET 7A
Although there is no general rule to help you remember how to spell words with silent letters, it does
help if you try to remember them in groups with the same silent letter.
1. Use your dictionary to help you find:
a. 7 words beginning with kn. Write a sentence for three of these.
b. 5 words beginning with wr. Write a sentence for two of these.
c. 3 words beginning with gn. Write a sentence for one of these.
2. Fill in the missing silent letter in each of the sentences below and write the complete sentences
in your jotter.
a. A lam is a young sheep.
b. Someone who cannot speak is dum__
c. I com__ my hair.
d. My hands were so num__ with the cold I could hardly feel them.
e. We have a thum __ on each hand.
3. Fill in the missing silent letters in the sentences below and write the completed sentences into
a. He was frightened when he saw a g __ ost.
b. I could hear a mouse __ nawing the wood.
c. He paid his money and got a recei __ t because he did not like being in de __ t.
d. Coconuts grow on pa __ m trees.
e. In church people sing hym __s and psa __ms.
f. The sea was ca __ m.
17. SPELLING SHEET 7B
4. Arrange the following words under the correct silent letter.
Write the answers in your jotter.
silent h silent u silent g silent t
rhyming guard designer thistle
ghastly; rustle; biscuit; foreigner; gnat; Thomas; campaign; build; whistle;
sign; honestly; vaguely; wrestling.
Pick out the silent letter common to each of the words in each row. Write in your jotter the silent letter
for each row.
a. plumber, doubt, thumb, lamb, debt.
b. salmon, almond, could, calm, should.
c. isle, island, viscount, aisle.
d. scissors, scene, scythe, ascent, descent.
e. tongue, guard, guilty, fatigue.
f. wretched, wreath, sword, wholesale.
g. listening, fastened, nestling, whistler.