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                          QUR'AN   ArD



     In this book, Dr. Bucaille nuntes his encounter with t...
The Muslim Convens' Association of Singapore wishes to th.nh

ON 9 NOVEMBER 1976, an unusu<ll lecture was given at the
Once we belin to ask ourselves in an unbiased or unpreju-
      Once wc bcgin       erl ourselvcs    en unbiescd
diced way...
I usc       word 'science'
       1 use the word 'science' to mean knowledge which hal beea
est aheration to the text would automatically have destroyed the
crt .ltcr.tion       thc tcri would .utom.ticelly heve dc...
drl of rG$ dr God'r rrbbrth,      rith rbir           from nur Al A'r.rll
(7:l{1.                                       "c...
( L a',i , 2-!'
                                    • ~ t'
                                        ""J       "".. """""" t...
4th day), when it is • known fact that our planet comes from it.
rth dey), rhcn it ir r Lnorn fecr that our planct cotncs ...
our ovn dey, uhcn mentions rhc foundetion thir belrncc in
our own day, when it mentions rhe- foundation of this balance in...
o assembly of jinns and men. if you can penetrate resions of the
O euembly of jinnr rnd mcn, if you can pcnctrete regions ...
the F.erth'scrustr          is lile a solid rhcll on
The same is true of the Earth's crust, which is like a solid shell on...
Progrcrr in botrny er the drne of Muhammed ras in no Goun-
      Pr0lress in botany at the time of Muhammad was in DO coun...
micrl neturc.
mical nature. The blood transports them to all the or,ans of the
                            trrmpont rhcm r...
children were born; your books on sex-education are a bit late on
children werc born; your                    scr-cducetio...
'chcred llcsh' (mudgal cofrcsponds crecdy
    The term 'chewed flesh' (mlAago} cotresponds exactly to the
appearance of th...
tween modern knowledge and verses in the Qur'an, and pointed
rwecn            knowlcdge rnd verses           Qur'ln,
out t...
As for the genealogies cC'ntained in the Bible, which form the
      Ac for the gencelogies conreined in the Bible. which ...
occupied by the Exodus in       history of the pharaohs, I have con-
occupied by the Exodus in the history of thc phareoht...
The Qur'anic Revelationn has a history which is radically dif--
       The Qur'anic Revelatio has a history which is radic...



OBEDIENCE ro orrc truc God. Thfu is ISLAM. This mcssrgewa.~
 OBEDIENCE to One true God. This is ISLAM. This mcs511e wer
5. PnOPHEGT;Crod ir thc l(mrcr of thc pcr, pttt tr rnrl futrrn.
5. PROPHECY: God is the KDowcr of the pat. praeat lad futu...
Dear R~ader,
 Dcer Rcarlcr,

 There is no compulsion for man to accepl the TRUTH. But it is
 Thcrc is     compulsion      ...
 ~J.af' ,-Jaf'j
 e{.Lrll phJlg

            , i .lli
            ~u ..
     ':?S~~~ ...   .J
                                                       .ilisl illrl

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  2. 2. THE TIIE QUR'AN QUR'AN ArD AND MODERN MODERN SCIENCE SCIENCE d{..fl #lJ .ilr.ll .. -tlJ.l1 ~ .~IJ .;,i."iJIJ ~'tl. ~i..:S ~ ~"...L. ~ I,u. .Jltl .ri:l ./.ttr it,rlrr Jh*tl, s*f ,f i.riL .i+t U'r J~I J "u. ~ ~.J~I e.:.J1 J ~ ~ ~"... ~ ~,; Jt-::rl rl .rB .F"11 .'rl gtJl d.=it ry sUJL. .:f .+f 15rr Jt i,f J rar;; 1pl : ri.tl ,lJtill ,f +2, df.- r+ yr)t-|f 6dt .;,i.,ill J ':;'~.)J.pl ~I JJu.LI;r ~ ~ ~ .,.~11..:n0tJ' ~I ~t..,J. ~f UJ ""-J~ ~J ~.,sJJ iJU,/1 JoY-J .;.}II .,.,s vt;5rl irrl' Of Ut .tlri.C', +-lJ5r ,lt-i}l 6ti5 ;t.fir 6nf . .. - inzl ' rb ,,,,.+fJltjr ilt liJ ijlf .ill1 ..pif 'f.tl. .. ~ '",-:J& .. I., ~II"'';'I.) I.AI 1# ~ tJ,..'t1- ..... ~ !-:0,,1 I.-;SJ "t."..'J ~')Ji J t.,..~11 ~~I ~!J .i-. J,ll gt-J r.u,51Qrfr r-+.rfi rl i+}t-Tl .rt r.rrff gll .":'~I . ettoafJf
  4. 4. t4thr WHAT THIS BOOK IS ALL ABOUT WHAT THIS BOOK I$ ALL ABOUT In this book, Dr. Bucaille nuntes his encounter with tbc bool, Dr. Bucrillc nrrrrtc cncounter with tbe Qur'an. colt is not a faith in Islam," says Dr. Bucaille, cothet first Qur'rn. "It is r frith Isllmr" seys Dr. Buceilh, "thlt lirst guided my stcps, but simple research for the truth. This is how I guidcd stGF, simplc rc*rrch thc truth. see it today. It WIS mainly Cact which, by the time I had finished sae todry. It wrs meinly frct thc timc hrd linirhcd my study, had led me to see in the Qur'an a text revealed to Ir snrdy, hed lcd me see Qur'en r tcrt rirreded prophet." Whit led him to this conviction w~ the fact it would bc propha." Vhrt lcd wrs thc frct be unthinkable ufor a man of Muhammad's time to have becn thc unthintrblc "for r men of Muhrmmrd's timc hrvc been the author of such statements on account of the state of knowledge in ruthor of strtemcnts tccount of strtc of hnowledge his days." his drys." For the purpose of his !ltudy: Dr. Bucaille grouped such thc Furpoce of his study, Bucrillc drtr undcr gencrd ~dings Qur'anic verses containing scientific data under general hcedings Qur'rnic vcrscs contrining IS Creation, Astronomy, the Eanh, etc. rs Crcrtion, Egrth, etc. Touching on ("..reation, he refutes the age old Western notioo Touching Crcetion, he rge Vestcrn notion (delibcretc (deliberate or through ignorance) that Muhammad only copied igrromnce) thrt Muhrnrnrd copicd thc gcncrd outlines the general ('utlines of the Bible. He compares the version of tbc comprres thc vcrsion of tbe Bihle and that ofthe Qur'an and concludes that the Bible version is Bihlc rnd thrt ofthc Qur'rn rnd concludcs thrt thc Biblc vercion scientifically unacceptable, whereas the Qur'anic version, not only scientificdly unrcoeptrblc, whcrcrs thc Qur'rnic vercion, rgrccs pcrfcctly with thc &tr dis<.overcd rnodern scicne but agrees perfectly with the data discovered by modern science but also is remarkably free from the erroneous notions of the tim. rlso is remrrkebly frce erroneous of thc time. How crn *'e thcn, hc rsks, Hnw can we then, he asks, imagine that a man who drew hir thrt r men drcw his inspiration from the Bible could have been the author of thc inspirrrion thc Biblc hrve becn ruthor of tbe Qur'rn, rnd, Qur'an, and, of his own accord, have corrected the Biblical text to lccord, have corrccted Biblicd tcxt rrrivc et r generd conept conccrning thc formrtion of the arrive at a general concept concerning the formation of thc Univcrsc, whcn formcd until ccnturics efter Universe, when this concept was not formed until centuries after concept wrs his death? derth? aonteinse precious nrcssqgc todny's scientists This book contains a precious message for today's scientists in peniculrr rnd modcrn mrn gcncral, panicular and modern man in general, but it should not bc be forgottcn, rs thc suthor himsclf wrrns, thet forgotten, as the author himself warns, that the Qur'an is not interested to be a scientific book but it is religious book, par intcrcstcd be r cxccllarce,Thc Qur'en's purpose inviting mrrr rcflect exctl/mu. The Qur'an's purpose in inviting man to reflect upon the neturd pbcnomcnr is strcss Divinc Omnipotcncc. Thc frcr the natural phenomena is to stress Divine Omnipotcoce. The fact thrt, thctc rcflcrtions, ure cen dusions that, in these reflections, we can find alusions to dati connected drtr connectcd knowlcdgc is surcly rnothcr of Crod's with scientific knowledge is surely another of God's gifts whocc whose vrfuc must shinc this age materidistic rthicsm. value must shine out in this age of materialistic athiesm.
  5. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ACKNOWLEDGEI}tENT 'lhe The Muslim Convens' Association of Singapore wishes to th.nh C-onvens'Associetion Singeporewishes thank The)slamic Academy of Science (20B Jdan Daud) Kg. Bahru, The Islamic Accdcmy Scicnce (20B ja)8O Daud, Behru, Kuala Lumpur) Malaysia) for giving the consent to publish this Kuaia Lumpur, Melaysir) thi consent pu-blish book. book.
