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  1. 1. THE MUSLIM'S BELIEF BY ShaikhMuhammadas-Silehat-Uthaimin Translatedby Dr. ManehHammadal-Johani
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS - Translator's Foreward - ShaikhIbn Baz'sPreface - Author's Introduction Chapter I - Beliefin Allah's Lordship,Oneness, and Attributes Allah's Will: Universal and Legal More of Allah's Artributes Describing Allah by His Revelation chapterrl : il::::;.::#'o.lll,-, contradi. tions Chapter III - Angel'sFunctions Chapter IV - Beliefin Allah'sBooks - Booksknown - The Qur'a-n Protected from Change - Previous Scriptures Changed. Chapter V - Beliefin l,lessengers - The Firstend LastMessengers - The BestMessengers
  3. 3. - Messengers Human beings are - Islam:The Universal and Final Message - RightlyGuidedcaliphs - Prophet's Companions Chapter VI - Beliefin the Angels - Beliefin Resurrection - Beliefin Records and Scales - The Prophet'sIntercession - The StraightPath Beliefin Paradise Hell and - Beliefin What Happens the Grave in ChapterVII - Belief in Fateand Divine Decree - Levelsof Beliefin Fate - Man's FreeWill - Fate No Excuse Sinners for - Evil Not Attributable Allah ro ChapterVIII - Virtuesof Beliefin Allah - Virtuesof Beliefin Angels - Virtuesof Beliefin Books - Virtuesof Beliefin Messengers - Virtuesof Beliefin Day of Judgement - Virtuesof Beliefin Fate.
  4. 4. TRANSLATOR'SFOREWARD ln the Name of Allah. Mosl Grgcious, Most Merciful I found this treatise of the Muslim's creed a conciseand useful pre- sentation of a very important topic. The need for this treatise,especially among the non-Arabic speakingreaders.cannot be over-estimated.The- refore, I decidedto transalte it and make it accessable English readers. to I would like to draw the attention of the readersto the following points: l. I gave the book the title THE MUSLIM'S BELIEF insteadof the author's'Agidat Ahl rs Sunnahwe-l-Jami.ah which may be trans- lated as The Creed of the Peopleof Sunnahand Mejority. I think my preference justified by: is a) The title I preferredis shorter b) The two titles mean almost the same c) The original title containssometechnicalterms that are not only difficult to translate,but also difficult to understandby many rea- ders. d) The original title may antogonizesome readerswho are misin- formed about the true designations the words in the original of title. 2. I provided, in parentheses after every Qur'dnic verse,the numbers cf chaptersand versesquoted by the author without giving their proper reference. This I deemed useful for readers who do not know the Qur'an by heart and would like to check any of these verses. 3. Because author, in most cases,quotes or paraphrases the some of the Prophetic traditions without indicating them to the readers.I tried, wheneverI could recognize thesetraditions, to put them in quotations and to cite in parentheses Prophetic collectionsin the which they are reporred.In most casesI limited myself to Bukhari and Muslim collections, whenever sayingis quoted in them. If it the is not in thesetwo collections,'l mention one or two of the other collectionsthat contain the quoted saying. 4 . I p r o v i d e dt h e a r r a n g e m e no f t h e t e x t i n t o c h a p t e r s n d h e a d l i n e s t a for easeof reading and understanding.I also provided a table of contentsfor easeof reference. -5-
  5. 5. 5. ln translatingthe Qur'6nic versesquoted in this treatise,I did not follow any specific translation of the Qur'in. I benefited from more than one, but followed my own preference. It is my sinceredesireand hope that this book would be of greathelp to thosewho consult it. Please include in your prayer all those who con- tributed to its presentshape. M.J. -6-
  6. 6. PREFACE SHAIKH ABD AL.AZIZ IBN BAZ BY In the Name of Allah. Most Gracious.lfost llerciful. P r a i s eb e l o n g st o A l l a h a r o n e ;p c a c ea n d b r c . ' r i r r orn t h e l a s t p r o - , p h e t ,h i s f a m i l v a n d h i s c o m p a n i o n s . I w a s i n t r o d u c c d o r h el a l u a b l ea n c lc o n c i s c r c a t i s ro n t h e M u r l i m . s t t . belief preparcd b1' our brorher. rhe -ereatschotar. shaikh N{uhanrrnad a s - s d l e h l - U r h a i m i n . l i s r c n c .tc l i t a l l a n d t ' o u n d; h a r i r c o v e r s h e a I tr t crccd o f t h e S u n n i r c s n d t h e m a i ' s t r c a n lm a j o r i t yo f l l r c i l u s l i m s , i n t h c a arca o f t h e o n e n e s so f A l l a h . H i s A , r r r i b u t e s , c b c r i c f i n r h e A n g e r s .t h c th B o o k s a n d r h e l c s s c n - c c r sl.: c D a 1 ' o f J u d g e m e n a n d i n t h e b c l i e f o f i r F a t e a n c !D i ' i n c D e c r e e .H e ' s u c c c c d c dn c o l l c c t i n gu h a r r h c s e c k c ro f i k n o r r ' l c d ga n d L ' ' c r ) t u s l i m n c c d i n h i s b e l i c . t ' i n I l a h . H i r , n g e l , . H i s c A S c r i p t u r e sH i s m e s s c ' n g e r s ,e D a 1 . o l ' J u d g c n r . ' a n c iF u t c .H c i n c l t r r l c < l . th nr i n h i s t r c a t i s e s c f u li n t o r m a t i o nr c l a r e crlo t h c l r t u s l i m , s e l i c f sr h a r u b are n o t r e a d i l ya ' a i l a b l c i n m a n y o f t h e b o o k s w r i r r e no n r h e s e o p i c s .M a y t Allah re'*'ardrhc aurhor, incrcasehim in knouredgcand guidance,ancl make this book and his othcr books mosr uselul. ilay-Allah the Hcarer and the Close, blessus and him and all our brothersanclmake us among thosewho are guiding and righrly guidedto call peopleto Allah uirh surc knowledge. D i c t a t c db v ' A b d a l - A z i z i h n B a z . n r l y A l l a h f o r g i v c h i n t u n d s h o w e rp e a c ca n d b l e s s i n g n o < r u rP r o p h c r l t u h a m n r a d ,h i s l ' : r m i 1 1a . d h i s .n companions. -7 -
  7. 7. AUTHOR'S INTRODUCTION I n t h e N a m e o f A l l a h , M o s t G r a c i o u s ,M o s l M e r c i f u l . P r a i s e e t o t h e L o r d o f t h e u n i v e r s e h o g i r e st h e b e s tr e w a r dt o t l r c b w godfearingand the great lossto the transgressor. bear witnessthat there I is no God but Allah; He has no partner and possesses sovereignty. real I bear witnessthat Muhammad is His servantand messenger; seal of the the Prophetsand the leaderof the godfearing.May Allah blesshim and blesshis family, companionsand those who follow them till the Day of Judgement. Allah has sent His messenger Muhammad, peacebe upon him' with the real guidanceand the true religionas a mercyto mankind, a model for those who do good, and Allah's argument against mankind. Through Mumhammad and what was revealed him, namely,the Qur'6n and the to Prophetic sayings,Allah showedmankind all meansof reforming them- selves and straighterring their religious and mundane affairs in sound beliefs,right conducts,fine morals, and laudablemanners.The Prophet, peacebe upon him, 'left his followers' on a clear straight path, only the doomed will deviatefrom it." (lbn Mdjah & Ahmad) His followers,the companiorrs,their followers and those who faithfully followed them are the best of mankind. They established law, upheld his way and held his fast to it as a belief and piactice,a moral and manner. By this, "They are consideredthe party who are victorious, on the straight path, unharmed by those who are against them till the end of the world." (Bukhiri & Muslirl). We, thanks to Allah, are following their footstepsand guided by their exampleswhich are supported by the Qur'dn and the Prophetic tra- ditions. We are sayingthis only as an announcement Allah's blessings of and clarificationof what every Muslim should believe.We pray to Allah that He may keep us and our brotherson the straightpath in this life and in the Hereafter and give us mercy from Him, He is the Giver. It is beeauseof the importance ol this topic and the difference of opinions about it, that I want to briefly explain our creed - the belief of the Sunnites and the main stream Muslims (Ahl as-Sunneh wr-l-Jami'ah). This creedis the belief in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, Day of Judgement,and Fate whether good or bad. I the prav to Allah to make this effort sincerefor His sake, in agreementwith Hrs wish, and useful for His people. M.S.U. -8-
