Research the process of data collection


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Research the process of data collection

  1. 1. THE PROCESS OF DATA COLLECTIONFEB 22, 2012Methods of collecting data - Use of already existing or available data o Raw data- demographics o Tabular data- # of admissions per yr, etc - Use of observers’ data o Non-participant observer  Overt- spectator  covert o Participant observer  Overt  covert - The use of self-recording or the reporting approachMethods of observations: 1. Structured observations 2. Unstructured observationsCategories of info gathered through observations: 1. Characteristics, attitudes & conditions of the subjects 2. Verbal communication 3. Non-verbal communication- facial expression, posture, or gesture 4. Pt’s actions- eating, sleeping 5. Skill task performance- deep breathing exercises, crutch walking 6. Environmental conditions- cleanliness, congestion, barriers, set-up & noise levelAdvantages of observations: 1. Useful in nsg due to direct pt care 2. Inexpensive, & subjects are available 3. Lends well to the use of recording instruments 4. Needs simple data collecting instruments 5. Allows observations of a sequence of events 6. May be stopped anytimeDisadvantages of observations: 1. Duration of activity cannot be predicted
  2. 2. 2. Has to wait until expected event occurs 3. May be biased, observer’s presence may influence 4. Needs extensive training to observer 5. Data from other observers may contradict 6. Observers may personally be involved 7. Observers may limit rangeThe use of self-recording or the reporting approach (instruments)Types of instruments: 1. Questionnaire- self-directing instruments structured w. Questions & indicators 2. Interview a. Structured b. UnstructuredResearch instrumentation - LaboratoryGuidelines for developing instruments - Suit the purpose & help solve the problems - Must gather needed data for testing hypothesis & answering questions - Must be valid, arranged logically & related to the problems & hypotheses - Must be so stated that respondents’ perceptions or reactions will not be biased - Should be reliable (pilot study) & can be produce comparable data when used w/ others - Must avoid or minimize or discouraged cheating; subjects must not be influenced by others - Easy to administer; directions should be specific & simply stated - Scale of measurement must be appropriate & reliable.Types of research instruments: 1. Questionnaire 2. Scanning questionnaire- used questionnaire 3. Interview guide 4. Anecdotal records & other documentary materials 5. Mechanical instrumentsMethods of interviewing: 1. Personal interview 2. Telephone surveys 3. Mail surveys 4. Computer direct interviews
  3. 3. 5. E-mail surveys 6. Internet/intranet (webpage) surveysPreparation of the questionnaire and the interview schedule: 1. Decide on how the data will be collected 2. Properly structured & sequenced 3. Prepare brief intro & cover letter, stating purpose, importance of the respondents, confidentiality, & cut-off date 4. Determine general content proper sequence 5. Prepare draft 6. Subject the draft for critical review 7. Pilot studyTypes of questions for interview: 1. Structured 2. UnstructuredTypes of questions asked 1. Open-ended 2. Closed- ended a. Dichotomous items- 2 choices only b. Multi-chotomous items- multiple responses as multiple choice test c. Fixed-alternative or multiple choice- multiple response alternative  Good type of questions to use when the possible replies are few & clear-cut  Ex: how favourable?  very favourable, favourable, not sure, unfavourable, etc d. Projective questions- uses vague question or stimulus to project a person’s attitudes from the response; ex: fill in the blanks e. Cafeteria questions- respondents are asked to respond according to their own viewpoint f. Rank-order questions g. Checklist-matrix questionsTypes of error: 1. Telescoping error 2. Recall lossCharacteristics of good questions - Specifically answer research problems & focus on variables or phenomenon on study - Clearly & briefly stated - Objective & detached from researcher’s own opinion - Responses0 easy to interpret & tabulate
  4. 4. - Language- appropriate - Neatly printed - Bear the researcher’s signatureWays of stating research questions: 1. State questions in the affirmative rather than in negative manner 2. Questions should be neutrally worded to avoid biased responses- ex: disgusting 3. Ambiguous questions must be avoided. Use of words w/ multiple meanings may result in confused interpretations- ex: many, usually, regularly 4. Avoid double negative questions which are difficult for respondents to answer 5. Avoid double barrelled questions or to questions stated as one.Advantages of the use of questionnaires: - Facilitates data gathering - Easy to test data for reliability and validity - Less time consuming than interview and observation - Preserves anonymityDisadvantages: - Printing and mailing is costly - Response rate may be low especially if mailing - Respondents may provide only socially acceptable answers - There is less chance to clarify ambiguous answers - Respondents must be literate and with no physical handicaps - Rate of retrieval can be low because of retrieval itself is difficultPilot study/field test/ dry-run purposes: - To determine feasibility of study - To validate the instruments for measuring the variables being studied by correlating these with outside criteria - Check the reliability of the instrument by comparing reactions of the variables observed and manipulated - Provide a “dry run” of the instrument to ensure efficiency and effectiveness - Ensure use of correct language - Assess and evaluate study procedures - After the pre-test, revisions could be done prior to actualCriteria for evaluating instrument:
  5. 5. - Reliability - Validity, - Efficiency - Sensitivity - Objectivity - Speed - Reactivity - Simplicity - MeaningfulnessMeasurement of variables: 1. Quantitative measurement variables- data are defined, that they can be explained according to Scale of measurement - Scale of measurement- a device that assigns code numbers to subjects in order to place them ini continuum with respect to the attributes being measured such as temp, etc - Data in numerical form- manipulated and analyzed - Variables 2. Qualitative description of variables or the descriptive analysis phase a. Nominal scale b. Ordinal scale 1. Likert scale- strongly agree, agree 2. Graphic rating scale- rating from 1-5 3. Guttman scale- descriptive 4. Semantic differential scale 5. Interval level of measurement 6. Ratio level of measurement