  6. 6. THE QUR'AN AND MODERN SCIENCE THE QUR'AN AND MODERN SCIENCE ON 9 NOVEMBER 1976, an unusu<ll lecture was given at the NOVEMBER 1976, en unu3u.l lccrure wes givcn rr rhc Frcnch Acedqqr of Medicinc. titlc sas 'Phyriologicel french Academl of Medicine. Its title was 'Physioiosicai and end Embryololical data in the Qur' an. I presented my ltudy on the Embryologicel dete Qur'en. prescntcd mt rhrJy rbc existence in the Qur'an of certain statements concerninl physio- eristence thc Qur'ln of certain stetcment3 concerning phytio- 10lY and reproduction. My reason for doing this was that our logy reproduction. My rcason doing wes ther knowledge of these disciplines is such, that it is impossible to ex· lnowledge of disciplincs thet impossible er- plain how a text produced at the time of the Qur'an could have plein r tert produced .t of rhe Qur'en could contained ideas that have only been discovered in modern times. contained idcas that heve only bcen discovered modern times. There is indeed no human work prior to modern times that indecd humen worl prior modern timcs thet contains statements which were equally in advance of the state of conteins statcmcnts equelly advancc rhe stete knowledge at the time they appeared and which might be com- et thcy eppeered mighr pared to the Qur'an. percd Qur'en. In addition to this, a comparative study of datil of a similar eddirion ro r comprrrtive of darr similrr kind contained in the Bible (Old Testament and Gospels) seemed containcd Tesrament sccmed desirable. This is how the project was formed of a confrontadon dcsirable. confronrelion between modern knowledge and certain passages in the Holy modcrn end passages lloly Scriptures of eacb monotheistic religion. It resulted in the publica· Scripturcs eech nronotheistic rcligion. publice. tion of a book under the title, The Bible, the Qur'a,. and Science. The Bible, the Qur'an Science. The first French edition appeared in May 1976. (Seglers, Paris). Frerrch 1976. (Seglers, English· and Arabic editions have now been published.. English' and Arebic cditions have now been published It comes as no surprise to learn thar Religion ilnd Science rs rhar and Scicnce h.l·e always been considered to be twin sisters by Islam and that have always been considered to be twin sisters by lslam end thet toJ,,)., art a time when science has taken such greatt strides,, the'y tocle; a time when science has taken such grea stridcs they still continur- to be associated, and furthermore certain scientific continue bc associeted, furthcrmore cerrain data are used for the bener understanding of the Qur'anic text. data are used for thc betrer understanding of rhe Qur'anic tert. What is more,, in a cenrury where. for many., scientific truth has Whet is more in century wherc, for many scicntific truth has dealt a deathblow' to religious belief. it is precisely the discoveries e deathbloy belief, of science that, in an objective examination of the Islamic Revelat- science exeminarion rhe lslamic Revclet- ion, have highlighted the supernatural characrer of certaill aspects highlightcd :he supernetural character of certein espccrr of the Revelation. Reveletion. When all is said and done, generally speaking. scientific Whcn ell spcaking. scicntific knowledge would seem, hnowledge would seem. in spite of what people mey say. to be may highly conducive reflection highly conducivc to reflection on the existence of God. of 'Publirhed 'Publish~d by Arnericen by Am~rican Trurr Publicerions. S. Medrron Trusr Publicarions. ?216 Madison Avc., 7216 S. Aye., lndierrepolir, 46227. Indianapolis, Ind. 46227, USA. Ind, USA.
  7. 7. Once we belin to ask ourselves in an unbiased or unpreju- Once wc bcgin erl ourselvcs en unbiescd diced way about the meraphysicallessons to be derived from some diccd wey ebout the mctephysicallessons be dcrivcd from somc of today's knowJedle. (for example our knowledge of the infinitely todey'r lnorlcdgc. cremple knowledge thc small or the problem of life). we indeed discover. many reasons for rmell thc problem !ife), wc indeed discover meny rersons for thinhiry rlong thesc lincs. When we ehout thc rcmarleble thinanl alona these Jines. When we think ahout the remarkable orlanisatioD presidins over the birth and maintenance of life. 'it or3eniitioo prcsiding oyer thc end maintenance life, it being the result surely becomes dear that the likelihood of it being the result of rurcly bccomcr clcrr thet the lilelihood chance lets less ~d less. as our knowledge and progres~ in this chencc ger lcrr and less. es knowledge end progress rhis field expand. Certain concepts must appear to be increasingly un- lield crprnd. Certain conceptsmust epperr increesingly un- acceptable; for example. the one put forward by the French rcccptrblc; eremple, rhe onc forward the Frcnch thc Nobcl priae ro gct people winner of the Nobel prize for Medicine who tried to get people to uinner Medicinc who admit that living matter was self-created as the result of fortui- edmit thet mrttcr ses self-creeted as thc result tous circumstances .under the effect of c~rtain outside influences toul circumrtrnccs ,undcr thc effcct ccrtein outside influences usinl simple chemical elements as their base. From this it is ufinl rirnplc chcmicel elcrnenrs rs thcir bese. From this chimed thrt thc claimed that living orlanisms came into beins. leading to the re- orgenisms came being, leeding markable complex called man. To me, it would seem that the merleble conrplex celled men. me, would 3cem th.t thc scientific prolress made in undclStanding the fantastic comple- rientilic protrcs$ made understanding the fentestic comple- xity of hi.her beinss provides strona arguments in favour of the xiry hfher bcingr strong rrtument3 fevour thc opposite theory: in other words, the existence of an extraordinari- opporitc thcory: othcr vords, the eristence en cxtreordineri- methodicelorgeniretion presiding over the remerkablc arrenge- ly methodical oraanization presiding over tf,e remarkable arrange- rhe phenomcna ment of the phenomena of life. rnrny perts the Bool, the Qur'en leeds. simple terml, In many paus of the Book. the Qur'an leads. in simple termi. generel reflection. Brrr elso conteins infinitcly to this kind of seneraJ reflection. But it also contains infinitely thfu lind more precite dete vhich ere direcdy rclercd facts discovercd more precise data which are directly rdated to facts discovered by modern lcience: there rre whet erercise a rnegnetic attrection for modern science: these are what exercise a masnetic attraction for today's scientists. todry's rcientirtr. ENCYCLOPEDIA KNOWLEDGE NECESSARY ENCYCLOPEDIA KNOWLEI}GE NECESSARY TO UNDF..RSTANP nlE QVR'AN UNDERSTAND TTIE QUR'AN For mrny ccnturies, man w.s unable tb study rhem, beceuse For many centuries, man was unable to study -them, because he did not possess sufficient scientific means. Ids only today thet hc posscsssufficicnt scicntific mcrns. lt'is only todey that numcroui yerscs the Qur'ln dealing neturel phenonicne numerous verses of the Qui' an dealinK with natural phenomena comprehcnsibie. shouldcycn go so es 3.y have become fully comprehensible. I should even So so far as to say hrve becornc that, in the 20th century. with its compartmentalization of ever- thrt. thc 2fth ccntury. irs comprrtmcntelizetion ever- incrcesing hnowlcdgc, not elways easy fot inereasins knowleqe. it is not always easy for the average scien- evcrege tcicn- tist.ro unJerrtend eicrythirrg he reads thc (]ur'en on such sub- tist 010 unders.and everything he reads in th~ Qur' an on !Ouch sub- jects. without heving fccourseto specieirzed restlrch. This mctns ;eus. without having recourse to speciahzeJ research. This means understand ell such verscs the Qt . :.* - - - it todey re- that to understand all such verses of the Ql;•. :"." - - - is today re- thet quired heve en ebsolutely encyclopeedicknowledge, which quired to have an absolutely encyclopaedic knowledge. by whkh I mean. OM which embraces very many discipline'S. m?rn. onc which embtecesvcry mrny discipliner. 2
  8. 8. I usc word 'science' 1 use the word 'science' to mean knowledge which hal beea mc.n knorledgc rhich hu bcca soundly established. It does not include the theories which, for a roundly establishcd. includc thc rheorhr rhich, r time, help to explain a phenorpenon or a series of phenomena. time, help erplein phcnorpcnon serics of pbcnonrcnr, only to be abandoned later on in favour of explanations which ha..e only ro ebendoned lercr favour of cxplenethnr rhich hrvc become more plausible thanks to scientific progress. I ba~ic.U1 becorne pleusible thenks scientific protrcrr. bericrlly only intend to deal with comparisons between statements in the intcnd dcal with comperisons strremcntr thc Qur'an and knowledge which is not likely to be subject to further Qur'rn knowledge which likely ro subjcct furthcr discussion. Wherever J introduce scientific facts which are not IGt discursion. Whcrever I inrroducc scientific fects which .rc yet l000f0 estabHshed, I shall, of course, make this quite clear. l0O% esteblished, shell, meLe quite clcer. . There are also some very rare examples of statements in the Therc arc elso sonre vcry rere eremplcs of stetcmcntt thc Qur'an which have not, as yet, been confirmed by modem Qur'en which hlvc .s confirmed nrodcru science: I shall refer to these by pointing out that all the evidence scicnce: refer pointing rhar ell rhc cvidcoce leads scientists to r~gard them as being highly probable. An lcads icientists regerd rhem es being highly probrblc. An example of this is the statement in the Qur'an that life is of aquatic errmple this statemcnt Qur'en that life of equ*ic origin; and another is that somewhere in the Universe theTe are origin; end enother rhet somcwherc Universe thete ere earths similar to our own. eerths ro own, These scientific considerations should not, however, make us Thcse scicntific consideretions shorrld hor?vcr, male ur forget that the Qur'an femains a religious book par excellenre and forget thet Qur'en remains e rcligious booh pin' cxccllcnre td thet crnnor, of bourse, expected heve e 'scientific' purpose that it cannot, of course, be expected to have a 'scientifiC' purporc per se. Whenever man is invited to reflect upon the works