Adult learning


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Overview of adult learning styles and theories that underpin the research surrounding this topic.

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Adult learning

  1. 1. Gordon M. Groat PhD (abd), MS, BGS, ASc CRTT
  2. 2.  TypeLogic  Personality Pathways  Team Technology Give the test a rip… Humanmetrics
  3. 3.  What it is…  What it is not… ◦ An Academic Theory ◦ An Exact Science ◦ Widely Cited and ◦ Something that is Poorly Understood written in stone ◦ Critical to our ◦ A Panacea Success ◦ Undisputed ◦ Provides Context that ◦ Unchanging speaks to what Motivates Adult Learners
  4. 4.  Constructivism Theory (Piaget, et al) ◦ cognitive-developmental stream ◦ through processes of accommodation and assimilation, individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences ◦ Typically associated with Pedagogy of “Learning through Doing”  Early Contributors to Learning Theory include Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner
  5. 5.  The learner as a unique individual (Gredler, Wertsch 1997)  Background and Culture Impact the Learner (Gredler, Wertsch 1997)  Responsibility for Learning (Von Glasersfeld 1989)  Motivation for Learning (Prawat and Floden 1994)
  6. 6.  Social constructivist scholars view learning as an active process where learners should learn to discover principles, concepts and facts for themselves.  Instructors have to adapt to the role of facilitators and not teachers
  7. 7.  Individuals make meanings through the interactions with each other and with the environment they live in. Knowledge is thus a product of humans and is socially and culturally constructed
  8. 8. Adults will commit to learning when the goals and objectives are considered realistic and important to them. Application in the 'real world' is important and relevant to the adult learner's personal and professional needs (Speck 1996) Speaks to Motivation for Learning
  9. 9. Adults want to be the origin of their own learning and will resist learning activities they believe are an attack on their competence. Thus, professional development needs to give participants some control over the what, who, how, why, when, and where of their learning. Speaks to Responsibility for Learning
  10. 10. Adult learners need to see that the professional development learning and their day-to-day activities are related and relevant. Speaks to Background and Culture as well as Motivation for Learning
  11. 11. Adult learners need direct, concrete experiences in which they apply the learning in real work. Speaks to Motivation for Learning
  12. 12.  Adult learners need to see that the professional development learning and their day-to-day activities are related and relevant.  Adult learners need direct, concrete experiences in which they apply the learning in real work.
  13. 13.  Adult learning has ego involved. Professional development must be structured to provide support from peers and to reduce the fear of judgment during learning.  Adults need to receive feedback on how they are doing and the results of their efforts. Opportunities must be built into professional development activities that allow the learner to practice the learning and receive structured, helpful feedback.
  14. 14.  Adults need to participate in small-group activities during the learning to move them beyond understanding to application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Small-group activities provide an opportunity to share, reflect, and generalize their learning experiences.  Adult learners come to learning with a wide range of previous experiences, knowledge, self-direction, interests, and competencies. This diversity must be accommodated in the professional development planning.
  15. 15.  Transfer of learning for adults is not automatic and must be facilitated. Coaching and other kinds of follow- up support are needed to help adult learners transfer learning into daily practice so that it is sustained
  16. 16.  Peer Mentoring – Remember the part about the statement that should precede any learning… i.e. the “Learning Styles” side of the Pyramid… “EXPLAIN THE BENEFITS AND PURPOSE FOR THE WHY LEARNERS” - recall the language that was set as an example
  17. 17.  THINK about the exact words they recommended we use…. ◦ “By the end of this training you will be able to…..”  Where do you see this phrase over and over again…?
  18. 18.  Masterful Conversations Goals: By the end of this training, the learner should be able to understand core skills necessary to conduct masterful conversations, including use of advocacy, inquiry, reflective listening and the ladder of inference, be able to manage one's own judgments and strong feelings and transform those for productive purposes in the conversation and enable individuals and organizations to leverage key interpersonal skills for improved results and working relationships.
  19. 19. Dr. David Kolb’s Model What you got in Peer Mentoring was based on this model Like most areas of inquiry, multiple models exist
  20. 20. Kolb Model  Breaks Learning Dichotomies Styles into four Concrete Reflective Why? pairs of preferences Abstract Reflective What? or dichotomies Abstract Active How? Concrete Active What If?
  21. 21. Felder Silverman Learning Styles Model Dichotomies Active Reflective  Breaks Personality Types Sensing Intuitive into four pairs of preferences or dichotomies Visual Verbal and influenced by the Sequential Global research of Dr. Carl Jung The Research Lineage ◦ Dr. Richard Felder ◦ Dr. Linda Silverman