  8. 8. CHAPTER I OUR CREED Our creedis to believe Allah, His Angels, in His Books,His Mes- sengers, Day of Judgertrent, Fatewhether the and good or bad. Belief in Allah's Lordship,Oneness, Attributes snd - We believe Allah'sDivinity,thatis He is theLord, theCreator, in the Sovereign, the Manager all affairs. and of - We believe Allah's Codship; in that is, He is theTrue God andevery other deity is false. - We believein His Namesand Attributes, that is He has the mosr magnificent Namesand the sublimeperfectAttributes. - We believe His Oneness all this, that is, He hasno associate in in in His Divinity,His Godship, Names, His Attributes. His or Allah says in the Qur'6n: "He is the Lord of the Heavens and the Earth and all that is in betweenthem, so worship Him and be patient in His worship, you know any equalto Him." (19:65) do - We believe that He is "Allah thereis no Cod but He, the Living the Everlasting.Slumber does not seizeHim, neither sleep;to Him belongs that is in the Heavens all and the Earth. Who is therethat shallintercede with Him except His permission? knowswhat is by He beforethem and what is behindthem, and they do not emcompass anythingof His knowledge except what He wills. His Throneextends over the Heavens and the Earth; the preservation them doesnot of burdenHim; He is the High, the Great." (2:255) - We believe that "He is Allah, thereis no god but He - the Knower of the Unseen the Visible,He is the Most Gracious, and Most Mer- ciful. He is Allah, thereis no God but He, the King, the Holy One, the Source of Peace, the Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the Almighty, the Subduer, Sublime.Glory be to Allah abovewhat the they associate with Him. He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, the Shaper, arethe mostbeautifulNames. that is in the Heavens His All and the Earth glorfies Him. He is the Almighty, the Wise." t59:22-4) - We believe that to Him belongs kingdomof the Heavens the the and Earth: "He creates what He pleases. gives,to whom He wills, He females, He gives, whom He wills, males,. He couples and to or them, males and females; and He makes whom He wills barren.Surely,Hc is the Knowing.the Powerful." (42:49-50). -9-
  9. 9. We believethat "There is nothing whateverlike unto Him, He is thc All-Hearing, the AII-Seeing.To Him belongsthe keys of the Hea- v e n s a n d t h e E a r t h . H e e n l a r g e s n d r e s t r i c t s r o v i s i o n st o w h o m a p He wills. Surely He has knowledgeof everything." (42:l l-12). We believethat "There is no creaturethat movesin the Earth but its provision dependson Allah. He knows its dwelling and its resting place. AII is recordedin a clear Book." (l l:6) We believethat "With Him are the keys of the Unseen;none knows them but He. He knows what is in land and sea;not a leaf falls, but He knows it. Not a grain in the deep darknessof the Earth, not a thing greenor dry but it is in a clear Book." (6:59). We believethat "Allah alone has the knowledgeof the Hour, sends down rain, and knows what is in the wombs. No soul knows what it shall earn tomorrow, and no soul knows in what land it shall die. Surely, Allah is All-knowing, All-aware." (31:34) We believe that Allah speaks wbatever He pleaseswhenever [{e pleases"And Allah spoke to Moses directly." Q:164) "And when Moses came at Our appointed place, and his Lord spoke to him." (7:143) "We called to him from the right side of the Mount (Sinai), and We brought him near in communion." (19-52) We believethat "If the oceanbecameink for the words of my Lord, the ocean would be finished before the words of my Lord came lo a n e n d . " ( 1 8 : 1 0 9 )" A n d i f a l l t h e t r e e st h a t a r e i n t h e e a r t h w e r e pens, and the ocean (were ink), with sevenoceansswellingit there- fore, the words of Allah would not be exhausted.Surely, Allah is M i g h t y , W i s e . " ( 3 1: 2 7 ) . We believe that Allah's words are the most truthfirl in conveying information, the most just in ruling, and the fairest in conversation. He said, "The word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and justice." (6:l15) "And who is more truthful in his word than Allah?" (4:74). We believethat the Qur'an is Alllh's words. He literally spoke it to Gabriel who conveyedit to the Prophet, peacebe upon him: "Say (O Muhammad) the Holy Spirit has brought it down from your Lord in truth." (16:102) "Truly it is the revelationof the Lord of the worlds brought down upon your heart by the Faithful Spirit sc that you may be one of the warners,in a clear Arabic tongue." (26:192-5) We believethat Allah is well above his creaturesin His person and His Attributes, becauseHe says, "He is the High, lhe Great." -10-
  10. 10. (2:255) "He is Supreme over His servants, He is the Wise.the and (6: All-aware." l8). - We believe that He "created Heavens the Earthin six days, the and then He settledHimselfon the Throne;He manages everything." (i0:3) His "settling on the Throne" meansthat He is sitting in person His Thronein a way that is becoming His Majesty on to and greatness. Nobodybxcept knowsexactly He how He is sitting. - We believe that He is with His crearures while He is still on His Throne.He knowstheir conditions, hearstheir sayings, sees their deeds and manages their affairs.He provides the poor'andthe for broken.He givessovereignty whom He pleases takesaway to and sovereig,nty from whom He pleases; exaltswhom He wills and He He abases whom He wills. In His hand is all good and He is powerful over everything.Whoever possesses these qualitites is literallywith His creatures evenif He is literallyaboverhemon His Throne. "There is nothing whatsoever unto Him; He is the like g." All-hearing, All-seein (42:lll the - We do not say as the Incarnationists among the Jahomites and otherssay, that is, Allah is living with His creatures Earth. We on considerwhoeversaysthis a non-believer strayingawaybecause or he attributedto Allah that doesnot become Him of defects. - We believein what His Messenger told us that He descends the to nearsky beforethe lastthird of everynight and says:"Who prays to Me and I will answer prayers? his Who asksfMe and I will give him? Who asksmy forgiveness I will forgivehim? (Bukhari& and Muslim). - We believe that He will comeat the Day of Judgement judge to amongHis people because said,"No indeed! He whenthe Earth is crushed powder,and your Lord comes to down with the angels in rowsafter rows,and Hell is broughtour that day. On that day man will remember, but what will rememberance avail him?" (89:21-23) - We believe that He is the Doerof what He wills. - 1'l-