of creat- per se. Whenever invitcd reflect upon thc rorlc of crcat- ion and the numerous natural phenomena he :an observe, the ob- end numcrous nerural phenomena cen obrcrve, thc ·..ious intention, in using such examples; is to stre~s Dirine vious intention, exrmples, ro strcrs Divine Omnipotence. The fact that, in these r~nections, we can find allus- Omnipotence. Thc lact thet, thesc rcflections, crn find ellur- ions to data connected with scientific knowledge is surely another dete connected with scientific knowlcdgc surcly anorhcr of God's gifts whose value must shine out in an age where scien- shinc our rge tifically based m~teri~nstic atheism seeks to gain control at the eJ(- tificelly besed meterirfistlc etheism seels ro gein et thc ex- pensc pense of the t;>elief in God. rhe belief Throughout my research I have constantly tried to remain Throughout t constently tried remein tot all}' objective. I believe I have succeeded in approaching the totelly heve srrccceded epproeching rhc study of the Qur'an with the same objectivity that a doctor has Qur'an u,ith rhe seme thet ber when he opens a file on a patient: In other words, by carefully con- cercfully froruing all the symptoms he can find to arrive at a diagnosis. I frorrting errive et e diegnosir. must admit that it was certainly not a faith in, Islam chat first edrnit thet cerrainly in lslem thet firrt guidC'd my step.., but simple research for the fruth. This is how I guided steps, reseerch rruth. hor see it today. It was mainly fact which, by the time I had finished my see roday. wes mairrly thc timc finishcd my study. had led me to see in the Qur'an a text rC'vealed co a prophet. srudy, lcd see Qur'en e rert rcveeled to e prophet. We shall examine statements in the Qur'an which appear to- llle exemine stetcmenrs rhe Qur'an rppcar ro- day mt'rely to record scientific truth, but which men in former mercly ro scicntific trurh, formcr times were only able to grasp the apparent meaning of. How IS it· rhe apperent meening How rs it' possible to imagine that, were thele any subsequent alterations to possiblc imegine thlt, there alteretions the t('xts, these obscure passages scattered throughout the teJ(t of terts, these passagcs scarrered throughout thc tert of the Qur'an were able to e!icaOe human manipulation? The stiaht - Qur'an ablc tc erraoe hurnen menipuletion? rlight- 3
  9. 9. est aheration to the text would automatically have destroyed the crt .ltcr.tion thc tcri would .utom.ticelly heve dcstroyed remarkable coherence which is characteristic of them, and preven- rcmerleblc cohcrcnce vhich charauirisric them, prcven- ted us from establishina their conformity with modern Jtnowledae. tcd from crteblishing their conformity with modern tnowledgc. The presence of these statements spread throuahout the Qur' an Thc prcscnce of thcsc srrtcments rpread throughout Qur'en looks to the impartial observ~tlike an obvious hallmark of authen- lools thc impertiel observcrlike en obvious hellmarl authen- ticity. ticity. The Qur'an is a preachina which was made known to man in Thc Qur'err e preaching mrde hnown men the course of ill Reveiallon which lasted roughly twenty years. It coursc of e Reveiatpn which lestcd roughly twcnty yeers. spanned two periods of equal length on either side of the Heaira. spenncd tulo pcriods cqual thc Hegira. In view of this, it was natural for reflections having a scientific ln vicw wrs neturel e aspect to be scattered throughout the Book. In the case of a study .spcct be scertered throughout cese of study such as the one we-have made, we had to regroup them according ruch ls onc we-hlve mlde, ro rcgroup them eccording to subject, tollecting them sura by sura. ro rubjcct, collecting them sure How should they be classified? I ,,,uld not find any indicat- How rhould rhey clessified? could indicat- ions in the Qur'an suggesting any particular classification. So I ionr Qur'en suggesting eny perticular clessificetion. So have decided to present them according to my own personal one. havc dccided prescnt eccording personel It would seem to me. that the first subject to be .leah with is would secm me, rhe first bc dcalt wirh the Creation. Here it is possible to compare the verses referring to Crearion. Here possible compere referring th.is topic with the general ideas prevalent today on the formation ths vith rhe general idees prevelent todey formetion dl the Universe. Next. I have divided up verses under the follow- of thc Universc. Next. havc divided ycrses under thc follow- ins aeneral headinas: Astronomy, the Earth, the Animal and ing generel hcedings: Asrronomy, thc Earth. Animel end Vesetable Kingdoms. Man, and Human Reproduction in parti- Yegcteble Kingdoms. Man, Humen prrti- cular; the latter is a subject which, in the Qur'an. is alloted a very culer; thc e Qgr'an, elloted I vcry important place. To these general headings it is possible to add importent plecc. generel heedings edd sub-headings. rub-heedings. Furthermore, I thought it useful to malte a ,comparison be- Furthermorc, thought ir useful make .comparison tween Qur'anic and Biblical narrations from the point of view of tuecn Qur'enic end nerrations vrew modern knowledae. This has been done in the case of such sub- nrodcrn Lnowledgc. This thc cese of jcctr as the Creation. the Flood and the ~xodus. jects ar thc Creation, end f xodus. CREAnON OF mE UNIVERSE CREATION OF TTIE UNIVERSE Let us first examine the Creation as described in the Qur'Qn. Let first examine the Creetion as described Qur'an. An ~xtremely important general idea emerges: this is its An errremely importanr tcneral cmerges: irs dissimilarity with the Biblical narration. This idea contradicts the dissimilerity with rhe narration, idee parallels which are often, and wrongly. drawn by western authors parellcls uhich ere end wrongly, dra*'n euthors to underline solely the resemblances between the two texts. underline rolely resemblanccs terts. When talking of the Cre.ation, as of other subjects, there is a lVhcn telhing Creetion, as strona tendency in the West to claim that Muhammad only copied Itrong tcndency thet Muhemmad the aeneral outlines of the Bible. It is indeed possible to compare generel outlincs lt comprre the six days of th~ Creation as described in the Bible, plus an extra thc cir deys the es describcd en ertra { 4
  10. 10. drl of rG$ dr God'r rrbbrth, rith rbir from nur Al A'r.rll (7:l{1. "crrc tl ttt(! I ,i;5ra.b'I(J;:U .4$l--r',i Your Lord il Allah Who created the heayens and the earth ill . . ir Alhh lVho crerted rhc hervcnr rnd rhc cuth b dr daYI. dryr. We mUlt point out sttaisht away that modern commentatan Wc murt orrt rtrright etty rher modcm cdnorcntrt(rl Itrest the interpretation o( 4)')'4m, one translation of which is rtrcrf intcrprctrtion ol ayyam, olrc tnndetion thict ir 'dlyt', u rnerning 'long periodl' or 'ales' rather than perirdr of 'days', a.meaninl 'lonl periodr' 'rger' nther thrn periods twenty-four hour•. trcnty-fow lrourr. lf,het What to me appears to be of funclamental importance is th$, mc rppcrrt bc of fundrmcntrl importraoc fu that, in conttalt tb the narration contined in tbe Bible, the Qur'... cIoa contrut rhc nerretion conJincd tbc Biblc, Qnr'rn docr not lay down a sequence (or the Creation of the Earth and Hcr- nor lry dorn r requcncc for rhe Crertbn Eertb rnd Hea- Yens. It refer. both to the Heavens before the Earth aDd the Earth renr. rcfctr Heercns bcfore thc Eerth rnd thc Brtd before the Heavens, when it t~lks o( the Creation in .eneral... ill bcforc rhc Hcevcnr, then telb of rhc Creetbn Jeacrd, er b this yerse of the sura Tah4 (20:4) . rhir verre thc rute Tehe (20:{). .~~~~..:.J~ -. "~' '. ·~~t~.::'itS;·~·': ~,. ~ (fulrhocrcrtcd (God) who created the earth and the hilh heavens. the eenh rnd rhc hith hcevenr. In (act, the notion to be deriveetfrom the Qur'... is one ofa fecr, thc dcrivcf frorn thc Qrrr'rn ir onc of r con-eomitance in the celestial and terrestrial evohatioDa. 11wre are con-conritence rhc celcrtirl end tcrrcrtrid cvolstiqlr. lterc rtc also absolutely fundamental data CODCeminl the ealtenee of ... rbo rbrolutcly fundrmentd drtr coacerning thc erirtcncc u inirid Sucorr rnrrr f&llanJ rhich ir uniquc rnd rholc cb. initial laseoul masl (tlwltha") which is unique and whOle ele- rncntr, dthurgh et firrt fuscd togethet (ratq) rubrequcntly b* mentl, althouSh at first fused toaetber (ralq) subsequently be- crmc rcprtrried (fatq). Thir ir crpterrcd came separated Ulllq). This notion il expressed in .the sun .tbc rcn hnil|rit (f l:ll). Pel...,., (41:11). .'nt*hjri-F,Jt #f God turned to Heayen when it wa. smoke. God rurned llervcn rhcn rer rmolc. thc rrnc ir crprerred thc rure rll rtnbiyc'(2t:t0l. And the same i. expressed in the sura Al AnbiY4' (21 :30). tfi,rrt6,tV;l,(6WAfiS;# ~-: ~ ~'t~ •.,..,~,~-r,,~t-'(. '~(('''' ~'~ L:A,;.~-'<fJ~..Y'- U~~~~r'-'
  11. 11. ( L a',i , 2-!' • ~ t' ""J "".. """""" t "'",, .. ... -_-: . .3^ Fr+lrt t"~...) ul*, 1>0 not the Unbelievers see that ehe heavens and the earth were Do not the Unbclicvcrs scc thet the heevens end rhc certh joined tOlecher, then We dove them asunder? joined to3erhct, rhcn clovc thcm esunder? The separation proce~s resulted io ehe formation of multiple Thc rcperetion proccss resulted in rhc formation of nrulriplc dozcns times in worlds, a notion which crops up dozens of eimes li ehe Qur'an. e th* Qur'en, unce it has formed the firse verse in the sura Al Fal.laa (1: I). uncc hes formcd thc first vcrse rhc sure rll Farihu (t:l). .r. 1. r ! _/ t I t /r-/ .c4JL--*lt.-r;*5 v -11 Puise be to God, the Lord of ehe Worlds. Praisc bc God. Lotd the All this is in perfect agreement with modern ideas on the ex- rgreement modcrn cn cr- istence of primary nebula and the process of secondary separation primery nebule end proccss secondery scparetion of ehe elements that had formed the initial unique mass. This se- thc elcmcnts thet hed forrncd initiel Thic sc- patation resulted in the formation of galaxies and then, when paretion rcsultcd formation of galexics then, when these divided. of sears from which the planets were to be born. thesc dividcd, sters thc werc Refer~nce is also made in the Qur'an to an intermediary Refercncc elso madc Qrrr'an en interrnediary Creation between the Heavens and the Earth, as in the sura ,r|l Crcetion thc Earrh, es rure A' FlI'qoJn (25:59). . Furqan (25:59) 4W.6,#iyS+#,cr;iti t/. ;?f fu ,LF;,j. rsrrrt6IL fr,q, God is ehe one. Who created the heavens. the earth end whet is - the lilho creeted t:anh and whae is. between them.. between them Ie would seem that this intermediary Creation corresponds to It seern inrcrmediary conesponds ehe modern discovery of bridges of matter which are present out- thc ntodern bridges of nrarter rrc side organised astrollomical systems orgenised astroromicel s1rstenrr This survey certainly c;hows us how modern date and state- certeinly shows modern data statc- ments in the Qur'an agree on a large number of points. Wc have Qur'en agrec number of points. We €ome e come a long way from tlre Diblicel tcrt with its successivc pheses wey the Biblical tellt with successive phases ere rotelly uneccepteble; espccielly that are totally unacceptable; e"speciany the one placing the Crca- placing Crea- rion of tht Eerth (on thc lrd drylbefore that of tion of the Earth (on the 3rd day) before rher of the Hcevens (on the Heavens (on the 6
