ISLAM Its Foundation And Concepts
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ISLAM Its Foundation And Concepts ISLAM Its Foundation And Concepts Document Transcript

  • ISLA]UI Its Foundation And Concepts Js Dr, Muhammed bin Abdullah As-Suhaym daarulated fo Abdur-Raafi Adewale lmaam
  • @Muhammad Abdullah AhSuhaym, 2OOs K ng Fahad NationalLibrary Catalogi ng-in-PublicationData AIS uh aym, Muham mad Abdul lah. lslam:lts Foundation And Concepts./Muhammad Abdullah Al-Suhaym.- Riyadh,2005 224p 14x21cm ISBN:996047-538-7 1- lslam-General Principles l-Title 210dc 142611239 LegalDepositNo. 1426/1239 ISBN:9960-47-538-7 lst, Edition - 1426A,H.200sA.c. All Rlghlr Rererved 4ilrr,9 etr6)l i.t- i Crri .l;e 3. Cr')l*ltf e.ttt lA!5 ;r;J.rjJl9;3r.c'.tllfiial O3i.tf a:J,t tt, -2,idJ197..4jd1A;e
  • lslaam: Its Foundationsand Concepts 9y Dr. Muhammadbin AbdullaahAs-Suhaym Translated by Abdur-Raafi Adewale lmaam Translationand PublicationDivision, lslaamic Propagation And Education Committee, Al-MadeenahAl-Munawwarah www.alharamai nonline.org
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts I n t h e N a m eo f A l l a a h ,th e Gra ci o us, the M er ciful Translator'snote: All praiseis due to AllaahlMay peaceand blessings upon tne be Messenger, household companions. his and This book is undoubtedly commendable a attempt showing at the beauties lslaamto mankind, of drawing comparison a between this great religionand other world religions spiritual, in moral,social and intellectual aspectsand acquainting mankind with rts principles and fundamentals a logical, in unambiguous, convincing, frankbut gracious manner. We would howeverlike to call the attention the readerto some of pointsas regards translation someof the quotesand foreign the of names in this book.The authorquotedsome passages from the Bibleand otherbooks, whichare not originally Arabic. Thoughwe believethat the proper academicmethod in translating these passages to referto theiroriginal is sourcessincemost of them are in English, we could not however do so because of therr unavailability the translator. is therefore to lt hopedthat,translation of the passages rendered here are as close as possible in meaning, the original to texts. As for the namesof someauthors mentioned the Bookin Arabic in letters,we exertedefforts to know the correct spellingof these names in their originallanguages. But due to the fact that the ' In transliterating Arabic words, the translator choseto use the double vowel 'aa', 'ee'and'oo' to indicatemadd [stretching] with fathah, kasr, a n d d a n t mr e s p e c t i v e la s i t i s i n ' A l l a a h ' , ' l s l a a m ' , ' T a w h e e d ' , ' s o o r a h ' , y etc., because; usingthis methodrnakes easierfor non-Arabicspeaking it readersto pronounce the words as closely as possibleto the way the Arabic speakers This way has becomestandard do. way of transliteration by nranyfamousMuslim writersand translators Iike Dr Bilal Philipsand others.