  11. 11. ALLAH'S WILL: UNIVERSAL AND LEGAL - We believe that His will is of two kinds: Universal will: through which His intention is carried out. It is not necessarythat what is carried out is liked by Him. This type of will means permission,as Allah said, "Had Allah willed, they would not have fought one againstthe other, but Allah doeswhateverHe desires," (2:253)and "If Allah desires lead you astray, He is your Lord." (ll:34). to Legal will: which does not necessarilyentail that the execution of His desire.The will, in this case,cannot be but what He likes, as He said, "Allah wants to forgive you." (4:21) - We believethat His universal and legal wills are part of His wisdom. Every thing He performs in the universe or requires legally from His creatures is for a good reason and according to His wisdom, whe- ther we grasp it or it escapesour reasons: "ls not Allah the best of Judges?" (95-9), "And who is better than Allah in judgement for a peoplewho have firm faith." (5:50) - We believethat Allah loves His selectservantsand they love Him: "Say if you love Allah, follow me and Allah will love you," (3:31) "Allah will bring a people whom He will love and who will love Him", (5:45) "Allah loves the steadfast," (3:146) "And act justly, surely, Allah loves the just," (49:9) and "Do good; Allah loves those who do good." (5:93) - We believe that Allah likes what He prescribed of good deeds and sayingsand He dislikeswhat He prohibited of bad deedsand sayings:"If you disbelieve, surely Allah does not need you, yet He does not like disbelief for His servants;if you are thankful, this pleases Him," (39:7), "But Allah disliked their marching forth. So He kept them back, and it was said to them: "Stay with the weak- lings." (9:aQ. - We believethat Allah is pleasedwith those who believein Him and do good deeds: "Allah is well pleasedwith them and they are well pleasedwith Him. That is for him who fears his Lord." (98:8) - We believe that Allah is angry with those who deserveHis anger among the non-believers and others; "And those who think evil thoughts of Allah, against them shall be the evil turn of fortune. Allah is angry with them." (48:6) "But whoever opens his heart to disbelief, on them is Allah's wrath and they shall have a severe p "rnishment. (16:106). " -12-
  12. 12. MORE OF ALLAH'S ATTRIBUTES - We believethat Allah has a glorious and dignified face: "There will reinain the face of your Lord, majesticand splendid." (55:27) - We believe that Allah has two generous hands: "No, both His hands are wide open; He spendshow He pleases,"(5:64) "They do not esteemAllah with the esteemthat is due to Him. The whole Earth will be His handful on the Day of Resurrection,and the Heavenswill be rolled up in His right hand. Glory be to Him and exaltedis He above that which they associate with Him." (39-67) - We believe that Allah possesses two real eyes, becauseHe said, " A n d b u i l d t h e a r k u n d e r O u r e y e sa s W e r e v e a l . " ( l l : 3 7 ) T h e Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "His veil is light. Had He removed it, the sublimity of His countenance would have burnt all that His sight reached." (Muslim & Ibn Mijah) The Sunnitesuna- nimously have agreedthat His eyes are two. This is supported by the Prophet's saying about rhe Dajjdl (the anri-Christ) that "he is one-eyed and your Lord is not one-eyed." (Bukhiri & Muslim) - We believethat "Eyes cannot perceiveHim, but He perceives the e y e s ,H e i s t h e I n c o m p r e h e n s i b l t h e A l l - a w a r e . " ( 6 : 1 0 3 ) e, - We believe that the believerswill see their Lord on the Day of Resurrection:"Upon that day some faces shall be radiant, gazing upon their Lord." (15:22-3) - We believethat Allah has no equal because His Attributes are per- fect: "There is nothing whatsoevelike unto Him. He is the All- r H e a r i n g ,t h e A l l - S e e i n g . "( 4 2 : l l ) - We believethat "No slumber or sleepseizesHim," (2:255)because His life is perfect and eternal. - We believethat He does not do injustice to anybody becauseHis fairnessis perfect. - We believethat He is not unawareof His servants'deedsbecause of His perfect supervision and comprehensive knowledge. - We believethat He is capableof doing anything in the Heavensor in the Earth because His perfect knor.rledge of and power: "lndeed His command, when He desires thing, is only to say to it 'Be' and a it is." (36:82) - We believe that He is free from wearinessand weaknessbecauseof His super-power:"Surely, We created the Heavensand the Earth and all that is betweenthem in six days, and no weariness touched U s . "( 5 0 : 3 8 ) . -13-
  13. 13. DESCRIBINGALLAH B Y H I S R E V E L A T I O I We believe all that H e a s s i g n e do H i m s e l l ' o r w h a t H i s M e s s e n g : r in t describedHim with. of names and attributes; but we reject two concepts: l) To say or believethat Allah's Attributes are similar to those of His creatures: 2) To say or believethat Allah's Attributes are like such and such. We negateall what He negatedabout Himself or what His Messenger negatedabout Him. We believethat negation implies the affirmation of a perfect opposite. We do not discusswhat He or His Messenger did not mention about Him. We believe that following this apprach is a must becausewhat Allah affirmed or negated concerning Himself is a statement He made about Himself. He knows Himself best, His words are most just and trustful and people cannot know everything about Him. What Aliah's Messenger affirmed or negatedabout Him is a statementhe made about Allah. Besidesknowing Allah bettcr than anyone, he is the most truthful, sincereand eloquentamong people.Thus, in what Allah said and what His prophet said concerning His Names and Attributes is truth, knowledge,and clarification. Therefore,we have no execuseto reject or even hesitate in accepting it. -14-
  14. 14. PART II T H E Q U R ( A N A N I ) S U N N A H : S O U R C E SO F H I S A T T R I B U T E S All that we mentionedabout Allah's Altributes whetherbriefly or in detail, affirmalively or negatively, basedon the Book of our Lord and is the traditions of our Prophet. lt also agreeswith the practiceof the pre- vious generations Muslims and the rightly guided scholarswho gnms of a f t e rt h e m . We believeit is obligator;-to take the texts of the Qur'an and the Prophetictraditionsconcerning Allah's Attributes at their face valueand interpret them in a way that is suitableto Almighty Allah. We reject the practiceof thosewho twistedthe meanings thesetextsand understood of t h e m i n a w a y .l h a t w a s n o t i n t e n d e d y A l l a h a n d H i s m e s s e n g e r . b We also reject the practiceof thosewho made them devoid of their meanings conveyedby Allah and His Messenger. finally reject the as We approachof the exaggerationists gavethem a pnysicalinterpretation who t h a t m a k e sA l l a h s i m i l a rt o s o m eo f H i s c r e a t u r e s . THU QUR'AN AND SUNNAII: SOURCUS I HtS ATTRIBUTES O W e k n o r v f o r s u r et h a t w h a t i s r e v e a l e dn A l l a h ' s B o o k a n d i n t