  12. 12. 4th day), when it is • known fact that our planet comes from it. rth dey), rhcn it ir r Lnorn fecr that our planct cotncs from itr own 5tar, the Sun. In sUCh circumstances, how can we ima,ine oun lirar, the Sun. ln such circumstences. hor ctn tc irneginc that a man who drew his inspiration from the Bible could have rhet e men rho drc* hir inspiretion from thc Eible could hevc brrn the author of the Qur'an, and, of his own accord, have been the ruthor of thc Qur'rn, end, of his own eccord, heve corrected the Biblical text to arrive a general concept concern- correcred the Biblicrl text to lrrivc at . gcncrrl concept concetn- ing the formation of Universe, when this concept was not to br ing the formetion of the Universe, when this conccpt wes not to bc formed until centurics rftet his deeth? formed until centurirs aftel his death? ASTRONOMY - ASTRONOMY UGHT AND MOVEMENT LIGHT AND MOVEf,IENT Let us rlOUI turn to t',e subject of Astronomy., Lct trou' tur.a the subject of Astronoray., Whenever I de5cribe the deteils the Qur'en contlins on cer- Whenever dcscribe thr Jetails thr Qur'an contains tain points of ao;tronomy to westernets, it is unusuel for someonc tein of estronomy westerners, unusual for someone not to reply that there is nothing special.in this. considering the ther nothing spt'ciat. this, considering Arabs made important discoveries in this field long before :he Arebs made important discoveries this field long before the Europeans.. Europeens This is, in fact, ~ singularly mistaken idee regulting from en e singularly idea re$ulting from an ignorance of history. In the ficst place, scienu wes dcvclopcd in ignorencc histor.y. first science was developed Arabian countries at a time that wes considerably after the Arebien ri e timc was considerebly after Qur'anic Revelation had occurred; in the second, the scientific Qur'enic Revehtion scientific knowledge prevalent at the highpoint of IsI...mic civilizetion wotrld lcnowledgc prevelent ri highpoint of Islamic civilization would not have made it possible fat a human being to have written hevc for r hrrmen being written !IItatements on the Hea"ens comparable to those in the Qur'an. 5trtements Heavens comperable thc Qur'en. Here again, the subject is so wide that I can only provide an agein, so cen provide rn outline of it. tffherees Whereas the Bible talks of the Sun and the Moon as tvo Moon es two luminaries differing in size, the Qur'an distinguishes between lumineries differing size, Qur'an distinguishcs them by the use of different epithets: light (nur) for the Moon, thenr thr use different fnur/ Moon, torch (siraj) for the Sun. The first is an inert body which reflects fsirajl first inerl which reflects light. the second a celestial f"rmation in a state of permanent light, thc second a formation e permenent combustion, and a source of light and heat. e source end hcat. The wotd 'ster' fnajra/ The word 'star' (na}m) is accompanied by another qualifying accompanied enother quelifying it which indicates that it burns and consumes itself as it pierces it which irrdicetes thet end es through the shadows of the night: it is the word thalrib. through shadows the thalib. In the Qur'an, the Jrawlrab definitely seems to mean the pta- ln the Qur'en, laurlab secms mcln thc ple- nets which are celestial formations that reflect and do not produce nets which ere celestial thet rcflect light like the Sun. light lilce thc Sun. Today it is known how the celestial organisation is balanced Today it is known how the cclestiel orgenisetion belenced by th~ position of stars in a defined orbit and the interplay of by the position of sters in e defined orbit interpley o[ 8ravitational forces related to their mass and speed of move- gravitetionel forces related mass end spced ment, each with' its own motion. But isn't this what the Qur'an ment, eech with'itg own motion. isn't whet Qur'rn describes, in terms which have only become comprehensible in describes, in terms vhich heve only become cornprchensiblc 7
  13. 13. our ovn dey, uhcn mentions rhc foundetion thir belrncc in our own day, when it mentions rhe- foundation of this balance in thr sure Anbip'(21 :t3). the sura AI Anbi,,,' (21 :33). .;' ff~ZJ.~ .j)~;J~; .~~~~V:i'y:J~~~; (God isl the One Who cruted the night, the day, tht' sun and the lcod creered rhc nighr, dey. rhe end rhc moon. Eech one rravelling mOOn. Each one- is trave-lling in an orbit with irs own motion. an orbir wirh morion. The Arabic word which expresses this movement is a verb Thc Arebic erpresse$ rhir e sabaha (yasbahun sab"laa (yasbc11ulrI in tht' te-Xl); it carries wi.h it Ihe ide-a of a the terr); cerries wirh rhe idca e motion which comes from any moving body, be it cht." movemc,'nt of motion vhich frorn rny moving b",ly, ir rhc nrovement o[ one's legs as one runs on the ground, or tht' action of swimminl in oat's er onc thc lclion swimming water. In the case o( a celt'5.ial l boo)',, ont' is (orcc.'d 10 transla.e itt in wrter. In the ceseof e celestia body ont is forct d ro rrenslete i in 'to trlrrel wirh ont"s (!wn nlotion'. rhe orilin.al sense. that is, 'ro ara",e1 with ont"s l'Wn motion'. the originrl rensc, thet The description of tht' s("quenl"t~ o( day .md night would, in thc scquence of da.v .rnd would. itself, be rather commonplace were it noc (or the fa('r that, in the itsell, rether commonplecc not for thc fecr thet, rhe Qur'an, it is expressed in terms that tod.,y arc.' highty significant. lQul'ln. erpressed tcrms thet todr.y ert highly significorrt. This is because it uses .he verb kIlIC'"'''''' in the sura Al Zum", beceuse uses thc l,rrlr,,rrd /l Zunar (J9:5 to describe the wey rhe night 'winds' or 'coils itself ebou (39;5)) to describe the way thc.- night 'winds' or '('oils'' itself aboutr tht' day and the day aboutr the nighl,. just as, in the originall the dry rnd thc dey ebou the nighr jusr rs. in thc origine muning of the verb, a mrban is wound aroulli the head. This is a mcening verb. e rurban uround e totally valid comparison;; ye-tr at the time.' the Qur'an was rnealc.-d,. totelly velid comparison ye lt the rimt rhe Qur'en was reveeled the astronomical data necessary to draw ir were unknown. ertronomicel dete neccssary it unlnown. The evolution of the.' Heavens ilnd the nOlion of a settled place cvolution thr. end nolion e serrled 'fhey for the Sun are also desnibcd. They au' in agrc."c.'ment wilh highly elso describcd. are. agrr.rmenr wirh highly detalled moder.n ideas. The Qur'an also St't'ms to have alluded to detliled modern Qur'an sccrrrs elluded the expansion orthe Univc.-fSe. erpension of the Universe. There is also the conquest o( space.-. This has been undertaken elso of spece. undertelen thanks to remarkable techllological progr....ss and has rrsulted in thenlr temerleble technological progrerrs end hls resutred man's journey to the Moon. Rur this surel)' springs to mind when dnen's journey thc Moorr. Bur surely ro mind rure AI ltahmatr (55:ll). we read the sura AI lI"ftma" (55:33) . *c rced glii rtWri,).rr );9.. #;6_ 5$3 13,,,b)y 5tJ3, ; ura;J i, ''ltbf '*9;4:# •
  14. 14. o assembly of jinns and men. if you can penetrate resions of the O euembly of jinnr rnd mcn, if you can pcnctrete regions of the heevenr rnd rhe ?ilth, thar Facurre thcm! You heavens and the earth. theft penetrate them! You will not pene- nil pcnc- trrt? thcrn sevc rith lourl Povcr. trate them save with (our) Power. Thir powcr comer from the All-Mighty. end rhe subjcct rhe This power comes from the All-Mighty. and the subject of the rholc sure is an invitetion to rccognirc God's Bcneficencero m.n. whole sura is an invitation to recosnize God's Beneficence to man. THE EARTII 11IE EARnf '0 I.et us now relur|, Earth. I.rl "s now ret"". to Earth. Lct us eltmirre, for eremple, rhis versc in the sure Let us examine. for nample, this verse in the sura AI Z"rita,. Zunar (39:212). ) . (3e; 1 Hast thou not seen that God sent water down from the sky and led Hesr nor s?en rher scnr urerer thc end lcd it throulh source's into the ground? Then He' caused sown Eidds of rhrough rourccs rhe groundl Thcn He ceused sosn fields of differenr different colours to grow. Such notions seem quite natulal tl us today, but we, should $uch scem nerurel ro rodry, bur wc not foraet that Ihey were not prevalent lana ago It was nor unril forget rhetrhey nor prcvelent long ego lt wes not until thc sirteenth cenrurl'. with Bcrnerd Pelissy, that lained the the sixteenth century. with Bernard Palissy. rher we geincd thc first coherent d~scription of the water cycle. Prior ro this, peoplc cohercnt description of rhe wrter cyclc. to Ihis, prople talked about the theory whereby the weter of the occrns, under talled ebout rhc urhereby rhe water of oceans, under the effect of winds. were thrust towards the inrerior of rhe conri- effecr werc rhrusr towrrds interior of the conti· nents. The)' then returned to the oceans vie thc greer abyls, ncnts. They rhen rerurned rhe ocerns via the great abyss, which, since' Plato's time, has been celled rhc Tarrerus. ln rhe rince Pleto's time. hes caned the Tanarus. In the sennteenth century, a great thinkcr such es Descertes belicved in scvcntcenth century. r grerr thinker as Descartes believed it. and even in the nineteenth cenrury thcre wes still rell of Aristo- end ttre nineteenth century there was still talk of AriSlo- tlc'r theory. eciording rle's tht'ory, according to which *1"r., wes condensed in coot which 'outer was cool rnountlin clvcrnt end formed underlround lakes that fed sprinls, mountain caverns and formed undcrground lekcs thet fed rprings. 'fodey. Today, we know thet ir is rhe infilrretion of reinwerer thet is res- tholt it the infiltration of rainwater that ponsible for this. lf one comprrcs lhc frcts of modern hydrology If compares the facts of modern hydrology sirh rhc dete to be found in numerou3 verscr of thc Qur'en ou rhit with the data numerous verses of the Qur'an on this rubject, one cannot fail ntltice the remarkable degree of alree- subject. onc clnnot feil to notice the remerl,eble degrcc of egrec. mcnt betrecn the two. ment between ln 3eology. r fect of recently rcquired Lnowledgc is rhc In geololY' a fact of recently acquired knowledle is the phenomenon of folding, which wes ro form rhc mountein rrnfcr, phenomenon of folding. which was to form the mountain ranle•. 9