  • Islsam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts authorquotedexcerptsfrom their booksfrom secondary sources, which are in Arabic, we could not have access to the original books;hencethe nameswere transliteratedfrom Arabic. Equally,the namesof foreignreferences mentioned this book in in Englishmay not be the exactnamesgivenby theirvariousauthors. from Arabic. Mostof theseare translated ln translating meanings the versesof the Glorious the of Qur'aan, I completely done by Al-Hilali reliedon the translation and M. M. Khan and printedby King Fahd Complexfor the Printing the of HolyQur'an. quoted I any addition the translation it is without as or omission. As for the hadeeths, largely I reliedon M. M. Khan'stranslationif the hadeeth is reported by Al-Bukhaareeand Muslim or Al- Bukhaaree alone.lf the hadeethis reported Muslim,I quoted by from Siddiqi'stranslation. Otherwise, the hadeethsare translated by my humble self. In the footnotehowever,I deem it enough to mentiononly the collector the hadeefhin the footnote.I add the of 'AA' at the end of the footnotesadded by me to distinguish initials betweenthem and thoseof the author. May Allaah make this book beneficial all and reward its author for abundantly this in worldand the Hereafter. Abd ur-RaafiAdewale lmaam lslaamicPropagationAnd Education Committee, Al-Madeenah Al-Munawwarah www.alharamainonline.org
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Author's preface All praise is due to Allaah.We praise Him and seek for His assistance and forgiveness. seek refugewith Him from evilsof We our souls and our misdeeds.No one can misleadwhosoever Allaahguidesand nonecan guidewhosoever Allaahcausesto go astray. I testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah alone. He has no partner.I also testifythat Muhammadblessings and peacebe uponhim,is Hisslaveand Messenqer. Allaahsent Messengers mankindin orderthat peoplemay not to have any plea againstHim after He has sent these Messengers. He alsorevealedBooksas guidance, mercy,lightand healing. In the past, Messengers were especially sent to their peopleand entrustedwith the preservation their book. That was why their of writingsbecameforgotten and their laws becamealtered,because they were sent tot a specificnationon a limitedperiod. Thereafter, Allaah chose His ProphetMuhammad,blessingsand peace be upon him, and made him the last of all prophetsand Messengers. says, He t - ( '"3' ' ' ' J;3 Fi- i . -"t6i u * t: , 2,,'- ' rr L; F - 4 1 . z ^JL>q 4Il + l ; _ ') . = J l r "Muhammadis not the father of anyone among you, but he is the Messengerof Allaah and the last(end) of the Prophets.',1 rAl-Ahzaab 33:40
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Allaahhonouredhim wtth the best RevealedBook which is the gloriousQur'aan;He took it upon Himselfto preserve and did not it assignthe obligation its preservation any of His creatures. of to He SAVS. / .z<'. t . .r ti 6 c t t #fit,'l^h6t<)4) vi-r'v/ / ulr -) tU' "Verily,We it is Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e., Qur'aan)and surely, We wilt guard it (from corruption)."1 He also makes the Law of Muhammad, blessingsand peace be uponhim,the lasting one tillthe Day of Resurrection. explained He that the perpetuity his Law necessitates belief in it, calling of the unto it and being patientwith it. Hencethe path of the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, and his followers that of is calling the way of Allaah to withsureknowledge. Whilemaking this way clear,Allaahsays, of ,;a;l -> ,'ra j I t-r 0 /'.a-) Je 4r Jr rje)r ,F':t- LIJF do' . =r' - , ( . ;.; - . 1 ,!_; v-l! r) r;^atr ,1c bl l-i t aYl ,:r;,^3 - l). v "Say (O Muhammad).Ihls is my way; I invite unto Allaah with sure knowledge,I and whosoeverfollowsme. And Glorifiedand Exalted And I am not of the polytheists.'" be AIlaah. Altaahcommanded Prophet, the blessings peacebe uponhim, and to bear whatever harm he sufferedin the cause of Allaah with patience says, and ' A l - H i . ;lr5 : 9 I Y o o s u l1 2 . 0 8 ' 1
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 4.,t;1ib;iiilri;; si+" y "Thereforebe patient (O Muhammad) as did the Messengersof strong will."' patience Muslims, He alsoenjoins on ./ .|i ,'t(-' ' .Jt-+r L(+u+ f' ./ I 'f .3'- l -- 1,,-:-'irJ.>..l.o-l "O you who believe!Endure and be more patient and guard (your territory by stationingarmy units permanenily at the places from where the enemy can attackyou) and fear Allaah,so fhat you may be successful."' In accordance with this graciousDivineWay, I write this book to invitepeopleto the religion Allaah,deriving of guidance doing in so, from the Book of Allaahand the Sunnahof His Messenger. I brieflyexplainedhereinthe story of the creationof the Universe, the creation of man and how he was favoured by sending Messengers him and acquainting with the situations past to him of religions.Afterwards, made an introduction lslaam as per its I to meaningand pillars In this book, I have provided evidences tor those who are lookingfor guidance,explainedthe way for those who are lookingfor salvation, showedthe pathto thosewho desire to follow the track of the Prophets,Messengersand righteous people. As for those who turn away from their path, such only befoolthemselves and take to the erroneousoath. rAl-Ahqaaf46:35 2 Aal 'lrnraan :200 3