h e i t r a d i t i o n so f H i s M e s s e n g ei r t h e t r u t h . l t d o e sn o t c o n t a i na n y c o n t r a - s d i c t i o n : " D o t h e y n o t p o n d e ro v e r t h e Q u r ' d n ? I f i t h a d b e e nf r o m o t h e r t h a n A l l a h , s u r e l yt h e y w o u l d h a v e f o t r n d i n i t a l o t o f d i f f e r e n c e s . " (4:82) C o n t r a d i c t i o n sn s t a t e m e n t f a l s i f y l h e m , a n d t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l en i s i t h o s es t a t e m e r r trs v e a l e dr o m A l l a h a n d s a i d b y l { i s M e s s e n g e r e f p,e a c e b e u p o n h i m . / l r o o ' e rc l a i m st h a t t h e r ea r c c o n t r a d i c l i o n is t h e Q u r ' a n , n tht'l'ronheticraditions r betueen t o t h e t r r ' om u s t h a v eu i c k c d i n t e n t i o n a n d a m i s g u i d e d e a r t .S o h e s h o u l dr e p e n ta n d q u i t h i s s i t r . l l ' s o n r e o n e h i n r a g i n ets a t t h c r ca r c o r n ec o t t t r i t d i c t i t t itlrrs h e Q u r ' a n ,t l r es a y i n g o f h t s t h e P r o p h c to r b c l w e e n h e s el r v < ,t h i s m u s t b e a r e s u l to f h i s l i t t l e k n o w - l r, l e d g e ,i n a d e q u a t e n d e r s t a n d i no r l a c k o l d e e pt h i n k i n g .T h e r e f o r e , e u g h s h o u l ds e e kk n o r v l e d g a n d d o h i s b e s t ' i nr e f l e c t i o n n t i l t h e t r u t h i s c l e a r e u t o h i m . l f a f t e r a l l t h e s e f f o r t s , t h e t r u t h i s n o t c l e a rt o h i m , h e s h o u l d e l e a v e h e w h o l e m a t t e rl o t h e O n e w h o k n o w si t a n d s h o u l dq u i t h i s i m a - t g i n a t i o na n d s a ya s t h o s ef i r m l y r o o t e di n k n o w l e d g e a y : " W e b e l i e v en s i i t . a l l i s f r o m o r r rI o r d " ( l : 7 ) H e m u s l k n o r r t h a t t h e r ea r e n e i t h e c o n - r t r a d i c t i o n s o r d i f f e r e n c e is t h e O u r ' a n , t h e S u n n a ho r b e t u e e n h e t w o . n n t - ll -
  15. 15. CHAPTER III BELIEF IN ANGELS - We believein the existence the angelsof Allah and that they are of ,,honoured servants. They do not speak beforeHe does,and theyact only by His command." (2l.26l Allah created them and they wors- hippedand obeyedHim. Thosewho are at His presence not disdain do to worshipHim, nor do theyweary." (21:19) - Angclsare concealed from us, we cannotseethem' Allah may show them to someof His servants. The ProphetMuhammadsawcabriel in his reat shapewith six hundredwings that coveredthe horizons (Bukhlri & Muslim). Gabrieltook the form of a handsome human beingwho met Mary and exchanged conversation with her. He came to the Prophet while he was among his companions the appea- in ranceof an unknownman who did not showany traceof long travel, with very white clothesand very black hair. He sat facingthe Pro- phet: his kneesto the Prophet'sknees,peace upon him, and his be patmsontheProphet'sthighsandtalkedwiththeProphet.The -Prophet lat€r told his companions the man theysawwasGabriel that (Brrkhiri& Muslim). ANGEL'S FUNCTIONS - We believe tbat the angels assigned are certainfunctions.Among the angels Gabrielwho is entrustect revelation. brings down is with He it rrom nttatr to whomeverHe wishesamong His Prophetsand Mes- sengers. Among them is Michaelwho is in charge rain and plantation. of Among them also is tsraftLwho is in charge blowingthe Horn at the of time oi Thunderbolring and ftesurreclion, Among them is the Angel of death,who takesar"af people's soulsat the time of death'Amongthe angeliis the onewho is in charge mountain; of and Malik, the keeper of Hell. Someangelsareinchargeofembryosinwombs,othersareresp siblefor protecting humanbeings the and otherangels busyin recor- are ding men's deeds:two angelsfor everyperson,"when the two angels word ,"..iu. (hisdeeds), sittingon the right and oneon theleft, not a one hf utteri but by him is an observer ready." (50:18) Some otherangelsare in chargeof questioning deedafter he is the put in his last abode.Two angels cometo him and ask him abouthis Lord, his Religion, and his -16-
  16. 16. Prophet.There"Allah confirmsthosewho believe with the firm say,in the presentlife and the Hereafter,and Allah leadsastraythe evildoers and Allah doeswhat He wills." (14:27) Someof the angels in charge the dwellers Paradise: are of of "The enterto them from everygate,saying'peace upon you for that angels be you werepatient.How excellent your final home." (13:24) is The Prophet, peacebe upon him, told us that seventythousand angelsenteror pray in the PopulousHousein Heaven everyday. They nevercomebackto it aslong asthey live." (because their turn will never come)(Bukhiri & Muslim). -17-
  17. 17. CHAPTER IV BELIEF IN ALLAH'S BOOKS - We believe that Allah revealed Books to His Messengcrs pr'oof as against nankind and a guidance for the righteous workers. They purified nd taught them wisdom by these Books. - We be e that Allah sent down a Book with every Messenger becaur He says "lndeed We sent down our Messengers with the clear signs, and We sent down with them the Book and the Ilalanceso that people may uphold justice." (57:25) BOOKS XNOWN Among theseBooks we know the following: I The Torrh which was revealed Moses,peacebe upon him. lt is the to grealcst among the lsraelites' books. "Surely, f,'e sclrt down the Torah, whercin is guidanceand light; by its laws tltc Jcrrs have beerr judged by the Prophets who surrenderedthemselves Allah, the lo rabbis and the doctors of law becau:;elhey were entrustedthe pro- tection of Allah's book and were witnesses thereto." (5:44) 2. The GospelrvhichAllah revealed Jesus,peacebe uporr him. lt is a to confirrnation of the T0rah and a complementto it. "And we gave him the Gospel, *'herein is guidance and light and confirming the Torah before it, as a guidance and an admonition to th, godfearing." (5:46) "And to make lawful to you certairrthings that, trefore,were forbidden to you." (3:50) 3. The Psalmswhich Allah gave to David, peacebe upon ltitlr. 4. Tablels of Abraham lnd Moses, peacebe upon them. 5. The Glorious Qur'an which was revealed to l{is Prophet Itlulrammad, the Seal of the Prophets. ll is "a guidance to the pcoplc and clear signs of guidanceand criterion bet'cct.l right and u rong." ( 2 :I 8 5 ) TI{E QIJR'AN lS PROTECTED ['ROM CHANGII Ihe Qur'an is "confirming the scripture that was bcfore it and standsas a guardianover it." Thus, by the Qur'an Allah ablogatedall the pt cvi6n5Books. Allah hasalso guaranteed protectionlrotn any play or its nriscnievous distortion. "lndeed, We sent dorvn the messagc and We will g t r a r di t . " ( 1 5 : 9 )T h a t i s b e c a u s eh e Q u r ' a n i s a p r o o f a g a i n s t a n k i n d t m till the f)ay of Judgement. .-18-