  15. 15. the F.erth'scrustr is lile a solid rhcll on The same is true of the Earth's crust, which is like a solid shell on The seme the decper laycrs ere hot and fluid. end which we can live, while the deeper layers are hot and fluid, and which uc c.n livc, lifc. tr is elso hrcun thet thc cte- thus inhospitable to any form of life. It is also known that the sta- thus inhospiteble any thc mounteins linled ro thc phenomenoo folding. bility of the mountains is linked to the phenomenon of foldina, for bility wes thc foldr thet foundations relicfs thet it was the folds that were to provide foundations for the reliefs that ro constitutedthe mounteins. constituted the mountains. Let us now compar~ modern ic~as with one verse amons Lct us now compera modern iC.:as vith one vctsc amont many in the Qur'~n that deals with this subject. It is taken from meny the Qur'en thet dcels this subjcct. lt tekcn from the sure Naba'(78;6-7). the sura Al Naba' (78:6·7). .tr1i,iiljt3+"i;ri,#F, Ha"e We not made the earth an, expanse and the mountains Hevc medc rhe an.expansc thc rnountlins stakes? stelcs? stekes (awtad), The stakes (awradJ, which are driven into the ground like ere inro those used to anchor a tent, are the deep foundations of geological tcnt. foundetions of gcological folds. Here, as in the case of other ropics, the objective observer Herc, es of othcr topics. objcctive observer cannot fail to notice the absence of any contradiction with modern cennot feil eny contradiction *.ith modcrn lr.nowledae. knowledge. But more than anything else, I was struck. at first. by state- then enything else, wes struck, et first, state- ments in the Qur'an dealina with livina things. both in the animal Qur'en deeling with living enimel and veaetable kinadoms. especially with regard to reproduction. end vegetebla kingdoms. with regerd rcproduction. I must once aaain ~tress the fact, that it is only since modern must egein strcss rhe fect. only modern times, that scientific prolress has made the content of many such timcs, that scientific progrcss lres madc content of meny ycrscs more,comprehensible verSes more 'comprehensible to us. There arc also other verses Tltere ere elso which are more easily understandable. hut which conceal a bio- which rre morc cesily understendeblc, but which bio- logical meanina that is highly significant. This is the case o( the logical mcrning thet highly significant. This cese of sura AI Anbiya', a part of which has already been quoted: sure r{l Anbiya', prrt of which hes already quoted: ,r.r!, r,,l'! .t - r/. rr Lirti( , ,( | t, .uj2}yYg,ql,ef -rr :1-1t5rt.I{f unbclicycri sce thet thc heevcns end thc eerth were Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were asunder end lrllc tot cvcry jotncd together, then We clove them asunder and We lot every joined togcther, thcn lVc clovc Jivi~S thins out of the water. Will they then not believe: (21 :30) ii"itrg thing our rhc eltcr. thcy then not belicve: (21:30) Thir ir en effirmetion origin lifc This is an affirmation of the modern idea that the oriain of life thc modcrn idee ir equetic. is aquatic. lo 10
  16. 16. Progrcrr in botrny er the drne of Muhammed ras in no Goun- Pr0lress in botany at the time of Muhammad was in DO coun- try edvenccd enough for it ro bc esnblished cs a nde thei plentr try advanced enoulh {or it to be established as a ",Ie that plants heve both mele and fernelep.rrs. Neverthcless, mey reed thc have both male and female parts. Nevertheless, we may read the we followingin the sure7bf,a(20:53). following in the sura 1'aha (20:53). ··~r- w,IJ,i(frfr,{5f ~k;·ti8I ....~ ~ ''''~ .1~'(t-tl.b ~~t, ~~~ ~'" . ';IJ r.. . "'~,... ~-: .... ' ' - -:J' ... .......,,,.,, ,gt[iirh,qAT',.L1t(il",^'J{S '-'/ •~ <.. · · • <II t"L.A~'A , ,...... ."." ... ,UJ'L:,.J<~· .... ,~~ ... '-":'-t!./,:., . .*-F+#' to' ....... .''--iI". A..wJul.-j , • ....~"" (God is thc One Who) sent werer (God is the One Who) sent water down from the sky and thereby rhe We broughtt forth pairs of plants each separate from the other.. We brough forth pairs of plants each separatefrom the other Today, we know that fruit comes from plams that have Today, we know thar conres planrs sexual characteristics (even when it comes from unfertilized serual unfertilizcd flowers., like banana'». . In the sura ,AI RtJr'd (13:3)) we read:: flowers like bananes) ln rhe sura {l tt, 'd {13:3 wc read ,#."*i*;;L;j-J4+F,y# j(furi+fr Of all fruits [God] pleced [on the earrhl rwo oi e peir. Reflections on reproducron in the animal kingdom werc reproduction animOlI kingdom were linked linked to those on humen reproduction. We shalt eximine them human reproduction. We shall examine them presently. presently. In the field of physiology, thcre is one vrrse which, ro me, In the of physiology, there verse which. to me. appears ertrcmel)r significant: one rhousand years before the dis- appears extremely significam: thousand years before the dis- covcry of the circulerion of the blood, and roughly thirteen centu- covery of circulation of blood. and roughly thirteen centu- ries before it wes Lnown whet heppened in the intestine ro ensure ries before it was known what happened in the intestine to ensure thet the ortans werc nourished by rhe process of digestive absorp- that the organs were nourished by the process of digestive absorp- tion. a verse in thc Qtrr'an describes the source of tlrc consti- tion. in the Qur'an describes the source of the consti- tucnts of milk, in conformity with thcse notions. tuents of milk. in conformity with these notions. To understend rhis verse, we have to know that chemical To understand this verse, we have to know that chemical rcactions occur in the intcstine end that, from rhere, substances reactions occur in the intestine and that, from there, subStances ertracted from food pess into rhc bloodsrrerm vie e complex extracted from food pass into the bloodstream via a complex system, sometimes by way of the liver, dcpending on their che- system. sometimes by way of the liver. depending on their che- II il
  17. 17. micrl neturc. mical nature. The blood transports them to all the or,ans of the trrmpont rhcm ro ell rhe ortrnr rhc body. amonl which are the milk-producinl mamma" II.nets. body, ilnong ere rhc rnilt-producing mrmmrtt glrndr. Without enterinl into detail. let UI jurt lay that. buicall,. entering dcteil, lct ur jUlt rry thrt, bukdly, there is the arrival of certain substanccs (rom the contentl'of ehe therc thc errivel ccrtein lub$encel from contentrof tlrc intestines into the vessels of the intestinal wall itself, and the intestines inro rhc vcsiels intertinel rell itrclf, rnd thc rrrnsport.tion transponatio'; of these substances by the bloodstream. there subltencer thc bloodrtrcrm. Thir conccpt muu bc rpprecirted, This concept must be fully appreciated. if we are to under- wc rrc 30 undcr- rtand this ycrsc rhe Qur'en Al Nehl(16:661. IJIand this verse in the Qur'an AI N4IIh/(16:66). pAh+ ,:+Flq verily. cnrlc rhcre e leron fior yon. we givc trou drint ol Verily, in nule there is a lesson for you. We live you to drink of whlt inridc thcir bodier, coming from a cJnjuncrion bctrccn what is in.ide their bodies, cominl from a conjunction between rhe tonrenrc cf rhe interriner errd thc blood. rnilt thr tontents :)( the intestines and the blood, ia milk pure and rnd plesanrfor those sho drinl pleunt (or those who drink it. THE CREATIOT{ mE CREA.TION OF MAN MAI{ the Qur'en In the Qur'an the subject of human reproduction leads to a subject humen reproduction lcrdr r multitudc of statements which constitute e challcngc multitude o( statements whic"h constitute a challenle to the rhc f'mbryologist seeking a human explanation to them. It was only embryologist secling a human erplenation rc rhcm. lt rer thc besic scienceswhich w€rc te conributc te after the birth of the basic sciences which were to contribute to after our knowlege biology, and cspecielly aftcr the inyention of thc our knowlege of biology, and especially after the invention or the microscope, microscope, that man was able to understand such Itatements. It men wes eble underrtrnd tuch rtrtementr. lt was impossible for a mrn was impossible (or a man living in the early seventh century to the eerly sevcnth cenrury ro havc erpressed suclr idcas. There is nothing ro indicrte rhrt, tt have expressed such ideas. There is nothing to indicate that. at thir time, men thc Middlc East end Arebie lncw rnything morc this time. men in the Middle East and Arabia knew anythinl more about this subject than men living in Europe or anywhere else. ebout thir rubject then men Europe enyrherc cbc. Today, there are many Musiims with a thorou,h knowledJe of the Todey, there ere mrny e thorough knoelcd3c thc Qur'ln and neturel scicnces Qur'an and natural sciences who have clearly recolnised the com- hevc clerrly rccognircd thc com- parisons be mede between thc verses parisons to be made between the verses of the Qur'all dealinl the Qur'eq dcding with reproduction and human knowledge. 1 shall always remem- reproducrionrnd humen lnowlcdge. I shell elweyr rcmcrn- ber thc comment en eighteenyc.r old Muslim, btought ber the comment of an eighteen year old Muslim. broulht up in Saudi Arabia. replyins to a reference to the quc.·stion of reproduct- Seudi Arebia, replying e rcferencero thc quesrion reproducr- ion as described the Qur'an. Pointing ro ir, he srid, 'But thir ion as described in the Qur'an. ~ointing to it. he s"'d, 'But this book provides us book provides us with all the essential information on the subject. rhc essentielinformetion on thc rubjcct. When I· was at schoof they used the Qur'an to explain to me how When l'ves et rchool they urcd the Qur'en crplrin ro hor r2 12
