Soil Analysis   The Reasons And Hw Method
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Soil Analysis The Reasons And Hw Method






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Soil Analysis   The Reasons And Hw Method Soil Analysis The Reasons And Hw Method Presentation Transcript

  • Soil Analysis - The Reasons
    • Presented by Dallas Hanks
  • Acknowledgments
    • Utah State Universtiy Extension Service
    • Colorado State University Extension Service
    • Ohio State University Extension Service
    • University of Idaho Extension Service
    • Cornell Cooperative Extension Service
    • I have found that a great part of the information I have, was acquired by looking for something and finding something else on the way. Franklin P. Adams
    View slide
  •   View slide
  • Quality Soil Properties
  • Conventional Uses of Soil Analysis
    • Increasing knowledge of what nutrients are specifically available in your soil
    • Reducing environmental impacts due to soil amendments
    • Increasing efficiency of resource inputs such as fertilizers and water
    • prediction of nutritional values needed for crop production
  • How Often Do You Check Your Oil?
    • Once every month at least??
    • Why??
    • To protect investment
    • To ensure minium levels
    • Prevent repairs that may be more costly
    • Signal that a repair needs to be done
    • Ensure envt. concerns
  • Soil Testing
    • “ A soil test is the best method to determine whether ... fertilizer is needed” (USU Extension Fact Sheet HG/H5)
    • “ The soil test is an excellent measure of soil fertility. It is a very inexpensive way of maintaining good plant health...”(OSU Extension Fact Sheet HYG-1132-97)
    • “ Quality topsoil is the basis for quality landscapes” (USU Extension Fact Sheet AG/SO-02)
  • Objectives of Soil Analysis
    • Determine the status of soils I.E. nutrient availability
    • Macro
    • Micro
    • Salt conditions
    • pH
    • Texture
    • Organic matter
    • Form a basis to determine fertilizer needs
  • Cautions about soil analysis
    • Irrigation techniques and amounts
    • Pest or toxic problems
    • Poor soil structure and drainage
    • Variety choice
    • “HOME SOIL TEST KITS ARE OF LITTLE TO NO VALUE. They are designed for eastern soils and give very poor accuracy on our western soil types.”
  • Phases of Soil Analysis Progam
    • Sampling
    • Extraction and chemical analysis
    • Interpretation and making recommendations
  • Soil Sampling
    • The results of your soil test are no better than the sample you send to the lab.
    • The sample must be representative of the area being considered.
  • Tool for Soil Sampling Shovel Probe Bucket
  • Taking a Soil Sample
    • 1. With a shovel, make a hole in the soil. SAMPLING DEPTH SHOULD BE AS DEEP AS TILLAGE. Do not just sample the surface.
      • Shrubs, bedding plants and Trees - 0-12 inches
      • Turf - 3 inches
    • 2. Throw this shovel full of soil aside.
    • 3. Cut a ½ to 1 inch slice of soil from the side of the hole. Be sure the slice is fairly evenin width and thickness.
    • 4. Place the slice in a bucket.
    • 5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 at about six different locations. This step is important to obtain a representative sample.
    • 6. Thoroughly mix the 6 sub-samples.
    • 7. Send about 1 pint of the thoroughly mixed garden soil for the test. Obtaining the soil sample will be easier if you have a soil probe or bulb planter.
    • 8. Supply the information on the test form for better interpretation of results.
  • Extraction and Chemical Analysis
    • Extract “available” portion of the nutrient
    • Measure the concentration of the extracted nutrient
    • Extractant is the most important part of this procedure
  • Conventional Methods of Soil Analysis
    • Nutrient extraction (hasn’t changed in some instances since 1940's)
  • Conventional Methods of Soil Analysis
    • For each nutrient, mix soil with extracting reagent
  • Conventional Methods of Soil Analysis
    • Shake each sample for respective time (30- 90 min)
  • Filter the sample
  • A New Way of Doing Things
    • Often discovery is founded on a legacy
    • History of this project:
    • Turf nutritional recommendations
    • Increase in soil analysis (GPS)
    • Just a faster, easier, less expensive way of doing things
    • Fuelky and Czinkota
    • Expense and labor of Soil Analysis
  • Proposed Soil Nutrient Extraction using Hot Water and Pressure
    • nutrient extraction
    • Simply allow HW method to extract and filter the sample (1-5 min)
    • analyze using standard methods
    • Chromotography
    • Spectrophotometry
  • Reasons for HW
    • Laboratory
    • decreased analysis time
    • less hazardous chemical disposal
    • Portability
    • On site anaylsis
    • Increased demand for soil analysis
    • Precision Agriculture
    • G.P.S.
  • Materials and Methods
    • Use an Braun T-250 espresso machine for equipment
    • generated 2.5 bar and temp of 93 C
    • 5 gram soil
    • 100 ml of distilled water
    • 2 mm filter paper
  • Cont.
    • Allow water to heat to constant temp
    • Make extractionm vent closed
    • Switch from steam to cup
    • Allow all water to pass through sample
    • Avg time - 1.4 min
  • Numbers of Samples??
  • Results and Discussion
  • On the Horizon
    • Portability
    • GPS and USU - onsite analysis
    • Textural Relationships
    • E.C.
    • S.A.R.
    • Instrumentation
  • Conclusion
    • HW is precise and accurate
    • HW is more rapid and simple
    • HW used less hazardous reagents
    • HW minimized equipment and labor
    • HW potentially can cut cost
  • Analysis
    • Macro Nutrients - Nitrate, Pottasium, Phosphorus
    • Micro Nutrients - zinc, iron, copper, maganese
    • Salt conditions - ec
    • pH - how acidic or basic your soil is
    • Texture - amount of sand, silt and clay
    • Organic Matter - how much
  • Macro Nutrients
    • Nitrogen - Minumum levels - 50 ppm**
    • Nitrogen is the key element in plant growth
    • Is the most tested for in soils
    • It is used in the highest quantity by plants
    • Nitrogen is used in protein synthesis, nucleic acid production, chlorophyll and other plant substances
    • **Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors
  • Macro
    • Phosphorus - Minumum levels - 15 ppm**
    • Very tricky to analyze for
    • Bound by high pH in our soils
    • Used in ATP production, nucleic acid formation, fruit and seed production.
    • **Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors
  • Macros
    • Potassium - Minimum levels - 100 ppm**
    • Used in cell division, carbohydrate formation
    • “ Free” spirit in the plant
    • Availablity affected by pH of soil
    • **Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors
  • Micros
    • Boron - Minimum levels - 1 ppm**
    • Used in cell division and growth, membranes
    • Most toxic of micronutrients
    • Iron - Minimum levels - 5 ppm**
    • Used in redox reactions, electron transport
    • Availability very pH dependent
    • Zinc - Minimum levels - 1 ppm**
    • Used to form nitrogen and sulfur ligands, enzymes
    • Not multivalent
    • Availability is highly pH dependent
    • Maganese - Minimum levels - 1 ppm**
    • Used in enzymes and electron transport
    • Availability is highly pH dependent
    • Copper - Minimum levels - 0.2 ppm**
    • Used in enzymes and electron transfer
    • Availability is highly pH dependent
    • Sulfur - Minimum levels - N/A
    • Mimics nitrogen in the plant and soil
    • Amino acids, vitamins and oils
    • **Nutrional minimum levels may vary depending on several factors
  • Conclusion
    • Often, it is easy to make things complicated, but difficult to make things simple.