Adjectives

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Adjectives

  1. 1. Adjective Resource Person: Sir Ajmal Khan Presented by: Tayyba Bashir, Naila Ghafoor
  2. 2. Contents Adjective Kinds of Adjectives Formation of Adjectives Comparison of Adjectives Formation of Comparative and Superlative Interchange of the Degrees of Comparison Position of Adjectives The correct use of Adjectives
  3. 3.  A word used with a noun to describe or point out Or to tell the number, quantity or quality, is called an Adjective. Person Animal Things
  4. 4. She is wearing a shiny blue track suit ADJECTIVES NOUN
  5. 5. It’s a bright sunny day. What is the adjective used in the sentence? ADJECTIVES
  6. 6. ADJECTIVE ALSO ASK THE QUESTIONS: WHAT KIND? Iqra is a clever girl. WHICH ONE? I like that boy. HOW MUCH? He has little intelligence. HOW MANY? She gave me five mangoes.
  7. 7. Today is a warm day with hundreds of birds chirping in the clear blue sky. What kind? How many? What kind?
  8. 8. ADJECTIVES ARE USED IN TWO WAYS: Attributively Predicatively  Example: The lazy boy was punished. The adjective is used with the noun as an epithet or attribute.  Example: The boy is lazy. The adjective is used with the verb, and forms part of the predicate. Note
  9. 9. KINDS OF ADJECTIVES Adjectives of Quality (Descriptive Adjectives) Adjectives of Quantity Adjectives of Number Demonstrative Adjectives Interrogative Adjectives Emphasizing Adjectives Exclamatory Adjectives
  10. 10. It shows the kind or quality of noun. He is an honest man. This is a grammar of English* language. * Adjectives formed from proper nouns e.g.,(Turkish tobacco, French wines, Indian tea.) are sometimes called Proper Adjectives. Example
  11. 11. It shows how much of a thing is meant. He showed much patience. You have no sense. He has lost all his wealth. Adjectives of quantity answer the question : How much? Example
  12. 12.  Numeral Adjectives show how many persons or things are meant.  The hand has five fingers.  Most boys like cricket. Numeral adjectives are of three kinds; a) Definite Numeral adjectives Denote exact number b) Indefinite Numeral adjectives Don’t denote exact number (all, any) c) Distributive Numeral adjectives Refer to each one of a number. Example: 1.Every word of it is true. 2.Pakistan expects every man to do his duty. Example Cardinals, Ordinals
  13. 13.  Points out which person or thing is meant.  These mangoes are sour.  I hate such things.  Don’t be in such a hurry.  Demonstrative adjectives answer the question: which? Example
  14. 14.  What, which, and whose, when they are used with nouns to ask questions, are called interrogative adjectives.  What manner of man is he?  Which way shall we go?  Whose book is this? Example
  15. 15.  In the following sentences own and very is used as emphasizing adjectives:  I saw it with my own eyes.  Mind your own business.  That is the very thing we want. Example
  16. 16.  The word what is sometimes used as an Exclamatory Adjectives.  What an idea!  What a blessing!  What genius! Example
  17. 17. ONE SHOULD NOT USETOO MANY ADJECTIVES IN THE SENTENCES: The fierce ugly old brown tiger. x Example
  18. 18. TO MAKE A PERFECT SENTENCE ONE SHOULD FOLLOW THE FOLLOWING ORDER: SIZE TYPE TEXTURE COLOR
  19. 19. The yellow big beach shiny ball. x The big shiny yellow beach ball.
  20. 20. FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES  Many adjectives are formed from noun.  Some adjectives are formed from verbs. cont.… Noun Adjectives Boy Boyish Fool Foolish Dirt Dirty verb Adjectives Talk Talkative Move Moveable tire tireless
  21. 21.  Some adjectives are formed from adjectives. FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES Adjective Adjective Tragic Tragical Black Blackish Sick Three white Sickly Threefold whitish
  22. 22. DEGREES OF COMPARISON There are three degrees of comparison. 1. Positive Degree: The positive degree of some adjective is the adjective in its simple form. It denotes the mere existence of some quality. Ex.Ayesha’s mango is sweet. 2. Comparative Degree: It denotes higher a degree of the quality than the positive, and is used when two things are compared. Ex. Iqra’s mango is sweeter than Ayesha’s. No comparison
  23. 23.  3. Superlative Degree It denotes the highest degree of quality, and is used when more than two things are compared. Ex. Fozia’s mango is sweetest of all. Note The superlative with most is sometimes used where is no comparison, but merely to indicate the possession of a quality in a very high degree; as This is most unfortunate. This usage is called the Superlative of Eminence, or the Absolute Superlative.
  24. 24. FORMATION OF COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE 1. Most Adjectives of one syllable, and some of more than one, form the comparative by adding “er” and the superlative by adding “est” to the positive. Positive Comparative Superlative Small smaller smallest Kind kinder kindest great greater greatest bold bolder boldest
  25. 25.  When the positive ends in “e” only “r” or “est” are added.  When the positive ends in “y”, preceded by a consonant, the “y” is changed into “I” before adding “er” or “est”.  When the positive ends in a single consonant,preceded by a sort vowel, this consonant is doubled before adding“er” or “est”. Positive Comparative Superlative Brave fine braver finer Bravest finest Positive Comparative Superlative Happy happier Happiest easy easier easiest Positive Comparative Superlative Red Redder Reddest Big Bigger Biggest
  26. 26. 3. When some word or phrase is joined to the adjective to explain its meaning, the adjective is placed after its noun; as He was a man fertile in resource. 4. In certain phrases the adjectives always comes after the noun; as God almighty,Time immemorial, lord paramount, letters patent, Knights temporal etc.
  27. 27. 2.Adjectives of more than two syllables form the comparative and the superlative by putting more and most before the positive. 3.When two objects are compared with each other, the latter term of comparison must exclude the former; as Positive Comparative Superlative Beautiful More Beautiful Most Beautiful Difficult More Difficult Most Difficult Iron is more useful than any other metal.
  28. 28. ASSIGNMENT: Are you a dog lover?  Say something about these dogs.  Compare the two dogs. Use adjectives in describing each.
  29. 29. Which is which?  Describe each dog and compare one from another.  Which of it do you want to be your pet?Why?
  30. 30. INTERCHANGE OF THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON:  It is possible to change the degree of comparison of an adjective in a sentence, without changing the meaning of the sentence:  Positive He is as wise as Solomon.  Comparative Solomon was not wiser than he is.  Positive Some poets are at least as great as Tennyson.  Comparative Tennyson is not greater than some other poets.  Superlative Tennyson is not greatest of all poets.
  31. 31. POSITION OF ADJECTIVES 1. An adjective used attributively is generally placed before the noun; as O captain! My captain! Our fearful trip is done. 2. In poetry , it is frequently placed after the noun; as Children dear, was it yesterday? we heard the sweet bells over the bay. O man with sisters dear!
  32. 32. THE CORRECT USE OF ADJECTIVES  Some, any __ some is used in affirmative sentences, any is used in negative or interrogative sentences.  I will buy some mangoes.  I will not buy any mangoes.  Have you bought any mangoes? But any can be used after if in affirmative sentences:  If you need any money I will help you. Some is used in questions which really offers/requests or expect the answer “yes”. Will you have some ice-cream? (offer) Could you lend me some money? (request) Note
  33. 33.  Little, a little, the little:  Little= not much (i.e., hardly any) negative meaning  A little= some though not much. Positive meaning  The little= not much , but all there is.  He showed little concern for his nephew.  There is a little hope of recovery.  The little information we had was not quite reliable. Example

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