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts It is a matterof fact that adherents each religioncall othersto it of and they believe that truthonly abidesin theirreligion. is also a lt fact that adherentsof each beliefcall othersto follow their leader and extolhim.As for the Muslim, does not call peopleto follow he his own ideology. religion the religion Allaah His is of withwhichHe is pleased. Allaahsays, 4 )rri ^i "+ 3)"Aiilb "Truly,the religionwith Allaah is lslaam"' He also does not call people to glorifya human being, for all human beings are equal in the Religion of Allaah; nothing distinguishes from another one exceptpiety.A Muslimrathercalls people to follow the path of their Lord, to believe in His Messengers and follow His Law which He revealedto the last of His Messengers Muhammad blessings and peace be upon him, and whichHe commanded to convev all mankind. him to It's on this accountthat I wrote this book in order to call peopleto the Religion AllaahwhichHe is pleased of with and with whichHe sent His Last Messenger orderto guidethosewho are looking in for guidance and happiness. AllaahlNo humanbeingcan have By real happiness exceptthrough this religionand nonecan haverest of mind exceptby believing that Allaahis the only Lord (worthy of worship), that Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, is His Messenger and that lslaamis the only acceptable religionof Allaah. Thousandsof those who embracedlslaam have testified that they did not knowreallifeuntilaftertheyembraced lslaamand thatthey did never tasted happiness except under the shade of lslaam. Since it is a fact that every human being looks for happiness, peaceof mind and truth,I prepare this work to helpthem achieve I 'lmraan :19 Aal 3
  • 8 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts that. I pray that Allaahmakesthis work purelyfor His sake and let it be well-accepted make it one of those righteous and deeds that will benefitits doer in this worldand the next. I givepermission translate publish to and thisbookin any language to whoevermay want to do so with a conditionthat the personact honestlyin translating and to do me a favourby sendinga copy it to me to avoidunnecessaryrepetition efforts. of I equallyrequestfrom whoeverhas any observation correction or either on the Arabic text of this Book or any of its translateo versions to kindly send it to me through the below-mentioned address. All praiseis due to Allaahfirstly and lasfly, outwardly and inwardry. All praiseis due to Him publicly and secrefly. praiseis due to All Him in the beginning the end.All praiseis due to him as much and as can fill the heavensand the earth and whateverelse that Our Lord may wish. May Allaahbestowpeaceand much blessing on our Prophet Muhammad, companions all thosewho follow his and his pathtillthe day of reckoning The author, Dr.Muhammad Abdullaah Saalih bin bin As-suhaym Riyadh, Shawwaal 13,1420 P. O. Box 1032Riyadh1342, O. Box6249 Riyadh1r1442 P
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Where is the Way? When man growsand startsunderstanding things,many questions come to his mind like: Where am I from? Why did I come (to What will be my end?Who createdme and createdthe existence)? universearoundme? Who owns and controls this universe? And like otherouestions these. However,he is unable to providehimselfwith answersto these questions.Even modern science is not capable of providing answers to them because these issues fall within religious domains That is why there are numerousnarrations and different superstitionsand tales about them that only add to man's confusion and distress.lt is impossible man to get a satisfying for answer thesequestions to unless is guidedby Allaahto the true he religion that is capableof providing final decisionon these and similarissues; for, theseissuesare amongthe divinesecrets that onlythe true religion can givecorrectand accurate answers and to that is the only religion that Allaahrevealed His Prophets to and Messengerslt is then incumbentupon man to learn the true religion and have beliefin it in order to have his confusion and doubtsremoved and in orderto be guided the Straight to Path. In the followingpages,I inviteyou to followthe StraightPath of Allaah and I presentto you some evidencesand proofsthat you may carefullyand patiently reflect on.
