1 Geography Bibliographic SkillsHow to Cite & Reference
2 How To Cite & ReferenceIntroductionThroughout your academic and professional careers you will draw on the work of others inthe preparation of assignments, essays, reports and briefing papers. It is essential that youacknowledge your sources of information so you can demonstrate to the reader the body ofknowledge on which you have based your work and enable other researchers to trace yoursources (for example, if they want to follow up on points you raise in your discussion). So itis important to cite (formally recognise) within your text the resources from which you haveobtained information. In addition, at the end of your assignment (essay, report, dissertationetc) it is important to include a reference list (detailed description) of the sources you havecited. A standardised and consistent system of citing references ensures knowledge can betraced efficiently. There are a number of systems for referencing but in Geography theHarvard System is recommended. This system has the advantages of flexibility, simplicity,clarity and ease of use both for author and readerThis handout outlines the Harvard System of referencing. In assessed work inadequate orpoor referencing will result in a mark that is lower than the content of your assignment mightdeserve. Keep this handout for future reference. When carrying out a literature search it isimportant that you think of the information needed to cite material correctly in the finishedthe materials you consult as you read around a topic and take notes. This can save on timeand effort when you come to writing up.Do not cite your lectures. Cite only published material, whether it is published in print,electronic or audio-visual formats, or unpublished material such as reports to governmentdepartments or charities that you have accessed.Citing in the Text of an Essay or ReportThe Harvard System of citation is the most straightforward method of acknowledging otherpublication in the text of your work. So, at each point in the text that refers to a particularauthor / date of publication).e.g. Events in distant places now penetrate private, domestic spaces in particularly dramatic ways through television images, resulting in unpredictable fusion of global and local knowledge (Meyrowitz 1985; Morley and Robins 1995).The reader can easily locate the full description of the item you have cited by referring to thealphabetical list of references provided at the end of your report. The system has theadvantages of showing at a glance the authority used (who may well be recognised) and howrecent or contemporary the information might be.The same method of citation applies even if you are referring to a web page that is publishedauthor and year in which the page was last modified. For example: (Oxfam 2006). Do NOT
3insert the URL of the web page. This will be detailed in the list of references (seeDirect Quotations:page number in the publication from where you obtained the information (i.e. last name ofauthor / date of publication : page number)e.g. An extreme version of these practices can be found in The Money Culture, a hilarious, exaggerated account of the new ways of working on Wall Street and in the City, where fast talking and cut-throat action by corporate raiders and traders who saw themselves financiers towards the American value system undermined the established classOther Points to Note: after the date if referring to more than one itempublished in the same year by the same author. Be sure to label each entry in the same wayin your reference list. e.g. There are, then, real political dynamics caught up in the globalisation debate, which it would be dangerous to mistake for mere rhetoric (Peck and Tickell 1994a). Indeed, the concept of globalisation itself has become a political force; helping to create institutional realities it purportedly merely describes (Peck and Tickell 1994b). ment bankersIn the case of three or fewer authors to a source, list all the names. e.g. (Lee and Wills 1997)In the case of four or more authors to a source, use the name of the first author followed by e.g. (Johnston et al. 2000)When more than one reference is given at the same point in the text, they should be listedchronologically. e.g. (Granovetter 1985, 1990; Swedberg and Granovetter 1992)
4Referencing Paper MediaThe List of References appears at the end of your work, is organised alphabetically and isevidence of the literature and other sources you have cited in your research. The first twoelements of your reference (i.e. author and date) constitute the link you made in the text.Thus the reader can move between the text and the reference list to trace a correctreference. A specimen example is given at the end of the handout and you should also notehow reference lists are given in journals, but note that journals have their own variations forexample, many journals do not place the year of publication in brackets and do not put thetitle of a paper in quotation marks.For books: lication) / title of book in Italics / (edition, ifmultiple editions exist) / city of publication /: / name of publisher. e.g. Dicken, P (1998) Global Shift: Transforming the World Economy. London: PCP.If the book is a collection of papers edited bythen (ed.) is inserted after the initials of the editor. e.g. Cloke, P, Crang, P and Goodwin, M (ed.) (1999) Introducing Human Geographies. London: Arnold. Johnston, RJ, Gregory, D, Pratt, G and Watts, M (ed.) (2000) The Dictionary of Human Geography (4th edition). Oxford: Blackwell.For a chapter in a book: title ofbook in italics / (ed.) / name of editors / place of publication / publisher / first page of article -last page of article e.g. Introducing Human Geographies (ed.) P. Cloke, P Crang and M Goodwin. London: Arnold. p.305-315.For a journal article (paper):Au name of journal inItalics / volume number of journal / (issue number) /: / first pages number - last page number. e.g. Kelly, P (1999) The geographies and politics of globalisation, Progress in Human Geography, 23 (3): 379-400.For a newspaper article: title of newspaperin italics / date of publication / page numbers of article.