  18. 18. PREVIOUS SCRIPTURES CHANGEI.) The previousscripturrs were meant for a limited period that ended with the revelationof what abrogatedthcm and exposed what had takcn place in them of distortion and change.That is why they were not pro- tected from corruption. They underwentdistortion, addition and omis- sion. "Some of the Jewspervertwords from their meanings." (4:46)"So 'This is woe to thosewho write the Book with their hands, and then say, from Allah,' that they may sel. it for a little price. So woe to them for what their hands have written, and woe to them for their earnings." (2:79)"Say, who sentdown the Book that Mosesbrought as a light and a guidanceto people?You put it into sheets papershowingsomeof thent of and concealingmuch." (6:91) "And there is a group among them who twist their tongueswith the Book, that you may think it is a part of the 'lt Book, but it is not part of the Book. And they say is from Atlah,' yet it is not from Allah, and they tell a lie againstAllah and they know it. lt is not for any human beingto whom Allah hasgiven the Book, the Wisdom and the Prophethood to say to men "Worship me intead of Allah," (3:J8-70) "People of the Book! Our Messengerhas come to you, making clear to you many things you have beenconcealing the Bookof and forgive you much. A light has come to you from Allah and a glorious Book, with u'hich He will guide whoeverfollows His pleasurein the way of peace,and bringsthem forth from darkness into the light by His will." ( 5 :I 5 - l 6 ) -19-
  19. 19. CHAPTER V BELIEF IN MESSENGERS - We believethat Allah has sent to His people messengers who were "bringing good tidings and warning, so that mankind might have no argument against Allah after the messengers. Allah is All- mighty, All-wise." (4: 165) THE FIRST AND LAST MESSENGERS - We believe that the first among the Messengers Noah and the is last is Muhammad, peacebe upon them all. "We revealedto you as We revealed to Noah and the Prophets after hiin." (a:163) "Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but the Mes- sengerof Allah and the Sealof the Prophets." (33:40) THE BEST MESSENGERS - We believe that the best among the messengers Muhammad, is then Abraham, then Moses, then Noah and then Jesus, son of Mary. It is they who are meant by the following Qur'inic verse: "And when We took compact from the Prophets, and from you, and from Noah. and Abraham, Moses, and Jesus,son of Mary. We took from them a solemn compact." (33:7) - W e b e l i e v e t h a t M u h a m m a d ' s m e s s a g e ,p e a c eb e u p o n h i m , includes all the merits of the messages those dignified messen- of gers becauseAllah says, "He ordained for you that He enjoined on Noah and what He revealedto you and what He enjoined on Abraham Moses and Jesus,namely, established this faith and be u n i t e di n i t . " ( 4 2 : 1 3 ) MESSENGERS ARE HUMAN BEINGS - We believe that all messenSers are created human beings who have none of the divine qualities of Allah. Allah, the Exalted. said about Noah. who was the first among them, "l do not say to y o u , ' l p o s s e s sh e t r e a s u r e s f A l l a h , ' I d o n o t k n o w t h e u n s e e n , t o 'l am an angel'." (ll:31) Allah directed and I do not say: Muhammad who is the last among them to say: "I do not say to you I possessthe treasures of Allah, nor do I know the unseen, 'l am an angel." (6:50) And to say: "l and I do not say to you have no power to bring profit or hurt for myself, but as Allah -20-
  20. 20. wills." (7:188) And also to say: "1 have no power to hurt or benefit you. Say none can protect me from Allah, nor can I find any refuge besidesHim." (72:21-2) - we believe that the messengers are among Allah's servants. He blessedthem with the message and describedthem as servants,in the context of praising and honouring them. So, He says about Noah, the first among them: .,you.,are the descendants those of whom We carried with Noah, he was a truly thankful servant." (l7:3) Allah said about the last among them, Muhammad, peacebe upon him: "Blessed be He who sent down the eur'dn to His servant,that he may warn mankind." (25: I ) He said about someother messengers: , ,And mention our servantsAbraham, Isaac, and Jacob men of might and vision." (38:45) "And rememberour servantsDavid who was a mighty a n d p e n i t e n tm a n . " ( 3 8 :l 7 ) " A n d t o D a v i d , w e g a v eS o l o m a n ,h e w a s a n excellentand penitent servant." (38:30) Allah said about Jesus, son of Mary: ,,He is only a servantwhom We blessed and we made him an exampleto the children of Isreal." (63:59) - we believethat Allah concludedall messages with the message of Muhammad, peacebe upon him, to all people because Allah said: " S a y , ' O m a n k i n d , I a m A l l a h ' s m e s s e n g etro y o u a l l . T o H i m belongs the Kingdom of the Heavensand the Earth; There is no god but He. He ordains life and death. So believe in Allah and His messenger, the unlettered prophet who believesin Allah and His words. Follow him so that you may be rightly guided." ( 7 :I 5 8 ) ISLAM: THE UNIVERSAL AND FINAL MESSAGE - we believe that rhe Sharijah of the prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, is the religion of Isram which Ailah has chosen for His servants and does not accept from anyone other rerigion, b e c a u s eA l l a h , t h e E x a l t e d , s a i d , , , S u r e l y , r h e t r u e r e l i g i o - n n i A l l a h ' s s i g h t i s I s l a m , " ( 3 : 1 9 )a n d . H e a l s o s a i d , . . T o d a y I have perfectedyour religion for you and I have completed my favour u p o n y o u , a n d I h a v e c h o s e nl s l a m t o b e y o u r r e l i g i o n . , , ( 5 : 3 ) And "whoever desiresa religion other than Isram, it wilr never be acceptedfrom Him, and in rhe Hereafrer he will be among the l o s e r s . "( 3 : 8 5 ) -21 -
  21. 21. - lt is our opinion that whoeverclaims the acceptability any of existingreligiontoday - other than lslam - such as Judaisnt, Christianity and so forth, is a non-believer. shouldbe askedto l{e repent,if he doesnot, he must be killed as an apostate because he is rejecting Qur'an. the It is alsoour opinionthat whoever rejects universal the message of Nluhamntad, peace upon him, is rejedting message all messen- be the of gers,evenif he claimsthat he believes followshis messengeAllah, and . the Exalted,said: "Noah's peoplerejected messengers." the (26:105) Thus, Allah considered them rejecting the messengers all despite fact the that therewasno messenger beforeNoah. This is alsoclearfrom the fol- lowing verses: "Those who disbelieve Allah and His messengers, wish to in and makcdivisionbetween Allah and His messengers, say:'We believe and in someand disbelieve others,'wishingto take a midwaycourse. in Those indeedare the unbelievers, We have.prepared the unbelievers and for a humiliating (4: punishment." 150-l) - We believe that thereis no prophetafter Muhammad,Allah's Mes- senger,peacebe upon him. Whoever claims prophethoodafter him, or believes anyone in it, because is claiming is a disbeliever he rejectingAllah, [Iis messenger, the Muslims'consensus' and TIIE RICHTLY GUIDED CALIPHS - We believethat the Prophet, peace be upon him, had rightly- guidedsuccessors carriedout his Sunnrh in spreading who know- ledge, calling to Islam and managingthe Muslims' affairs. We believethat the best among them and the most entitled to Cali- phate was Abii Bakr as-Siddiq,then 'Umar lbn al-Khattab,then 'Urhman lbn 'Affan, then 'Ali lbn Abi TAlib, may Allah be pleased with them all. Thus their succession the Caliphatewas to accordingto their virtues. Allah, the Exalted, who possesses the infinite wisdom, would not appoint a ruler over the best of gene- ratiorrsunlesshe was the most superioramong them and had the bestclairnto Cdiphate. - We believethat the inferior among those rightly guided compa- nions can be superiorin a specificvirtue to thosewho are better than him, but he doesnot deserve absolutesuperioritybecause the Slements constitutingsuperiority variedand numerous. are - We believe that the Muslim Ummahis the bestamongnations, and -22--