  18. 18. children were born; your books on sex-education are a bit late on children werc born; your scr-cducetion e bit lete the scene!'' rhe scene! It is on this point in particular, that a comparison between the It point particular, thel comparison betwecn thc beliefs current at the time of'the Qur'an, that were full of supenn· beliefs current et time of thc Qur'ln, thet full of supcrrtr. tions and myths. and the contents of the Qur'an and modern data, myths, contents of thc Qur'en end modcrn dlre, leaves us amazed at the degree of concordance between the latter emezed et degrec of concordance betwecn letter and the absence of any reference in the Qur'an to the mistaken thc absencc of referencc Qur'an mistakcn ideas that were prevalent at the time, thet wese prcvrlent et thc time. Let us now isolate. from an these verses, precise ideas con- isolate, from ell rhese vetses, idees cerning the complexity of the fertilizing liquid and the fact that an complexiry of fcrtilizing liquid rnd thet en infinitely sman quantity is required to ensure fertilization. its infinirely small quantity fertilitation, quintjssen6s' - if quinte'ssence' - if I may so translate the Arabic word 'swlala', trenslete Arabic 'sulala'. The implantation of the egg in the female genital organ is implantation thc cgg fcmele genitel orgen wotd 'Alaq, perfcltly described in several verses by the word 'Alaq, whioh is perfectfy also the title ofthe sura in which it appears: titlc of thc appears: ,.,." ~. , ~I.J ,/ . ,/. ~~, ~1=-- _yv-;Jfj.;, /.~ ,/./.' -jt1 . God fashioned man (rom something which clings (96;2).. God fashioned man from somerhing which clings (96:2] 1 do not think there is any reasonable translation of the word I rhink of '.{l.rq other than to use its origina sens" '.1lcll./ other than to use its originall sense.. The evolution of the embryo inside the ma:ernal uterus is embryo maternel only briefly described, but the description is accurate, because the accurate, bccruse simple words referring to it correspond exactly to fundamental referring errctly fundamentel stagess in its growth. This is what we read in a verse from the sura stage in its growth. This is what we read in verse from the sura AI Mit ''mimm (23:14) ) . AI Mu minun{23:la . •W e folshioneddthe thing which clings into a chewed lump of flesh ' W t! f a s h i o r r e t h e t h i n g w h i c h c l i n g s i n t o chewed lump of flesh and We fashioned the chewed flesh into bones and We clothed the feshioned end clothcd rhc bones with intactt flesh'' . bones with intac flesh t3 13
  19. 19. 'chcred llcsh' (mudgal cofrcsponds crecdy The term 'chewed flesh' (mlAago} cotresponds exactly to the appearance of the embryo at a certain stage in its development. rppc.r.ncc thc cmbryo lt e certain stege devclopment. It is known that the bones develop inside this mass and that lno*rr thet thc boner dcvclop insidc mers end thet they are then covered with muscle. This is the meaninl of the rhey ere covercd uirh muccle. meaning thc rcrm'intrct flcsh' (Iahml. term 'intact flesh' (Iohm). Thc p.sicr e stagc where somc plrts erc The embryo passes through a stage whert' some parts are in proportion and others out of proportion with what is later to be- and othcrs vith whet letcr bc- come the indi~dual. Maybe this is tht: meaninl of a verse in the comc the indifiduel. Meybe this is tlic mcening e verse the sura Al Hojj (22:5) which reads as follows: wt AI Hajj{32:5) whichrcedses follows: #:,;i#i1*,u'{,rc?*. .i:'{i'441#UF something which clings into r We fashioned [man) into something which clings into. lump of Wc farhioned [manl flesh in proportion .and out of proportion. end Next, we have a reference to the appearance of the senses Nelt, we heve e refcrence the epperrrnce the scnscs end visceree the cure,{l fuida (32:9}. and viscerae in the sura .41 S4jda (32:9). .'i3!{,i,tu;u5'jJJr,:Ftrt for you thc senses hcaring,sight end thc vis' [God} appointed for you the senses of hearing, silht and the vis· llrt'"l"nn"inted rerae. Nothing here-contradicts today's data and, furthermore. none Nothing herscontradicts today's deta end, furthernrore, of the mistaken ideas of the time has crept into the Qur' an . of rhe misrrlen idces of thc time hes crept into Qur'en QVRAN AND BIBLE QURAN AND BIBLE Wt' have now come to the laSit subject; it is the confrontation. We heve nou comc thc lest subject; confrontation, with modern knowledle. of passases in the Qur'an that are also rith modern lnorlcdge, of pess.ges Qur'en thet erc elso referred to in the Dible. rcfcrrcd in rhc lliblc. We have already caught a llimpse of the pr"blem when talk- Wc heve dtcedy ceughr e glimpse of thc problcrn when tell- ing of the Creation. ~arlier I stress!."d the perfe~t agreemetlt be- ing of thc Crcetion. Earlier stress*d pcrfe.:t agreemerrr 14 t4
  20. 20. tween modern knowledge and verses in the Qur'an, and pointed rwecn knowlcdge rnd verses Qur'ln, out that the Biblical narration contained statt'mcms that wcrc thet Biblicel nerrrtiun conrained statemcnts thet were scienlifically unacceptable. This is hardly surprising when re scienrificelly surprising when we know that the great narration of the Creation com<lined in the rhet rhc greet nerration C-reation conteined Bible was the work of priests living in the sixlh cemury BC, hence Biblc *orh living si.rth century -Sacerdotel' narration. the term 'Sacerdotal' narralion. This s«ems mainly to h,ne been seems mainly heve conceived as Ihe th«me of a preaching designed 10 exhort people conccived as the theme to exhort 10 observe the sabbath. The narration was constructed with a de- to sebberh. with finite end in view, and, as Father de Vaux (a former head of rhc rnd, as Fathcr dc Veux (e former of the Biblical School of Jt>fusalem) has nOled, this end was essentially Iliblicel School Jerusalem) hes noted, legalist in c-haracter. lcgalist cheracter. The Bible also contains a much shorter and older narration of Thc e rnuch end narration of Crcetion, so-called 'Yahvist' the Creation, the so-called 'Yahvist' version, which approaches which epproeches the subject from a completely different angle. subjcct completcly different engle. They are both taken from Genesis, the first book of thc Pen- They both fronr first o[ the tateuch or Taurah: Moses is suppost'd to have been its author, but reteuch Teurah: supposed authot, but the text we have today has, as we know, undergone mrny *'e as undergone many 'changes. . 'changes Thr Sacerdotal narration of Genesis is famous for its whim- The Sacerdotel narration uf lsmous whim- sical genealogies, that go back to Adam, and ....-hich nobody tekes sicel gcncalogies, thet beclc ro Adem, which takes very seriously. N('verthe1ess, such Gospel authors as'Mauhew Ntverthcless, eutbors as Metthew and Luke have rl"produ..ed them, more or less verbatim, in rhcir end reprodured them. morc verbatim. their genealogies of Jesus. Matthew goes back as rar as Abraham, and gcnealogies .fesus. Metrhew goes as fer es Abreham, end luke 10 Ad.mt.. 1111 rht'see wrilings, are scientificallyy unacceptable,. Ltrle to Adanr All rhes writings, are scientificall unaccepteblc because they sel a figure on the age of the world and the time man beceusc set figurc thc *orld end time appurd on Earth, "'hieh is most definitely OUI of keeping with appeerd Flarth, uhich definitely out of leeping with what has today been cst:iblished with certainty. The Qur 'an, on whet has trrday cst:rblished with Qut'rn. 6n the otherr hand,. is complcldy frel:" of dara of this kind.. rhe orhe hand is complctely free o[ data of this kirrd Earlier on,, we alsl> noted how perfectlyy th~ Qur'an agrees liarlier on we alro noted how pcrfectl. the Qur'arr attecs w i t h g e n e r e l m o d e r n i d e a s o n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Universe. with general., modern ideas on the form ..tion of the U n i v e r s e , whereass the Biblicall narration stands in contradiction to them;; t h c w h e r e a t h c B i b l i c e n a r r a t i o n s t e n d s i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h e n r the a l l e g o r . of t h e p r i m n r d i a l w a t e r s i s h e r d l y t e n a b l e n o r i s the c r e a allegory yo f the primordial walers i.. hardly tenabll:",, nor is t h e crt"a·. tion o i l iliRht on the firstt day,, before Iht> creation of the stars w h i c h t i o n of g h r o n t h e f i r s d a y b e f o r e t h e c r e a t i o n o [ t h e s t a r s which produce this light; the existence of an evening and a morning b r - p r o d u c e t h i s l i g h t ; t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n c v r n i n g a n d m o r n i n g be- f'lre the creation of the Eanh; the creation of the Earth on the fore E,arrh; Eerth third day befor~ that of the Sun on the fourth; the appearance o[ belbre fourth: appeerencc of beasts of the Earth on the sixth day after the appearance of rhe bcests thc rhe epperrrnce the birds of the air on the fjfth day, although the former came first: all fifrh alrhough ceme first, ell these statements are the result of beliefs prevalent al the time thrr these starements ere rhe belicfs prcvalcnt et time thiS text was wrilten and do nott have any other meaning.. tert wrs writtcn and do no have any other meaning t5