5 e.g. Tuck, S (1999) Five telecom giants courting Newbridge: Prospect looms of bidding war for equipment maker. The Globe and Mail, November 23rd, p. B1.If information on the identity of the author is not available, for example as is often the casewith articles that appear in The Economist, then cite the newspaper as the author: e.g. The Economist (2000) Stock exchanges: The battle for efficient markets, June 17th, p.99-105.For theses and dissertations: lication) / title of thesis or dissertation initalics / type of document (e.g. unpublished Ph.D. thesis or unpublished BA dissertation) /awarding institution. e.g. Hudson, A (1996) Globalisation, Regulation and Geography: The Development of the Bahamas and the Cayman Islands Offshore Financial Centres. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.For research reports: title of thesis or dissertation initalics / research report number or the body which commissioned the report / place ofpublication / publisher. e.g. Shutt, T and Williams, H (2000) Going to Market: The Cost of IPOs in Canada and the United States -00, Ottawa: The Conference Board of Canada. e.g. Gertler, MS (2000) Regional Economy Project. Toronto: Department of Geography, University of Toronto.For official governmental reports:Department or Organisation / (year of publication) / official title of report in italics / (ifpublication / publisher. e.g. Ontario Task Force on Securities Regulation (1994) Responsibility and Responsiveness: Final Report of the Ontario Task Force on Securities Regulation Industry Canada (1998) Investment Funds in Canada and Consumer Protection: Strategies for the Millennium (Stromberg Report). Ottawa: Consumer Affairs, and Industry Canada.
6For publications from Governmental and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs):Department or Organisation / (year of publication) / title in italics / place of publication /publisher. e.g. OECD (1996) Regionalism and its Place in the Multilateral Trading System. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Group of Thirty (1997) Global Institutions, National Supervision and Systemic Risk. A Study Group Report. Washington, DC: Group of Thirty.Referencing Electronic Sourceslong, so need careful checking. If the citation is longer than one line the URL should only besplit after a forward slash (i.e. after /) in the address.Internet Sites:Author or editor / (year) / title in italics / [on-line] / (edition) / place of publication /: / publisher(if ascertainable) / URL / accessed date. e.g. Friends of the Earth (1997) Chemical Release Inventory of England and Wales, [on- line], UK: Friends of the Earth. Accessed 10 January 1999. -indicates the type of publication medium. Use it for all Internet and e-journal sources. Thecovers both the traditional idea of a publisher of printed sources and organisationsresponsible for maintaining sites on the Internet. Many Internet sites show the organisationmaintaining the information, but not the text author. If in doubt, ascribe authorship to thesmallest identifiable organisational unit. e.g. Ordnance Survey (1998) study of asthma and road traffic in London, [on-line], Southampton: Ordnance Survey. http://www.ordsvy.gov.uk/literatu/promo/epidemio.html. Accessed 10 January 1999. Nike (no date) A Realistic Look at Factory Life in Indonesia, [on-line], Beaverton, Oregon: Nike. http://www.nikebiz.com/labor/indo.shtml. Accessed 15 September 2000. Global Alliance for Workers and Communities (no date) About the Alliance, [on-line], Maryland, and Baltimore: Global Alliance for Workers and Communities. http://www.theglobalalliance.com/content/about.cfm. Accessed 15 September 2000.E-Journals (Electronic Journals):Author / (year) / title of article / journal title in italics / [on-line] / volume / (issue number) /: /page numbers or location within host / URL / accessed date.
