Lesson 4 river features
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  • 1. Access GeographyWeek 17
  • 2. Upper, middle or lower
  • 3. Erosion, transportation and deposition are driven by the rivers energy.
    Erosion occurs where the river has the most energy.
    Deposition occurs where the river loses energy, where it flows slowly.
  • 4. Looking at these processes in action…
    EROSION
    TRANSPORTATION
    DEPOSITION
  • 5. Erosion: Rivers pick up material or erode material from one place…
  • 6. Transportation: Then the river carries, or transports it to another place…
  • 7. Deposition: Then, when the river slows down and loses energy it drops or deposits its load.
  • 8. The Upper Course
    Sketching the River at different points in its course
    The Middle Course
    Use these words to annotate/label your sketches:
    Steep Valley Sides
    Shallow
    Deep
    Wide
    Narrow
    Surrounding Land Flat
    Turbulent/Choppy River Flow
    Smooth River Flow
    Rocky
    The Lower Course
  • 9. Rapids
  • 10. Rapids on the Rhone
  • 11. The Wonder of Waterfalls
    Iguazu Falls, Argentina
    Angel Fall, Venezuela
  • 12. Mind Blowing Meanders
  • 13.
  • 14. Waterfall Formation
  • 15. How do waterfalls form?
  • 16. Task: 1)Stick in your diagram of the waterfall. 2)Put the labels in the correct position on the diagram to explain how waterfalls form.
    Extension: 1) Write a paragraph to explain how a waterfall is formed on a river.
    2) Explain how a gorge is formed in the river.
  • 17. What are these words connected to waterfalls?
    Dharckor
    Englup Lopo
    Tofsckro
    Deero
    Druneuct
    Orgeg
  • 18. Meander = a bend in a river
  • 19. Oxbow Lakes
  • 20.
  • 21. Floodplain Formation
    Floodplains and levees are formed by deposition in times of river flood. The river’s load is composed of different sized particles. When a river floods it deposits the heaviest of these particles first. The larger particles, often pebble-sized, form the LEVEES. The sands, silts and clays are similarly sorted with the sands being deposited next, then the silts and finally the lightest clays. This deposition makes up the FLOODPLAIN.
  • 22. Floodplain of the Rhone
    Orchard
    Old floodplain of the Rhone …
    The large pebbles absorb the heat of the sun.
    How do you think the pebbles got to be here?
  • 23. Delta Formation
    Annotate the delta with the following label:
    silt
    clay
    sand
    Delta are found at the mouth of a river, where the river meets the sea. At this point the river is carrying too much load for its velocity and so deposition occurs.
    The top of the delta is a fairly flat surface. This is where the coarsest river load is dropped. The finer particles are carried into deeper water. The silt is dropped to form a steep slope on the edge of the delta while the clay stays in suspension until it reaches the deeper water.
  • 24.
  • 25. This is a cross section of a floodplain.
    Draw a simple sketch of the diagram and annotate with the following labels
    Sands
    Levees
    Clays and silts
  • 26. The River Conwy has deposited material in this section of its course. Suggest reasons why this has happened.
  • 27. This is a cross section of a meander bend. Sketch the diagram and mark on the following
    River Cliff
    Fastest velocity
    Slip off slope
    Undercutting
    Area of deposition
  • 28. Which of the following landforms are primarily caused by:
    * processes of erosion?
    * processes of deposition?
    * a mixture of erosion and deposition?
    Draw out the table and insert the following landforms into the correct column. Indicate whether they are predominately found in the Upper or Lower Course by inserting a ‘U’ or ‘L’ after each feature.
    V-shaped valleys
    Rapids
    Interlocking spurs
    Deltas
    Meanders
    Floodplains
    Levees
    Waterfalls
    Oxbow lakes
    Erosion
    Deposition
    Erosion & Deposition
  • 29. Give evidence to show that this is the lower course of the river. Use grid references where possible.
    64
    63
    62
    61
    Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey 1:50 000 Landranger raster data with the permission of HM Stationary Office © Crown copyright
    60
    50
    51
    47
    48
    49
  • 30. What do you expect to happen to the following variables as you travel downstream?
    Discharge
    Channel width
    Water depth
    Velocity
    Load quantity
    Load particle size
    Channel bed roughness
    Gradient
  • 31. The Bradshaw model
  • 32. The Schumm Model
  • 33. The Hjulstrom curve