  22. 22. Allah, the Dignified and Exalted, has blessedit becauseHe said, "You are the best nation ever brought forth for mankind, enjoi- n i n g w h a t i s r i g h t a n d f o r b i d d i n gw h a t i s w r o n g , a n d b e l i e v i n g n i A l l a h . " ( 3 :I l 0 ) IHE PROPHET'S COMPANIONS - - W e b e l i e v et h a t t h e b e s t a m o n g t h e M u s l i m U m m a h a r e t h e P r o . p h e t ' s C o m p a n i o n s ,t h e n t h e i r f o l l o w e r s ,a n d t h o s e w h o f o l l o w e d them. - W e a l s o b e l i e v et h a t a g r o u p o f t h i s U m m a h w i l l a l w a y s r e m a i n v i c t o r i o u so n t h e r i g h t p a t h , u n h a r m e d b y t h o s e r v h o l e t t h e m d o w n o r t h o s ew h o o p p o s et h e m , u n t i l t h e D a y o f J u d g e m e n t . - We believethat the disputesthat took place among the Prophet's Companionswere the result of sincere interpretations they rvorked hard to reach. Whoever was right among them would be rervarded twice, and whoever was wrong among them would be rervarded once and his mistake would be forgiven. - lt is our opinion that we shouldstop talking about thcir nristakes and mention what they deserve of beautiful praise. re should purify our hearts from hatred and malice against any of them, because Allah said about them, "They are nol equal: those among you who spent and who fought before the conquest of N,lakkah. Those are higher in rank than those who spent and fought after- w a r d s . B u t t o a l l A l l a h h a s p r o m i s e da E r e a tr e w a r d . " ( 5 7 ; 1 0 ) n d A Allah said about us, "And those who came after them say: our Lord, forgive us and our brotherswho preceded in faith, and do us not put in our hearts any malice against those who have believed. Our Lord, You arethe most Kind, most Merciful." (59:10) -23-
  23. 23. CHAPTER VI BELIEF IN THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT - We believe the Final Day, which is the Day of Judgement, in when peoplewill be resurrectedalive to remain in the abodeof enjoy- ment or in the abodeof severepunishment. BELIEF IN RESURRECTION - We believe Resurrection in which is Allah's bringingto life all the dead when Israfil blows the Horn for the secondtime, "And the Trumpet shall be blown and all who are in the Heavens and who are in the Earth shall fall down fainting exceptthose that Allah shall spare.Then, it shall be blown againand they shall risegazing around them." (39:68) People will stand up from their graves, answering call of the Lord of the Universe. the They are going to be bare-footed,naked, and uncircumcised, "As We started the first creation,so We shall bring it back again. This is a promise from Us, so We shallassuredly fulfil it." (21:104) BELIEF IN RECORDS& SCALES - We believein the recordsof deedsthat will be given to peoplein their right handsor behindtheir backs,in the left hands:"As for him who is givenhis book in his right hand, he shall surelyreceive an easyreckoning and he will return to his family rejoicing.But as for him who is given his book behind his back, he shall call for destruction on himself and will burn in a Blazing Fire." (84:.7-12) "Everyman'swork We have fastened his own neck, on and on the Day of Judgement shall bring out for him a book We which he will see spread open, saying, fRead your own bookf Enough for you this day that your own soul should call you to (17: account." l3-14) - We believethat scales deedswill be set up on the Day of Jud- of gementand no soul shall be wronged. "Whoever has done an atom's weightof good shall seeit." (9:70E) "Those whosescales arl heavy. theyaie the successful; thosewhose but scales light, are they are the ones who have I'st their souls in Hell dwelling forever. The Fire will burn their faces, and there they will be gloomy with lips displaced." (23:102-al "He that does a good deed shall be rewardedten times the like of it, and he that does -24-
  24. 24. evil shall only be rewarded like of it, and they shall not be the wronged." (6:160) THE PROPI{ET'SINTERCESSION - We believe in the special great prophet .Intercession the of Muhammad, peace upon him. He will pleadwith Allah, after be His permission and on behalf of mankind,to judge among His servants when they suffer from worries and troubleswhich they cannotbear.They will go to Adam, then Noah, then Abraham, then to Moses,then to Jesus and finally to ProphetMuhammad, peace upon him. be - We believein the intercession which concenrs somebelievers who were to be taken out from the Fire. This mediationis grantedto the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, and to others amongthe Prophets, believers, the angels. the and - We believe also that Allah will savefrom Hell somepeopleamong the believers without the intercession any one, but by His grace of and mercy, TI{E PROPHET'SPOOL - We believein the Pool of the Prophet, peacebe upon him, the water of which is whiter than milk and sweeter than honey and betterin fragrancethan musk. Each of its lengthand width is the distanceof a month-travel.Its glasses as stars in beautyand are number. The believers among the Prophet's followers come to take from this greatcisterna drink after which they will neverbe thirsty. THE STRAIGHT PATH - We believein the Straight Path isiret) set uD over Hell. people passover it according their deeds:the first of them as fast as to lighting, then as fast as wind, then as fast as birds, and then as running men. The Prophet will be standingon the Path, saying, "Lord, Save!Save!" Somepeople's deeds will fall short. Someof them will come crawling. At both sides of the Path there are hooks that are designed take whom Allah wills: someare saved to but bruised;othersare thrown into Hell. (Bukhiri & Muslim). - We believe all that is mentioned the Qur'in or the Prophetic in in sayingsconcerning that day and its horrors, may Allah saveus from them. -25-
  25. 25. - (shef6'sh)of ProphetMuhammad, We believein the intercession peacebe upon him, for the peopleof Paradise enter therein. to This intercession is exclusively limited to the Prophet Muhammad,peace upon him. be BELIEF IN PARADISE & HELL - We believe Paradise in and Hell. Paradise the abodeof enjoyment is which Allah, the Exalted,preparedfor the righteous.The blessing theyenjoy there,no eyehaseverseen, ear haseverheardof, and no no humanbcinghaseverthoughtof: "No soul knowswhat comfort is kept hiddenfor them,as a rewardfor their deeds."