7 e.g. Usunoff E and Varni, M (1995) Nitrate polluted groundwater at Azul, Argentina: characterisation and management issues, Journal of Environmental Hydrology, [on- line], 3(2): 1-6. http://www.hydroweb.com/jeh_3_2/nitrate.html. Accessed 10 January 1999CD-ROMS:It is not good practice to rely upon sources such as Encarta or the Encyclopaedia Britannica.You will be marked down if you do. At this stage in your careers as researchers you shoulddraw upon publications intended for academic and professional audiences. If you have beenusing a CD-ROM to obtain journal references, you only need to cite the journal as yoursource of information, not the CD-ROM.To reference a newspaper article obtained from a CD-ROM database: title of newspaperin italics / date of publication / page numbers of article / name of database in italics / thedirectory path followed or computer file number / Accessed date. e.g. Tuck, S (1999) Five telecom giants courting Newbridge: Prospect looms of bidding war for equipment maker. The Globe and Mail, November 23rd, p. B1. Fast Doc. File #9606273898. Accessed August 25, 2000.Referencing Audio-Visual SourcesGuidance for the referencing of videos, off-air recordings and film seems to be fairly relaxed.However it is important to bear in mind the needs of the researchers following you. In thecase of audio-visual sources they are not only going to need as much information as possibleto trace the recording, but they may also need to know the formats if they are going to beable to play it back. Where possible quote the format, such as VHS Video; 35mm Film, etc.Film:Film title in italicscompany / [medium or format]. e.g. Metropolis (1927) Directed by Fritz Lang. New York: UFA [Film: B&W]Off-air recordings:It is important to include the transmission date, especially for series that are transmittedthroughout the year. You should include the following information, in this order:Series title / (year of transmission) / program title in italics / place of publication /: / publisher /date of transmission / [medium or format]. e.g. Panorama (2008) Student life in the 21st. century: All work and no play, London: BBC 1, September 25th [video: VHS]
8Referencing Several Publications by the Same AuthorIf an author has published more than one item in your refepublications in chronological order, giving the oldest first. Remember that if an author has inguish between them.e.g.McDowell, L (1991) Life without father Ford: The new gender order of post-Fordism,Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 16: 400-419.McDowell, L (1997a) Capital Culture: Gender at Work in the City, Oxford: Blackwell.McDowell, L (ed.) (1997b) Undoing Place? A Geographical Reader, London: Arnold.SAMPLE LIST OF REFERENCESCloke, P, Crang, P and Goodwin, M (ed.) (1999) Introducing Human Geographies, London:Arnold.Dicken, P (1998) Global Shift: Transforming the World Economy, London: PCP.Gertler, M (2000)EconomyDepartment of Geography, University of Toronto.Global Alliance for Workers and Communities (no date) About the Alliance. [on-line],Maryland and Baltimore: Global Alliance for Workers and Communities.http://www.theglobalalliance.com/content/about.cfm. Accessed 15 September 2008.Granovetter, M (1985) Economic action and social structure: The problem of Embeddedness,American Journal of Sociology 91: 481-510.Granovetter, M (1990) The old and the new economic sociology: A history and an agenda.In Beyond the Marketplace: Rethinking Economy and Society (ed.) R Friedland and ARobertson. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. p.89-112.Hudson, A (1996) Globalisation, Regulation and Geography: The Development of theBahamas and the Cayman Islands Offshore Financial Centres. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis,Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.Industry Canada (1998) Investment Funds in Canada and Consumer Protection: Strategiesfor the Millennium (Stromberg Report). Ottawa: Consumer Affairs, Industry Canada.Johnston, RJ, Gregory, D, Pratt, G, and Watts, M (ed.) (2000) The Dictionary of HumanGeography (4th edition). Oxford: Blackwell.Kelly, P (1999) The geographies and politics of globalisation, Progress in Human Geography23 (3): 379-400.
9Lewis, M (1991) The Money Culture. London: Hodder and Stoughton.McDowell, L (1991) Life without father Ford: The new gender order of post-Fordism,Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 16: 400-419.McDowell, L (1997a) Capital Culture: Gender at Work in the City. Oxford: Blackwell.McDowell, L (ed.) (1997b) Undoing Place? A Geographical Reader. London: Arnold.Metropolis (1927) Directed by Fritz Lang. New York: UFA [Film: B&W].Nike (no date) A Realistic Look at Factory Life in Indonesia, [on-line], Beaverton, Oregon:Nike. http://www.nikebiz.com/labor/indo.shtml. Accessed 15 September 2008.OECD (1996) Regionalism and its Place in the Multilateral Trading System. Paris:Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.Peck, J and Tickell, A (1994a) Jungle law breaks out: Neoliberalism and Global-localdisorder. Area 26: 317-326.Peck, J and Tickell, A (1994b) Searching for a new institutional fix: The after Fordist crisisand global-local disorder. In Post-Fordism: A Reader (ed.) A Amin. Oxford: Blackwell. p.280-316.Swedberg, R and Granovetter, M (1992) Introduction. In The Sociology of Economic Life(ed.) M Granovetter and R Swedberg. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p.1-26.The Economist (2000) Stock exchanges: The battle for efficient markets. June 17th, p.99-105.Tuck, S (1999) Five telecom giants courting Newbridge: Prospect looms of bidding war forequipment maker. The Globe and Mail, November 23rd, p. B1.Watts, M (1999) Commodities. In Introducing Human Geographies (ed.) P Cloke, P Crangand M Goodwin. London: Arnold. pp.305-315.