  • Islsam: Its Foundations And Conc Existenceof Allaah, His Lordship (over alt creation), His Onenessand His being the only God worthy of worship 0Manypeopledo worshipman-made deitiesliketrees,stonesano even humanbeings; that is why the Jews and idolaters askedthe Messenger Allaah, of blessingsand peacebe upon him, aboutthe characteristics his Lord.In replyto this question of Allaahrevealed, dy,-D lt 1'l g; L.zti Xni "Li ni i 'A y ii O {€:3;i Gh";j< "Say (O Muhammad).He r's Altaah, (the) One, Attaah, the Self_ sufficient Master (whom all creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks). He begets not nor is He begotten.And there is none co_ equal or comparableunto Him."1 He alsosavs. ti tri -t .ti t-. i t 2t, /,t n' jUt y-: JJl la ei-Ul f-., . rl Jr ,4.' ttl,'. -,,<,7 l'? 't ry :4)b -t|+t ,-Ht G:* i'- q,.Pl L-Y Gfit t .la i:- r< ,-.?-i ;t3 $rr 4 y1 :1r '6 ..l ' 'l t, - tt. Q'J;4 P c>T-J Iq *-Q.J Iq l- ,/ ..=4, 'ryutiL, 8 ) ( - ) l se-/. ' A l - l k h l a a s 1 2 :l - 4 1
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts ll "lndeed your Lord is Allaah Who created the heavens and the earih in Sx Days and then He lstawa (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner thaf suifs His Majesty).He bringsnight as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly,and (He created)the sun, the moon, the starssubjectedto His Command.S/essedbe Allaah, the Lord of all the world!"' He alsosays, t' . - -',7 6,;ttAi y i' .' .'i z ,fF' ,)e 6Yt I , w";lr';'i J3 ,; 6?r,F*.fr9;Ai.fu3 'U ,bS e'.,'.lt ,s;fr @t*;'E; ,q,rJ,ieJ$ i: .:i) L.)- ,b g$i ,5 ,r:',1*is e3i W L ....1. { jqlr JJr "Allaah is He, Who raised the heaven without pillarsthat you can see. Then He lstawa (rose above) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty).He has subjectedthe sun and the moon (to continue going round)! Each running (its course) for a term appointed.He regulates all affairs, explainingthe Aayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, /essons,slgns, revelations,etc.) in detail, that you may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord. And it is He who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and riversand of every kind of fruits He made in pairs.He brings the nightas a coverover the day..."untilHe says, I A l - A ' r a a f7 r 5 4 .
  • t2 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts r,..' t.. l:.: 'l t t 'i rtr;r ,t-j fL-rYl e+ u'r Gt lp W L; , . 1 . , ,Aii F . tt a. & '*z:i r/,lr {tali, , =ii * f,A )t31r; ,i'*o 2,J ,p-, { rCJt;lii "Allaahknows what every female bearsand how much the womb falls short (of their time or number) or exceed. Everything with Him is in due proportion.AII-Knowerof the unseenand the- seen, the Most Great,the Most-High."1 Allaahalsosays, {e-tri "Say (O Muhammad): Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth? Say: (lt is) Allaah. Say: Have you then taken (for worship) protectorsother than Him, such as have no power either for benefit or for harm to themselves? Say. ts the btind equat to the one who sees? Or darkness equal to light? Or do they assign A)taah parrners who created the like of His creation, so that the creation ' A r - R a ' d3 : 2 ,j , 8 , 9 l
  • Islasm: Its Foundations And Concepts 13 (which they made and His creation)seemed alike to them? Say: Atlaahis the Creatorof altthings.He is the One, the trresistibte."l Whileestablishing mankind for and proofs, His signsas evidences He says, ' ' t -' . , J t.'.i-i. t .a.,1, tr'ti .r. rr"-*rt) jptr ))t t+ti Ui y ,,,2r7, IJJ--.1j ) pti ".^^r^tl- ."ia.,tt-7. .gtlr 14tr#.t)Fu- ij .i- t.'lt. I lr )-^Jlq UJLJ J I J V' '-'^-i7 _ .1: < r- . - €..i .l .i.i JPr .# - r', ,-.i. L^ti-'- I cS+lt o! c'-'s9,->j,-al;t^Jl t?e ali '}i { (A ".,-r i.k 'i) ,)s "And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostratenot to the sun or the moon, but prostrate to Allaah who created them, if you really worship Him. But if they are too proud (to do so), then those who are with your Lord (angels) glorify Him night and day, and never are they tired. And among His s4lns (in this), that you see the earth barren, but when We send down water (rain) to it, it is stirred to life and growth (of vegetations). Verily, He Who gives it life, sure is Able to give life to the dead (on the Day of Resurrection). lndeed He is Able to do all things.'' He alsosays, ' A r - R a ' dI 3 :I 6 2 F u s s i l a4 l : 3 7 - 3 9 t