(32:17) Hell is the abodeof punishment which Allah has prepared the unbelie- for vers and the evildoers. The torture and horror in it clnnot be ima- gined. "Surely, We have preparedfor the evildoersa fire, whose pavilionencompasses them. If they call for help, they will be helped with water like molten copper which will scald their faces.How dreadfula drink and how evil a resting-place!" (18:29) - Both Paradise and Hell are existingnow and they will neverperish. "Whoever believes Allah and doesrighteousness, will admit in He him to Gardens beneath which riversflow, to dwell thereinfor ever. Allah had indeed m.adefor him an excellent provision." (65:ll) "Certainly, Allah hascursedthe unbelievers prepared them and for a blazing Fire to dwell therein forever, they shall find neither pro- tector nor helper.On the day when their facesare turned about in the Fire, they shall say "Would that we had obeyedAlah and obcyedthe Messenger!" (33:64-6) - We confirm Paradise whom it is confirmedin the Qur'6n or the to Prophetictraditions either by name or desciption. Among those who are grantedParadise and mentioned namesare Ab0 Bakr, by 'Umar, 'Uthmiln, 'Ali and otherswho were specified the Pro- by phet, peacebe upon him (Bukh?lriand Muslim). Among those whom we confirm to enterParadise because they fit the description are the faithful and the pious. - We likewise confirm Hell to whom it is confirmedin the Qur'an and the sayings the Prophet,whetherin nameor description. of Among those who are meirtionedby namesto be in Hell are Ab'il Lahab, 'Amr lbn Luhai Al-Khuza'i and others(Bukhfri & MuSlim).Con- firmation of Hell which is ba3ed on description includes every unbcliever,polytheistor hypocrite. -26-
  26. 26. BELIT,F +'HATHAPPENS THE GRAVE IN IN - we believe the Triar of the Grave,which in is the questioning the of dead personin his graveabout his Lord, his relijion and iis pro- phet.There"Allah confirms those who believe with tne firm say,in the present rife and the Hereafter."(14:27) The believer wilr say: "Allah is my Lord,_.lslam my religion,and Muhammad is is my Prophet."The unbeliever the hypocrite or will say,.,I don,t know, I heardthe people saying something I saidit.,, and - we believein the comfort of the grave ,,Those for the berievers. whoselivesthe angels take in stateof purity, saying ,peace be on you; enterParadise what you weredoing'.,,(t6:31) for - we believein the punishment of the grave for the transgressing unbelievers: you courdonry seewhen the evirdoers "rf are- rhe in agoniesof death and the angersare stretchingout their hands, saying,'Give up your souls!Today you shall be rewarded with the punishment humiriationfor what you usedto of say untrury about Allah, and for scornfully rejecting signs.,, His (6:93iThesayings of the Prophetare numerous and welr-knownin this area. e vusri. must believe ail that is reportedin the in eur'6n and prophetictra- ditions concerning unseen the matters.He shourdnot contradictit by his worldly experience becausethe affairs of the Hereafter cannot be measured the affairs of this life. The difference by bet- weenthem is very great.Allah is the source help. of BEI,TEF FATN AND DIVINE DECREE IN - we believe Fate,whether in good or bad, which Alrah hasmeasured and ordainedfor all creatures according His previousknowredge to and as deemed suitable His wisdom. bv LEVELS OF BELIEF IN FATE - Beliefin Fatehas four levels: The first level is knowledge:We believethat Allah, may He be exalted,knows everything. knew what had happened He and what will happenand how it will happen.His knowledge eternal.Heis does not acquire a new knowledgenor does he forget what He Knows. The secondlevel is Recording:we believe that Altah has recorded in the Secured Tablet (el-Lrwlr el-Mahfodh)whateveris going ro happenuntil the Day of Judgement. "Did you not know that Allah knows all that is in Heavenand Earth? Surerythat is in a Book. Surelythat for AIIah is an easymatter." e2.n - zt -
  27. 27. The third level is Will: We believe that Allah has willed everything in the Heaven and Earth. Nothing happens except by His will; wha- tever He wills, will take place; and whatever He does not wish, will not take place. The fourth level is Creation: We believe that "Allah is the Creator of all things; He is the Guardian over all things, and to Him belong the keys of the Heavens and the Earth." (39:62-3) The fourth level include whatever Allah Himself does and whatever His creaturesdo. So, all that people perform of sayings,deeds,or omissions are known to Allah and He has recorded them, willed them and created them, "To those among you who will to be upright. But you shall not will exceptas Allah wills, the Lord of the Worlds." (81:28-9) "And has Allah willed they would not have fought one againstthe other; but Allah does whateverHe desires." (2:253) "Had Allah willed, they would not have done so, but leave them alone and their false inventions." (6:137)"And Allah created you and what you do." (37:96) MEN'S FREEWILL - We believe,however, that Allah has granted man a power and a freewill by which he performs his action. That man's deeds are by his power and freewill can be proven by the following points: Firstly, Allah's saying, "So approach your fields (wives)when and how you will." (2:223) "Had they desired to go forth, they would have made some preparation for it." (9:46) In these'verses Allah affirmed for man "a going forth" by his will and "a preparation" by his desire. Secondly,directing man to do or not to do. If man has no freewill and power, these directions mean that Allah is asking man to do that which he cannot. This proposition is rejected by Allah's wisdom, His mercy and His truthful statementin the verse "Allah does not charge a soul beyond its capacity." (2:286) Thirdly, Praising the virtuous for his deedsand blaming the evil- doer for his actions and rewarding each of them with what he deserves. the action is not done by the individual's freewill, then If praising the virtuous is a joke and punishing the evildoer is an injustice, and Allah is, of course, free from joking and being unjust. -28-
  28. 28. Fourthly, Allah has sent messengers who are "bearing good tidings, and warning, so that mankind might have no argument against Allah after the messengers."(40:165) If the individual's action is not performed by his freewill, his argument is not invali- dated by the sen{ing of messengers. Fifthly, every doer of actions feels that he does or does not do a thing without any coercion. He stands up and sits; comes in and goes out; travels and stays by his own freewill without feeling any- body forcing him to do any of theseactions. In fact, he clearly dis- tinguishes between doing something of his own freewill and someoneelse forcing him to do that action. The Islamic law also wisely distinguishesbetween these states of affairs. It does not punish a wrong-doer for an action done under compulsion. NO EXCUSEIN FATE TOR SINNI,RS - We believethat the sinner has no excusein Allah's Divine Decree begausehe commits his sin by his freewill, without knowing that Allah has decreedit on him. That is. because one knows Allah's no decree before it takes place: "No soul knows what it will earn tomorrow." (31:34) How can it be possible, then, to present an excusethat is not known to the personwho is advancingit when he commits his offence? Altah invalidated this type of argument in His saying: "The idolaters will say 'Had Allah willed, we would not have been idolaters, neither our fathers, nor would we have forbidden anything.'So did the people before rhem cry lies until they tasted our might. Say: 'Have you any proofs that you can show us? You follow nothing but assumption,and you are lying." (6:148) We say to the sinner who is using Divine Decree as an excuse: 'Why did not you perform deeds of obedience assuming that Allah has decreed them upon you since there is no difference between them and sins in being unknown before they happened from you? That is why when Prophet Muhammad told his com- panions that everyone'sposition in Paradiseor Hell has been assi- gned, they said: "Should not we rely on this and stop working?" He said: "No, work and every one will be directed to what he is createdfor," (Bukhdri & Muslim) We may say to the sinner who is trying to find excusein Divine Decree:"Suppose, you want to travel to Makkah. There are two roads that may take you there. You are told by a truthful person that one of theseroads is dangerousand difficult, the other is easyand safe.You will -29-