  21. 21. As for the genealogies cC'ntained in the Bible, which form the Ac for the gencelogies conreined in the Bible. which form rhc basis of the Jewish calendar and assert that today the world is beris of thc Jewish celendar end asserr that today S?J8 years old, thesr. are hardly admissible either. Our solar 97tt years old, thcsc erc herdly edmissible eithcr. soler system may well be .. Va billion years old, and the appearance on system mey well be 1r/t billion years old, and eppearence Earth of man, as we know him today, may be estimatr.d in tens of Eerth of men, .s we Lnow him roday. mey esrimeted .housand~ of years, if not mor~. rhotrsrnds of ycers, it more. "0' It is absolutely essential, therefore, to note that the Qur'an It is ebsolutely esrentiel, rhercfore, nore thet Qur'en does not cont~in any such indications as to date, and that these are doer not conltin any such indicarions as end thet rre specific to the Biblical text. rpccific to thc Bibliceltext. There' i~ a second, highly significant, subject of comparison There is e second, highly significent, subjcct comperison betwcen rhe Biblc end (fur'enr between the Bible and the Qur'an: this is the Flood. In actual fact, Flood. ln the Biblinlnarratioo is a fusion of two descriptions in which thc Biblical .nerratioo ie e rwo descriprions event5 arc- related differendy. The Bible speaks of a universal eycnts erc relatcd differenrly. sperks e univcrsal flonct and place!'> it roughly 300 years before Abraham. According llood end pleces ir 300 Abrahem. to what we know ot' Abraham, this would imply oJ universal cata- ro whet *,e Lno*'of Abrahem, rhis imply e cara- clysm around tht' twc.'nty-first or twenty-second century Be. This thr rwenty-first rwenry-second BC. would be untenahle, in view of historical data. unrenahle, deta. lIow can we ..ccept the idea that, in the twenty-first or llow cen rcccpt idee twenty-first twrnty-second century BC, all civilization was wiped off the face twrniy-second BC. ell civilizetion off rhe face of the Earth by a univt"rsal C'iltaclysm, when we know that this pe- rhe Eerth a universal cetaclysm, lnow rhis riod corresponds, for example. to the one preceding rhe Middle erample, the Middle Kingdon, in F~ypr. at roughly the datc of the first lnr.:rmediary Kingdonr tlgvpr. date firsr Int~rmediary period L('(or(' the dt'vc.'nth dynas&y? before clrvcnrh dynasry? Nunr of thc' prl'ct'ding st"'tements is acceptablee aC'C'ording t o N u n e o f t h e P r c c e d i n g s t r t e m e n t s i s a c c e p t a b l a c c o r d i n g to modl'rnnItnowlt'dfte.. rnodr.r knowledge Fronlr this pOilU r of view, we can m e e s u r e t h e ? n o r n r o u s g a p t : r o n t h i s p o r r r o f v i c w . w c c a n measure the rnormous gap 5ep.muingg,ht" Diblt' from the Qu,'an. seperatirt rhe tliblr from rhc Qur'an. Inr cum,,,,tt tt". t th·:. Rihle,, the narration c o n t a i n e d iin t l r u q r r r '·...n f t c u n t r i r , t r h r B i i r l e t h e n a r r a t i o n contained n the Qur t r n drOlls "'irh a c.u.,d.vsm r,hatt is limited r o N o a h ' s p e o p l t ' . lTht'~' w c r t d r l l s w i t h l c ; r t i l c l v s n r h a i s l i n r i t e d to Noah's pcoplc.'. ' h c v wcrt' puaished fcr thl'lf sins. pUI1isht'd for th.'rr sins, as were othcr Lngo<tl-v peopl1.5. Thc other ~ngodh' pt'oplc:s. The 'fhere Qur'ow d~~ nor IOC'3H' thc cereclysm in timt". Thc.·;e ,rr.. .rbs'olurely Q.rr':trr doesnor locate the cataclysm arl' ,lbs~lu,ely no hisforiC'a1 or .uchaeoJogicaJ gbjccrions ro rhc narretion in rhe na hirtoricel erchaeologicel Qbjections to thr narration the Qur'' ..n.. Qtrr an A t h i r d p o i n r o f c o m p a r i s o n whiC'h s cxtrerndy significant. s A third roint of comparison., w h i c h iis c x t r e r n t ' l v s i g n i f i c a n t . iis lhc ..tory of Mosr.s, end especially rhe Exodus from Eg-vpr of rhe rhe' story of Mosl's. and c."specially th(" from egypt of the Ht'hrew!'lrnsJaved to the Pharaoh. Here I can olll" ~ive .ol highl)' Hehrew* ensleved to rhe Pharaoh. Here I carr orrlv givc e highty romptessed acCOunt of ('ompressed .ccount of the study of this sub;ecr rh:rt .rppt ,rrr in mv of subject Ihat .lppl',lt', my b o o l r , I h a v e n o r e d r h e p o i u r s w h e r e r h t lBiblical land e u r ' a n i c book. I have noted thr points whert' rhl' l i b h c u l n r l Qur'aniC' natrations etrcc and disegree, end, for sorne deririls. I have found narrations agrre disagree. and, Stlrnc.' dC-l'li/s, I found points where the two terr$ compl'ement eirch other in a very uselul ')(Jints where two texts comprem("nt e'1l"h aver)' ust"ful rrry. Anrong rhc mlny hvporheses concerrring the posirion WoJ)'. Anaong thr m.IIlY hypotht'st's concerning tht' position l6 16
  22. 22. occupied by the Exodus in history of the pharaohs, I have con- occupied by the Exodus in the history of thc phareoht, I have con' cluded that rhe most likely rhe theory which makes Merneptah, cluded that the most likely is the theory rhich makcr Mcrnepteh, R",meses II's successor, the pharaoh of the Exodus. The con- Rrmeses ll's successor, the pharaoh of thc Erodur. Thc con- frontation uf the data contained in the Scriptures with archaeolosi- frontation of the date contained in thc Scriptures with erchecologi- evidence speaks stongly in favour of this hypotheses. am cal evidence speeks stongly in fevour of this hypothcres. I un plrased able ro say that the Biblical narrarion contributes pleased to be eblc to sry that the Biblicel nrrretion con3ributet weighty evidence leading situate Moses in the history of the weighty evidence leeding us to situete Moses in the history of thc pharaohs: born during reign of Rlimeses II. Bibli- phereohs: Moses was born during the reign of Ramescr IL Bibli- data are therefore of considerable historical value in the story cal dara ere therefore of considereblc historicel velue in the rtory of Moses. of Moses. The medical study of mummy of Merneptah has yielded The medical study of the murnrny of Mernepteh her yieldcd further information causes of pharaoh's furrher useful informetion on the possible causet of this pharaoh'r dUlh. dearh. The 'act thar today possess the mummy of this pharaoh, The fact that we today posscss thc mummy of thie phereoh, which, to be exact, was discovered in 1898, is one of paramount 1898, of paramount i,"portance. The Bible records that it was engulfC'!d in rhe sea, but irnportance. Thc engulfed rca. but does nor give any details as to what subsequently bccrme of the does no: subsequcntly became of bodv, The Qur'an, in the sura Yunus, notes that the lrcdy of the bodv. Qrrr'an, Yunus, body of rhc wes to damned, ~aved pharaoh, who was ro be damnc:-d, would be seved from the waters. urtcrl. 8#;i6 E {iitr'i ;F,;i+1,1 tai .|ih69 C.' *' furi'ti+{Jb This day We save thee in rhy body so that thou mayest be a Si,n This thce e Sign for tho!'>e who come after thee (10:92). those (10:92). A medical examination of this mummy, has, moreover, shown examination mummyr hes, morcover, sholn that the body could not have stayed in the water for long, because that thc nor watcr beceurc does deterioration duc prolonged submerr' it does not show signs of deterioration due to prolonled submers· ion.. ion Here ag.in, the confrontation of the narration in the Qur'an llere egain, rhc nerration thc Qur'en provided modern lnowledge docs give with the data provided by mode-rn knowledle does not live rise to the slightest objecrion from a scientific point uf view. sliglrtrst objection from a scientific point of view' lirerery vorlc The Old Testament constitutes a collection of literary works Testement conititutes a produced in tlre course of tougbly nine centuries rnd which hes produ(c:-d in the course of toughly nine centuries and which has unll~"rgone many alternations. The part played by Inan in the undetgonc meny elternations. The pert pleycd by rnen in rhe actual composition of lht.' texts of the Bible is quite considerable. ectuat-composirion of rhc rcxrs of thc Biblc is qrritc considcreblc. l7 17
  23. 23. The Qur'anic Revelationn has a history which is radically dif-- The Qur'anic Revelatio has a history which is radically dif ferent.. from the moment itt was firstt communicated to man,, itr was feient From the momcnr i was firs communicared to man i was learntt by heanr and written down during Muhammad's own life-- learn bv hear and written down during Muhammed's own life time.. It is thanks to thiss thatt the Qur'an doess notr pose any pro-- time lt is thanks to rhr tha rhe Qur'en doe no pose eny pro hlem of aurhenricity hlt'm of authenticity. . A totally obje~tivt' examination of it, in the light of modern totall.y objccrive ir, rhe knowlt'dge,. leads us to recognisee the agreementr between the two,, k n o w l e d g e l ea d s u s t o r e c o g n i s t h e a g r e e m e n b e t w e e n t h e t w o as has already been noted on repcated occasions lt makes us ;IS has alrt'ady been noted on repeated occasions. . It makes us deem r quire unthinkable fo e nran of Muhammad's time ro have dt't'm itt quite unthinkable forr .. man of Muhammad's timt' to have been the authorr of' such statements,. on account t of the state of been the autho ol such stltemeurs on accoun of the state of knowledge in his day.. Such considerationss arc partt of whatt gives knowlcdge in his day Such consideration are lrar of *'ha gives the Qur'anic Revelation its umque place,. and f{fcess the impartiall the Qur'anic Rcvelation its unrqur place and force the rmpartia scie.'ntiSIt to admitt his inability to pt:ovidee an explanation which scitntis to admi his inability to pqovid an explanarion which calls solelvv upon nuterialisticc reasoning. . calls solel upon nleterialisti reasoning It 18