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts urtlt: ,2'3-:li i q'f.> t vl 17, t -'t^Jr-l "And among His signs is the creationof the heavens and the eafth, and the differences of your languages and colours. Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge. And among His slgnsls your sleepby nightand by day..."' While describingHimselfwith Attributesof beauty and perfection He says, ' 'r'v ' / ( t''.'.i:'i't r t '1 -'112 t'-if !'7't .g t- ,oi Ct YJ ij* ,o-rit-,Y (Pl GJt -* i] "J] Y ;frty t (r, -r.. t: ?. .oi ,., . o -9ri. , )] ,.rrt .= g;-tll lr g-. ,.f-,,yt . r . . ,>,'3>"11 . .iil Cl-i- C Ui - . t -)+)t G ".& itbo. , i j,*.,:i, r.. r-6-.- -s 4-*i 3; clr " r:.,{r L _, / .1. ( cL"1 "Allaah!None has the right fo be worshippedbut He. The Ever- Living, the One Who sustainsand protectsall that exisfs. Neither slumber nor sleep oveftakes Him. To Him belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoeveris in the earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures)in this world and what wiil happen ' Ar-Room 30'.22-23
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Conce. to them in the Hereafter.And they will never compassanythingof Hisknowtedge exceptthat whichHe wills."' He alsosays, 4) .,^{1n 7- ,;'rut,s: v$i *+ vFi gst -":i ;6 Y 'ii t .1- ! & ;) /'.2^)l "The Forgiver of sins, the Acceptor of repentance' the Sfern ln punishmeht,the Bestower(of favours)-Ld ilAha illa Huwa None has theright to be worshippedbut He.To Him is thefinat retttrn.'2 He - may His praisebe exalted- also says, ' 't. ' ' < v---s- 6i*y ' "2" lt ii 4Jl ",'ii .r:tN' .-Jl iJi'l i-b )l a"LA.;' 4,:V) ;',ii;:-,; ti iYAii-1i He is Ail6h besldes whom L6 itaha illaHuwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defecfs, the Giver of security,the Watcherover His creatures,the Atl-Mighty,the Competter, the Supreme.Glory be to All^hl (High is '' He) a-Ooie that atl they associate partnerswith Him as This Wise and omnipotentLord who made Himself knownto His slaves and established for them His signs and proofs and described Himself with attributes of perfectionhad prophetic ordainments,humanwisdomand naturetestifyto His existence,to His Lordship and being the only one having the right to be I Al-Baqarah:255 2 r Ghaafir 0:34 I A l - H a s h5 9 : 2 3 r
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And worshipped. wiil -God wiiling-show that to you in the I foilowinq pages. As for proofsof His existence and Lordship, they are: One: Creation of this universe and its wonderful design O man! All this universethat surrounds you, the heavens,tne stars,the galaxiesand the earth that is spread in which there are neighbouring tracts out of which differentprantsgrow bearinoail fruits,and on which you find ail creaturesin pairsl.. tni, *iuEr"u did not createitselfand could nevercreateitself.lt must then have a creator.who then is that creatorwho createdit in this wonderful design and perfection and made it a sign for those wno can se" save Allaahthe one, the subduerwhom there is no Lord oi o"ity worthyof worshipbesideHim. He says, ' ,,- . ,. t. ,,.),_,.;ili iit (i :i: 3;Ai j ii ,n * o Eu ?iy (,O.,*i { "! "Were they created by nothing or were they themsetvesthe c.reators? did they create the heavens and t'heearth? Or Nay,but they have no firm betief."l Thesetwo versesimplythreequestions: 1- Were they createdfrom nothing? 2- Did they createthemselves? 3- Did they createthe heavensand the earth? lf their creation was not accidentar and they had not created themselves createdthe heavens or and the earth;it shourdthen be affirmed that thereexistsa creator who createdthem as weil as the ' At-Toor 52:35-36