  29. 29. take the secondone. You will not take the first road and say it is decreed upon me. If you did, peoplewould consideryou crazy. We may also say to him: "lf you are offered two jobs, one of them is h i g h e ri n s a l a r y .Y o u w i l l c e r t a i n l yt a k e t h e o n e w i t h t h e h i g h e rs a l a r y . How come do you choosdwhat is lower in rhe Hereafterand use Divine Decreeas an excuse?" We may further say to him: "We seeyou when you are inflicted with a disease, you knock every phy'sician's door looking for treatment and bearing whateverpain that may result from surgicaloperationsand the b i t t e r n e s o f m e d i c i n e . h y d o n o t y o u d o t h e s a m ew h e n y o u r h e a r t i s s W s p i r i t u a l l ys i c k w i t h s i n s ? " EVII, NOT ATTRIBUT},D T0 ALI,AH - W e b e l i e v e h a t e v i l s h o u l dn o t b e a t t r i b u t e dt o A l l a h b e c a u s e f H i s t o perfect mercy and wisdom. The Prophet said: "And cvil is not a t t r i b u t a b l et o Y o u . " ( M u s l i m ) T h u s , A l l a h ' s d e c r e eb y i t s e l f h a s no evil whatsoeverbecauseit is coming from mercy and wisdom. E v i l m a y , h o w e v e r ,r e s u l t l r o m s o m e o f H i s d e c r c c s , e c a u s e h e b t P r o p h c t s a i d i n t h e s u p p l i c i l l i o nf o r g u n I l w h i c h h c t a u g h t t o al-Hasan: "And protect us from the evil of what You decreed" ( T i r m i t h i & O t h e r s ) H e r e , t h c P r o p l r c t a t t r i b u t e do ' i l t o w h a t H c d e c r e e d . e s p i t et h i s , e v i l i n H i s d e c r e e s n o t p u r e e v i l . l t i s r a t h e r D i evil in one respect, good in anothcr or it is cvil in onc case,and good i n a n o t h e r . T h u s , c o r r u p t i o n i n t h e l a n d r e s u l t i n gf r o m d r o u g h t , disease, poverty and fear is evil, but it is good in another rcspccl. A l l a h , t h e E x a l t e ds a i d : " C o r r u p t i o n h a s a p p e a r c d n t h c l a n d a n d o sea for what men's hands have earned. Allah has ordained this for men, so that they may taste some o[ what they have done, in ordcr that they may rurn back (frorn evil)." (30:41) uttingoff the thief's C h a n d o r s t o n i n gt h e a d u l t e r e ri s a n e v i l t h i n g f o r t h e t h i e f a n d t h e adulterer,but it is good for them in one respectbecause is a puri- it ficatidn for them so that the punishment of this life and thc Hereafter are not combined for them. lt is also good in anothe!' respect. The application of these punishment is a protection ol' property, honors, and relationships. - 30-
  30. 30. CHAPTER VIII TRUITSOT'FAITH f'his rublirnc'bclief which includesthose great principlesbears numcrous and usefultypesof fruits for whoeverbelieves it. in Virtues Beliefin Allsh: of . Belief Allah,His Names His Attributes in and instils theindividual in Allah's love and His glorificationthat resultin performingAllah's ins' tructionsand avoidingHis proscriptions which are the means achiev' of ing ultimat,'happiness this life and the Hereafter the individualas in for r.r'ell the society. as "Whoever,maleor female, doesrighteousdeed,while We believing, shallassuredly granthim a goodlylife, and We shall'reward themaccording the bestof theirrleeds." to (16:97) I'irluesof Beliefin the Angels: Firstly.appreciating Dignityof Allah,His mightandHis sovereignty. the Secondh. uratitudetoward Allah because puts someof the angelr He in chargeof His servantsr recording their deedsand other thingsthat benefitthem. 'thirdll . lorc and admiration for the angels because what they are of doing, namely, *orshipping Allah in the best possiblemanner and prayingfor the believers. Virtues Beliefin the Books: of Allah'smercy I irsttl, appreciating andcarefor His people that He sent in dou'na Book to everynationfor theirguidance. Secondll'.appreciating Allah's Wisdom because revealedin these He Booksto everynationwhat suit them.The glorious Qur'6n is the final among theseBooks andit is suitable all people all tiines to at untilthe Day of Judgement. Thirdly, showing gratitude Allah'smercyin revealing for theseBooks. I'irtues of Beliefin Messengers: finitly. apprc'ciatingAllah's mercyand carefor His proplefor sending themthose greatmcssengers guidethemto the straight to Path' Allah for thisgreatfavour. thanking Secondll, and praising Thirdly. lovingand respecting Prophets the them in what theydeserve because are Atlah'smessengers His choice they and among -31 -
  31. 31. His people. They worshipped to Allah according the bestof their.ability, conveyed message His to mankind,gavesincere advise themand bore to patientlywhatever hurt they received. Virtuesof Belief in the Day of Judgement: Fintly, endeavor obeyAllah to gettherewardof that day and to avoid to His disobedience fear of His punishment. for Secondly, consolation the believer whatever misses worldly a for for he of enjoymentby what he hopesto gain of blessings and reward of the Hereafter. Virlues of Belief in Fate end Divine l)ecree: Firstly, dependence Allah when doing any action because on both the cause and effectare the resultof Allah's decree. Secondly, ease mind and comfort because of whenthe individualknows is that everything by Allah's decree and'that mishaps going to take are placeanyway,his soul will be at ease and his heartwill be satisfiedwith Allah's decree. one has more comforiablelife, worry-freesoul, and No strongerconfidencethan a believer Fate. in whena goalis achieved Thlrdly, freedomfrom arrogance because is a this blessingfrom Allah throughwhat He decreed the causes good and of of success. individualshouldthank Allah for that and freehimselffrom The arrogance. }'ourthly, freedomfrom worry and boredomin case failureor mishap of because that is by Allah's decreewho possesses Heavensand the the Earth. Sincethat is going to happenanywa)',the individual shouldbe patientand hope for the rewardfrom Allah. Allah poins to the last two virtuesby the following verse: "No misfortune happen earthor in yourselves is recorded can on but in a decree beforeWe bring it into existence, is reallyeasyfor Allah; that that you may not grievefor what escapes you, nor rejoicein what has cometo you..Allah doesnot love any vainglorious boaster." (57:22-3) We prayto Allah, the Exalted, reward I'orthisbeliel', realize lo us to for us its fruits, to increase blessings, keepus on the Right Path to our to which He hasguidedus, and to bestow us a blessing on from Him, He is indeedthe Giver. Praiseand gratitudebe to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds and peaceand blessings on the Prophet Muhammad, his be family, his Companions, and thosewho rightly follow them. -32-