  22. 22. ACTIVE REFLECTIVE  retain and understand  Prefer to think about the information best by doing learning material quietly something active with it  Let’s think it through first  Let's try it out and see  Often prefer working how it works alone  Tend to prefer groups as opposed to working alone  Lectures are not the preferred method of learning
  23. 23. SENSING INTUITIVE  Tend to like to learn facts  Prefer to explore and  Tend to be patient with discover various possibilities details and relationships  Good at memorizing facts  Like innovation and dislike  Enjoy doing hands-on work repetition  tend to be more practical  May be better at grasping and careful in their approach new concepts  Are not fond of courses that  Are comfortable with have no connection to the abstractions real world  Seem to work faster and to be innovative in their approach  Are not fond of courses that involve a lot of memorization
  24. 24. VISUAL VERBAL  Prefer to take in new  Prefer to take in new information by seeing it information through the in various forms spoken or written word ◦ Dashboards ◦ Lectures ◦ Graphs ◦ Books ◦ Pictures ◦ Discussions / Round ◦ Charts Tables
  25. 25. SEQUENTIAL GLOBAL  Prefer to take in  Will take in lots of information in linear information in no steps, with each step particular order not following logically from worrying about the the previous one connections until they  Like to see information it grasp the concept in various forms  Are known to solve  Tend to work through complex problems problems in an orderly quickly by “thinking manner constructing outside the box” – but solutions in a step by they may have difficulty step manner communicating the process to others
  26. 26.  Active  Reflective ◦ Group Activities ◦ Time to think and ◦ Discussions reflect ◦ Round Tables ◦ Handouts and Books ◦ Digital Copies of Documents Retrieved from Carlton University
  27. 27.  Sensing  Intuitive ◦ Real World ◦ Concept Maps and Applications Flowcharts ◦ Hands On Activities ◦ Open Ended Assignments with few constraints Retrieved from Carlton University
  28. 28.  Visual  Verbal ◦ Diagrams ◦ Discussion ◦ Charts ◦ Oral Reports ◦ Flash Presentations (stand-ups) ◦ Demonstrations ◦ Writing Assignments Retrieved from Carlton University
  29. 29.  Sequential  Global ◦ Outlines ◦ Topic Overviews ◦ Flowcharts ◦ Connections to other ◦ Step by step process materials Retrieved from Carlton University
  30. 30.  Incorporate ALL the learning styles into your curriculum design and mix it up… i.e. Alternate between the styles.  Avoid being in any one style too long – this keeps everybody’s interest at a higher level
  31. 31. Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument
  32. 32.  Breaks Personality Dichotomies Types into four pairs of Extraversion Introversion preferences or dichotomies Sensing Intuition Thinking Feeling The Research Lineage Judging Perceiving ◦ Dr. Carl Jung (1913) ◦ Dr. K. Briggs (1923)  Isabel Briggs Myers leveraged her Mother’s research to create the MBTI
  33. 33. • Sensing: This refers  Intuition: This style to the five senses. tends to trust Sensing individuals information that is prefer data that can more abstract or is concrete and theoretical tangible… and can be taken in by the five senses.
  34. 34. ◦ Thinking individuals ◦ Feeling individuals tend to be tend to take an reasonable, logical, empathetic view of causal, consistent… the situation. They they seem to like to consider how gravitate towards a to achieve harmony given set of rules to and consensus while contextualize correlating to a decision points personal value set
  35. 35. ◦ Introversion is ◦ Extraversion is characterized by the characterized by need to reflect on a individuals who tend situation and not to draw energy from rush to action action: they tend to without careful act, then reflect, then thought beforehand. act further
  36. 36. ◦ Judging is ◦ Perceiving tends to characterized by present as a order, decisions, willingness to leave timelines, planning, things open, allow for and execution input along the way. according to a They sometimes wait predetermined until deadlines schedule approach to finish projects and, in some cases, they even seem to draw a sense of energy from impending deadlines
  37. 37.  The four dichotomies that inform the Personality Trait Indicator are combined to create a “Personality Type”  ENFP, INFP, ISFP, ENTJ, etc.  These combined traits weave a personality type indication (which we commonly refer traits as “Colours” – a course that is based on the MBTI research) and probably cross correlated with the Kiersey Temprament Sorter
  38. 38.  What’s Your MBTI Type?  What’s Your Preferred Learning Style?  What’s Your Kiersey Temperament?
  39. 39.  In essence, you probably already do leverage this unknowingly! ◦ When you understand what kinds of temperaments you have on your team – you can make more informed decisions about how to distribute tasks
  40. 40.  Remember that while this is based on scientific research and it is NOT a Panacea  Remember that peoples styles change and evolve continually – don’t put people in boxes
  41. 41.  What do you think my personality type is? ◦ ENTJ  What do you think my preferred learning style is? ◦ Split across the board  What do you think my Kiersey Temperament is? ◦ Field Marshall