  24. 24. TIlE LIGHT OF REVELATION TIIE LIGHT OF R,EVELATION INTRODUCTION INTR,ODUCTION WHAT IS LIFE. WHAT IS LIFE. Man's ezist(:nc(: in this world and th(: creation of this entire universe Man's eristence in this world end rhc crertion of this entire universc rre not mere rccidcnts or products of r fonuitous nrturc, This ruriversc, are not mere accidents or products of a fonuitous natur(:. This universe, every singlc etom of ir, menifests rnd poinrs us to thc rcelizrrion ever)' single atom of it, manifests and points us to th(: realization of a r Loving, Mcrciful end All-powerful Crearor. tFithour e Crector nothin3 Loving, Merciful and All-powerful Creator. Without a Creator nothinc can exist. Every single ~oul knows that he is existing and that his cen exist. Evcry single soul krows rher hc is cxisting end thet his cristcnct is dcpendent on e Creltor - he lnows existence is de~ndenl on a Creator - he knows for sur(: that he cannot sure thet he ctnnot create him~e1f. Therefore it is his duty to know his master creator ~ God. creatc himrelf. Thercforc it rs his dutv ro his miLstcrcrcrtor - God. MANKIND. MANKIND. Mrn is r uniquc crc.rurc. Man is a unique creature. God establishes man as His Represen- estrblishes man rs Rcprc*n- trtivc or to govcrn ovcr rll othcr cr€uurtt tative or Deputy to govern over all other creatures in this world. He is Hc endowcd thc frculry endowed with the faculty of REASON, which differentiates him from aU REASON, differcntirres ell other enimels. Thc Prophct seys: other animals. The Prophet says: "God has not created anything ~tter lhan Reason or anything more "Cod has nor cretred enyrhing hetter then Reason perfcct rnorc bcauriful rhen Reason perfect or more beautiful than Reason .. Togethcr this frculty Together with this faculty to discriminate and discern, Men is given discriminrte and disccrn, Man thc freedom (frec-will) chmse the freedom (free-will) to choo'(: for himsclf a way of lifc worrhy of his himself of life worthy of ~ition as God's Representativ~ or ro fell lowcr tl.en thc lowcst of dl trosition es Reprcsenrativecr to fall lower t'.an the lowest of aU animrls crcrtions. Men is animals or creations. Man is born purc and sinless.He is givcn rhc frec pure and sinless. H(: is giv(:n the free will to do righteous deeds or indulge in sins. righteousdeeds indulge sins. DIVINE GUTDANCE. DIVINE GUIDANCE. God,out of his abundrnr Lovc rnd Merca for mrntind has not lcft us God,out of abundant Love and Mercy mankind has left us in drrkness to discover rhe right path by trial rnd error elonc. Couplcd darkness discover th(: trial and alone. Coupled with our intcllecturl capebiliry ro rcason,God bcstowcd upon us DI- intellectual capability to reason, bcstow(:d DI- VINE Gt ltp4lralE rhet ourhnc thc Crirerion for trurh rnd rhe know- VINE GUIDANCE that outline the Criterion truth and the know- ledge end rcrlity of our existence in this world end rhe Hcrcrfrer. ledge and reality of (:xistence and the Hereafter. REVELATIONS. REVELAnONS. From the bcginning of manlind God scnr Prophcts to convcy his From beginning of mankind God sent Prophets to convey his REVEI-ATION end ro invire to rhe puh of TRUE PEACE rrd REVELATION and to invite to the path of TRUE PEACE and I19 9
  25. 25. OBEDIENCE ro orrc truc God. Thfu is ISLAM. This mcssrgewa.~ OBEDIENCE to One true God. This is ISLAM. This mcs511e wer onveycd to lumrivc gerrcrrtions mrn through diffcrent Prophcts, conveyed sucx:essive Jf'nerations of man through different Prophen, of dl inviting mmtind to tbc trmc pth. aU invitina mankind the same path. Hwever rll ttrc crrlier mesrrter or rrvcletions from God wcrr However all the: earlier messllCl revelations were dbtottcd by pcopleof lrtcr gcncrtions. As a rcsuh,pure Rcrrclrtionfrom distorted people oflatcr generations. result, Revelation God wu Crodwu polluted with nyths, supcrstitious.idol worship rnd irrrtirnd with lIlyths, superstitious. and irratiooal pttitcopti,crt idcok;ic. The rcliginn of Crodws lct in r phhon of philosophical ideolocies. religion of God wu lost • plethon of rclfknr. rei..... Hurnrn hirtory ir r chronic,lc of mrn's drift bctwen light rnd Human history is a ebronide of man's drift between and drtlnar3, but God oirt of His Abundrnt Love for mrntind hrs ru darkness, out of Abundant mankind has not fOI'SIbn us. fcr*ca ru. FINAL REVELA.nONs. FINAL NEVBL/ITTONS. Whcn mmtind wrs iri thc &ptb of thc Drrk A3cr, Crodsent thc (mal When mankind wu ini the depth the Dark Aces, God rcnt the linrl Mcrcrgcr, Plophct Muhlamrd (May pc*c be upon him) to rtdcem Mnsenacr, Prophet Muhammad (Mry peace bc upon redeem hunrnity. Thc rcvchrion to ProPhct Muhmrmrd rcprcscntt thc ulti' hUlUnity. The revelation Prophet Muhammad represenu the ulti· nrte rnd Frmrncnt tounoE guidrne menlind. mate and PCr1MDCDt source of guidance for mankind. CRITERIA FOR TRUTH. Cn|TERIA FON. TRUTH. Hos do rrctmwtbet rrcvclrtbn lihtthc Qurm is the uord ofCrod? How do we know that a revelation like the Quran ill the word ofGod? Thc <ritcrir crn be crrily uudtnnnrt dl:- 1be ,Titeria for truth can be eMily understand by a11:- l. RATIONAL TEACHINGS: Sina God bcttowcd rct-sonrnd I. RAnONAL TEACHINGS: Since God bestowed reason and in- rcllcct mmlind, ir ow duty urc distingubh trudr from tellect to mankind, it is our duty to usc it to distinguish' trodt from frbcbood. Tnc undbtortcd rcvclrtion from fu must bc ntiond raJscobood. True undistorted revelation from God must be rational dl urrbirs minds. and can be reasoned out by all unbias minds. md cn bc rcrroncd out 2. PERFECTION; Sincc (H is dl perfcct, Hir rcvchtion must bc 2. PERFECnON: Since God is all perfect, His revelation must be perfcct rnd rerrnj3, fite fium misr*cr, omirsionsinterpoletionsend perfect and KCUJ'lte, free from mistakes, omissions interpolations and nuttiptictty of vcrnions.It thould bc free from gontrdictbru in i13 multiplicity of venions. It should be free from ~ntradietions in its narration. nrrrrtho. 3. NO MYTHS OB SUPERSTITION$ True rcrrchtion fron Ctodis 3. NO MY11IS OR SUPERSnnONS: True revelation fro", God is free fronr myths or supcrstitionsthlt dcgndc thc dignity or God or free from myths or superstitions thlt degrade the dignity or God or man. tnrn. {. $CENTIFICT Sincc God ir tlre crtetor of rll hnorvlcdgc' rnr 4. SCIENTIFIC: Since God is the creator of all knowledge, true rwchtion ir sckntific rnd crn withstrnd thc chellcngcof scicnccet rll revelation is scientific and can withstand the challenge ofscience at all times. tinrcc. 20 20
  26. 26. 5. PnOPHEGT;Crod ir thc l(mrcr of thc pcr, pttt tr rnrl futrrn. 5. PROPHECY: God is the KDowcr of the pat. praeat lad future. Thur Hb uord ot propbccicr in Hb rcyclrtin will bc fuUillcd Thus His word of propbecia in His revelation will be fulfilled •I prophuicd. prophrsied. 6. UN·IMITABLE BY MAN: True revelation from God is iD- 6. UN.IIiITABLE BY MANr Truc rrvchtioa frorn God b iD- ClDible IDd cannot be imitlte<! by 1DIn. God", true melldon is Ir frlliblc rad clmot bc irainted by nrn. God'r tnrc rcvtlrtirn b Liviq minde. In open book chllieftlinc III IDIIIkiDd to see IIId Uvnt nirulc, rrr opct bot chdlerUiry dl Elrtind to rcc md provc for thsurlvcr. prove for themselves. 21 2l
  27. 27. Dear R~ader, Dcer Rcarlcr, There is no compulsion for man to accepl the TRUTH. But it is Thcrc is compulsion man acceptthe TRLffH. is ccrtrinly e shameupon the human intcllctt when mrn is certainly a shame upon the human intellect when man is not even cven interested in finding out as to whet is the TRUTH! intcrestcd as whet is the TRUTH! Islem teaclrcsthet has given mrn thc frculty Islam teaches that God has given man the faculty of reason and reasonend therefore expects man to rea~on things out objectively and sys- therefore expccts men rearon things obiectively rnd sys- tematicrlly reflcct and question rnd tematically for himself. To reOect and to question and to reflect. himself. reflect. Nobo-ly should pressyou to makee hastydccision scrept rny Nobody should press you to make a hasty decision to accept any of the teachings of Islam, for Islam teaches that man should be given thc teachings Islam, lslam terchesthet mrn should bc given the freedom chooae.Even when man is facedn ith the TRUTH, the freedom to choose. Even when man is faced with the TRUTH, thcrc is there is no compulsion upon man to embrace it. compulsion upon man embrace But before you begin to form an opinion about Islam, ~k yourself bcfore you bcgin an about lslam. askyoursclf whether your existi~g knowledge of Islam thorough enough. Ask whethcr your existirg knowledge Islam rhoroughcnough.Ask yourself whether thet knowlcdgc hrs bccn obtsined yourself whether that knowledge has been obtained through oon-non- party sourceswho themselves have probably bccn Muslim third party sources who themselves have probably been exposed only rendom glimpses lslamic writings and hrve yet exposed to only random glimpses of Islamic writings and ha....e yet to to reason on Islam objectively and systematically themselves. to reason ur Islam obiectively and systematicdlythemsclves. It is fair that one !lhould form an opinion about the taste of a is frir that one should en about the taste a particular dish just hy heresay from others who may themselves particular dish just hcresay othcrs who mey themsclves hevetestcd thc dish yet? Similarly you should not necessarily have tasted the dish yet? Similarly you should find necessarily yourself ebout islam out for yourself about Islam from reliable sources and not only rcliablc sourcesand not an opinion. Thst u'ould taste it, but digest it wdl before you form an opinion. That would tastc bur digcst wcll bcforc you be an intellect apprC'dch to Islam. be en intellect rpprcach to Islam. It is up to you to make the next move. is you mekc thc ncxt move. meking !'our move, Islam continuouslyrcassures thrt y'our you In making your move, Islam continuously reassures you that your rights rights to freedom of choice and freedom to use that God-given freedom choicc and frecdom usc thrt God-given faculty of thought and reason will be respel,.'"ted. Every man has faculty thought and reason tre resper,red. Every mrn hes thet individual wiU. that individual wiU. No one else can take away that will and force one elsecan takeaweythrt end force you surrenderto the you to surrender to the will of God. You have to find Ollt aud make God. You haveto find orrtarrdmake that decision yourself. that dccision yoursclf. May your intellectual journcy towards the TR L'TH be a pleasant Illay intellectual journey towards rhe TRLI"I'H be a pleasrnt one. one. 22 22
  28. 28. ~l~' 0iFirl ~J.af' ,-Jaf'j e{.Lrll phJlg , i .lli ~u .. ':?S~~~ ... .J gitsJt' Lral_.L1. a::hU iLr.o.rot$l a~,et"..,;J' a,rrbJf ~..~, ib.rliJiJf tuj'driyf ailb ~j:'? ·t~' a.iJJ~
  29. 29. ..iLl,iii,I"l .ilisl illrl FI,JIj.,jj.cll¥clJla ,pr1l/l ;;nllry;'l!c ~l~' d,lJ-ill edJ--ll pJrtlg ~J.;d' ,.-laSt" ~u .. r-fuJ13 gfKSf U*rU9..rl . "-'I adrll Aj trt5}f a.$-+ilf a' .a """.,~..'h II a.w.a-J~' . - arj'rlriYf ai|Jb ....lIttJi .).:.1 U.iJ~~ 'irlfuii_11{ A;*J"* ~l)V'~.>.:-"~tl..P rVte,/lrfJ{1" ~'~J 4.lI..J.J.lJ <l,:JJljlj 4.! 4.1l1 y.;:. c,:-rJ: o{*Jlr., d dlr ,;i +.ut 1"r*+J5 www.rajhiawqaf.org