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Soil Analysis   The Reasons And Hw Method
 

Soil Analysis The Reasons And Hw Method

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    Soil Analysis   The Reasons And Hw Method Soil Analysis The Reasons And Hw Method Presentation Transcript

    • Soil Analysis - The Reasons
      • Presented by Dallas Hanks
    • Acknowledgments
      • Utah State Universtiy Extension Service
      • Colorado State University Extension Service
      • Ohio State University Extension Service
      • University of Idaho Extension Service
      • Cornell Cooperative Extension Service
      • I have found that a great part of the information I have, was acquired by looking for something and finding something else on the way. Franklin P. Adams
    •  
    • Quality Soil Properties
    • Conventional Uses of Soil Analysis
      • Increasing knowledge of what nutrients are specifically available in your soil
      • Reducing environmental impacts due to soil amendments
      • Increasing efficiency of resource inputs such as fertilizers and water
      • prediction of nutritional values needed for crop production
    • How Often Do You Check Your Oil?
      • Once every month at least??
      • Why??
      • To protect investment
      • To ensure minium levels
      • Prevent repairs that may be more costly
      • Signal that a repair needs to be done
      • Ensure envt. concerns
    • Soil Testing
      • “ A soil test is the best method to determine whether ... fertilizer is needed” (USU Extension Fact Sheet HG/H5)
      • “ The soil test is an excellent measure of soil fertility. It is a very inexpensive way of maintaining good plant health...”(OSU Extension Fact Sheet HYG-1132-97)
      • “ Quality topsoil is the basis for quality landscapes” (USU Extension Fact Sheet AG/SO-02)
    • Objectives of Soil Analysis
      • Determine the status of soils I.E. nutrient availability
      • Macro
      • Micro
      • Salt conditions
      • pH
      • Texture
      • Organic matter
      • Form a basis to determine fertilizer needs
    • Cautions about soil analysis
      • Irrigation techniques and amounts
      • Pest or toxic problems
      • Poor soil structure and drainage
      • Variety choice
      • “HOME SOIL TEST KITS ARE OF LITTLE TO NO VALUE. They are designed for eastern soils and give very poor accuracy on our western soil types.”
    • Phases of Soil Analysis Progam
      • Sampling
      • Extraction and chemical analysis
      • Interpretation and making recommendations
    • Soil Sampling
      • The results of your soil test are no better than the sample you send to the lab.
      • The sample must be representative of the area being considered.
      • IF YOU DO NOT SAMPLE CORRECTLY YOU WILL NOT RECEIVE A RELIABLE DIAGNOSIS.
    • Tool for Soil Sampling Shovel Probe Bucket
    • Taking a Soil Sample
      • 1. With a shovel, make a hole in the soil. SAMPLING DEPTH SHOULD BE AS DEEP AS TILLAGE. Do not just sample the surface.
        • Shrubs, bedding plants and Trees - 0-12 inches
        • Turf - 3 inches
      • 2. Throw this shovel full of soil aside.
      • 3. Cut a ½ to 1 inch slice of soil from the side of the hole. Be sure the slice is fairly evenin width and thickness.
      • 4. Place the slice in a bucket.
      • 5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 at about six different locations. This step is important to obtain a representative sample.
      • 6. Thoroughly mix the 6 sub-samples.
      • 7. Send about 1 pint of the thoroughly mixed garden soil for the test. Obtaining the soil sample will be easier if you have a soil probe or bulb planter.
      • 8. Supply the information on the test form for better interpretation of results.
    • Extraction and Chemical Analysis
      • Extract “available” portion of the nutrient
      • Measure the concentration of the extracted nutrient
      • Extractant is the most important part of this procedure
    • Conventional Methods of Soil Analysis
      • Nutrient extraction (hasn’t changed in some instances since 1940's)
    • Conventional Methods of Soil Analysis
      • For each nutrient, mix soil with extracting reagent
    • Conventional Methods of Soil Analysis
      • Shake each sample for respective time (30- 90 min)
    • Filter the sample
    • A New Way of Doing Things
      • Often discovery is founded on a legacy
      • History of this project:
      • Turf nutritional recommendations
      • Increase in soil analysis (GPS)
      • Just a faster, easier, less expensive way of doing things
      • Fuelky and Czinkota
      • Expense and labor of Soil Analysis
    • Proposed Soil Nutrient Extraction using Hot Water and Pressure
      • nutrient extraction
      • Simply allow HW method to extract and filter the sample (1-5 min)
      • analyze using standard methods
      • Chromotography
      • Spectrophotometry
    • Reasons for HW
      • Laboratory
      • decreased analysis time
      • less hazardous chemical disposal
      • Portability
      • On site anaylsis
      • Increased demand for soil analysis
      • Precision Agriculture
      • G.P.S.
    • Materials and Methods
      • Use an Braun T-250 espresso machine for equipment
      • generated 2.5 bar and temp of 93 C
      • 5 gram soil
      • 100 ml of distilled water
      • 2 mm filter paper
    • Cont.
      • Allow water to heat to constant temp
      • Make extractionm vent closed
      • Switch from steam to cup
      • Allow all water to pass through sample
      • Avg time - 1.4 min
    •  
    • Numbers of Samples??
    • Results and Discussion
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • On the Horizon
      • Portability
      • GPS and USU - onsite analysis
      • Textural Relationships
      • E.C.
      • S.A.R.
      • Instrumentation
    • Conclusion
      • HW is precise and accurate
      • HW is more rapid and simple
      • HW used less hazardous reagents
      • HW minimized equipment and labor
      • HW potentially can cut cost
    • Analysis
      • Macro Nutrients - Nitrate, Pottasium, Phosphorus
      • Micro Nutrients - zinc, iron, copper, maganese
      • Salt conditions - ec
      • pH - how acidic or basic your soil is
      • Texture - amount of sand, silt and clay
      • Organic Matter - how much
    • Macro Nutrients
      • Nitrogen - Minumum levels - 50 ppm**
      • Nitrogen is the key element in plant growth
      • Is the most tested for in soils
      • It is used in the highest quantity by plants
      • Nitrogen is used in protein synthesis, nucleic acid production, chlorophyll and other plant substances
      • **Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors
    • Macro
      • Phosphorus - Minumum levels - 15 ppm**
      • Very tricky to analyze for
      • Bound by high pH in our soils
      • Used in ATP production, nucleic acid formation, fruit and seed production.
      • **Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors
    • Macros
      • Potassium - Minimum levels - 100 ppm**
      • Used in cell division, carbohydrate formation
      • “ Free” spirit in the plant
      • Availablity affected by pH of soil
      • **Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors
    • Micros
      • Boron - Minimum levels - 1 ppm**
      • Used in cell division and growth, membranes
      • Most toxic of micronutrients
      • Iron - Minimum levels - 5 ppm**
      • Used in redox reactions, electron transport
      • Availability very pH dependent
      • Zinc - Minimum levels - 1 ppm**
      • Used to form nitrogen and sulfur ligands, enzymes
      • Not multivalent
      • Availability is highly pH dependent
      • Maganese - Minimum levels - 1 ppm**
      • Used in enzymes and electron transport
      • Availability is highly pH dependent
      • Copper - Minimum levels - 0.2 ppm**
      • Used in enzymes and electron transfer
      • Availability is highly pH dependent
      • Sulfur - Minimum levels - N/A
      • Mimics nitrogen in the plant and soil
      • Amino acids, vitamins and oils
      • **Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors
    • Conclusion
      • Often, it is easy to make things complicated, but difficult to make things simple.
    •