LINELines are one of the basic elements of design. Alone or in combination withother lines or shapes they can aid in the readability, appearance, and message of a design. They : 1. Organize 2. Texture 3. Guide the eyes 4. Provide movement 5. Make a statement 6. Convey universal meaning
SHAPE(2D)Shape is one of the basic elements of design. Alone or in combination withother shapes or lines they can convey universal meanings as well as guide the eye or organize information. The three basic types of shapes are geometric, natural, and abstract.
FORM (3D)Form is the three-dimensionality of an object. Shape is only two-dimensional; form is three dimensional. You can hold a form ; walk around a form and in some cases walk inside a form.
COLORColor affects us emotionally, with different colors evoking different emotions. 1. Hue: refers to the names of primary colors, red green, and blue 2. Value : lightness and darkness of the color 3. Intensity: the purity or saturation of the color 4. Monochromatic color: uses of one color where only value of the color changes
TEXTURETexture is always a part of our designs whether intentional or not. It is the visual or tactile surface characteristics of a piece.Visual textures through the arrangements of lines and shapes or the use of photographic images of specific surfaces.
DEPTH (PERSPECTIVE) The allusion of depth: 1. Size and vertical location- closer objects being larger and smaller objects being smaller, also we perceive objects that are higher on the page and smaller as being further away. 2. Overlapping-when objects are partially obscured by other objects in front of them.3. Detail(aerial or atmospheric perspective)- uses color value contrasts to show depth. 4. Linear perspective (converging lines)- all lines will converge on a common point on the horizon called the vanishing point.
LIGHTWhen light from a single direction hits an object is in shadow. Light and darkareas within an image provide contrast that can suggest volume. factors that can affect our feelings towards an image include the direction of the lightsource, from above or below, and the gentleness or abruptness of the half tones.
DIRECTION(MOTION)To show direction we use:1. Anticipated movement 2. Fuzzy outlines 3. Multiple images 4. Optical movement 5. Optical illusions6. Rhythm and movement
MASS(VISUAL WEIGHT)Everything has physical mass. The physical mass or size is the actual dimensions of the piece: 1. Height 2. Width 3. Thickness/weight 4. Depth( of 3D objects)
TONE (BLACK AND WHITE)Tone can be regarded as value as both terms refer to the various degrees of lightness or darkness 1. Shade: a color (hue) with black added. 2. Tint: a color (hue) with white added 3. Tone: a color (hue)with grey added 4. Value :the degree of lightness or darkness in colors
VALUERefers to the relative lightness or darkness of a certain area. Value can be used for emphasis. Variations are used to create a focal point for the design of a picture. Graduations are also used to create the illusion of depth.
SPACE (POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE)Space include the background, foreground and middle ground. Space refers to the distances or area around, between or within components of a piece. Positive space refers to the space of a shape representing the subject matter. Negative space refers to the space around and between the subject matter.
BALANCE Three types of balance in page design: 1. Symmetrical-nearly identical or have nearly the same visual mass2. Asymmetrical-off center or created with an odd or mismatched number of different elements 3. Radial-radiate from or swirl around in a circular or spiral path
EMPHASISProvides vocal point for the piece, making the most important stand out inthe design. Creating it can be done by changing font or image sizes, placing objects in the front of the composition, or using composition, or using contrasting colors.
PROPORTION (SCALE) Refers to the relative size and scale of the various elements in a design. Theissue is the relationship between objects, or parts, of a whole. This means that it is necessary to discuss proportion in terms of the context or standard used to determine proportions.
REPETITION (RHYTHM)Has a consistent look, including column width, page numbers. It enhances readability.
UNITYUnity is a way to make objects in a piece seem as if they are related to each other. There are many ways that this can be achieved: Proximity Repletion Continuation
CONTRAST Occurs when two elements are different. The greater the difference the greater the contrast. The key to working with contrast is to make sure thedifferences are obvious. Four common methods of creating contrast are by using differences in size, value , color and type.
HARMONYHarmony in painting is the visually satisfying effect of combining similar , related elements.
PROXIMITYSpace items according to their relation to one another. Related items should appear closer together than items that are not related.
VARIETY Variety is the compliment to unity and is needed to create visual interest.Without unity, an image is chaotic and unreadable, without variety it is dull and uninteresting; Line- thinness, thickness, value, color, angle, length Shape- size, color orientation and texture, type