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Conc heavens and the earth. That Creator is Allaah, the One, the Subduer. Two: The nature All creatures naturally are inclined believein the existence the to of creator; to affirm that He rs greaterand mightierthan all things. This inclination more well-rooted the naturethan elementary is in mathematics and does not need to be proved by any evidence except for him who has an abnormalnature; a nature that has been exposed to circumstances that turn it away from what it should admit.'AllaahsaYs, .t)A- "t ll cti+: J"6i }u"a: ;ri /P"G-+ u.-rY. 4i3Y 4:7>oitl)'t oai ;ei 5;;t3 4i tli -!).5'$i So sef you (O Muhammad(peacebe upon him))your face towards the religion (of pure tstdmicMonotheism) Hanif (worship none but Attah itone). Attdh's Fitrah (i.e. Attdh'slsl1mic Monotheism)with which He h'as createdmankind. No change let there be in Khalq- iilah (i.e. the religion of All6h - lsllmic Monotheism):that is the straightretigion,but mostof men know not'* The Messenger Allaah, of blessings and peacebe upon him, said' ,,Every child is born with naturalinclination lslaamicMonotheism to and it is his parentswho make him a Jew, a christianor a Magian3 young whole,whereinyou find fust as the animalgives birthto its no mutilation." Then Aboo Hurayrah(who is the narratorof this hadeeth) said:"Recite you like(Allaah's if words): ' Majmoo' FatawaIbn Taymiyahl'.41-49,'73 I Ar-Room 0:30 J I AA phenomena. Magians thosewho worshipfire and othernatural are
  • Isloam: Its Foundations And Conc .ibJ- i "lr+! r{:.} ge.1ii r-Ai Ai g^1 -r;.ij.li <U;'*i "All6h'sFitrah (i.e. Attah'ststamicMonotheism) with which He has created mankind. No change ret there be in Kharq-irtdh(i.e. the religionof Attah - lstamicMonotheism). that is the siraight'retigrcn, but most of men know not "'1 He also said, "Verily,my Lord commandedme to teach you what you do not know of that which He has taughtme today:,Art rnon"y that I endoweda slavewith, is raMur(for n-iry.t createomy slaves naturallyinclinedto lslaamic Monotheismand it were thL devils wno came to them, led them away from their religion, made -on forbiddenfor them what I made lawiul and enjoineo inem to asso,cj?lepartnerswith Me in worshipof whichi diOnot send any oroof.'"' Three: Consensus of all people All past and modernnationsare in consensus that this universe has a creatorwho is Allaahthe Lord of all the worrds, that He is the creator of the heavensand the earth and that He has no partner among His creatures as He does not have a partner in His Sovereignty. No beliefhas ever been reported from any of the past nationsthat their false deities took part with Allaah in the creation of the neavensand the earth.Rather,they all believedthat it was Allaan who createdthem and their goos, that there was no creator or sustainer besides Him and that He aloneowns the powerto brino ' A I - B u k h a a r ea n d M u s l i n r e 2A h r l a d a n dM u s i i m .
  • Islaom: Its FoundationsAnd C, benefit inflict or us versesof harm.tAllaahinforms in the following the idolaters' of and guardianship, affirmation His Lordship o,i1 . i:- ..,1 .',. .. t.',i' .i ,t.-.1 i. *, J*: : . i . . r-': . PI ..i1 ,^-3 rJb)ltc)9-At,lt i fFU- ,*l-l I : 'u;. 'Jri -t v t / l}J , " , ' l cljl , tl ;i )+: -DV ,rt l;;- t o:li ,.1.,' iK';:- SIJ .:- .i -1'I'zti z .r1 . a:ii- ..i.-..-:ilt'- 4 q-t ?u 'L-Jt -:--r Jt O^ ,4:JL-.41J :r)l ** zg et -r-,it ! . - ' 1..,1 -tt:4^,'oo,"i1 Y i-,r=-t Jq 4J r^!l att't ! : - { r:!i'oy'+ f " - t ' 1 ' i J>ai , ' - .W;' ' "lf you were to ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth and subiectedthe sun and the moon?" They will surely reply: "NEh." How then are they deviating (as polytheists and disbetievers)? AIIAhenlargesthe provisionfor whom He willsof His s/aves,and straitens for whom (He wills). Verily,Alldh is the All- it Knower of everything.If you were to ask them: "Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and gives life therewith to the eafth after its death?" They will surely reply: "All6h."Say: "All the praisesand thanks to Altdh!" be Nav! Mostof themhave no sense''" ; .. i-rrii,;li:#)> i* Ut$tt,-'';ai'4> J -ea {rV "And indeedif you ask them, 'Who has createdthe heavensand 'The All-Mighty' the All-Knower the earth?' They will surely say: 'u createdthem.' ' M a . l n r o o ' a t a w a4 : 3 8 0 - 3 8 i F l t A l - 'A n k a b o t 2 9: 6 1- 6 3 j A z - z u k h r u f9
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Ct Four: The reason Human reasoninevitably confirms that this universehas a great creator;for the sound reasonagreesthat this universe a creited is thing that did not bring itself to being, hence, it must have an originator. Also, man knowsthat he falls into crisesand afflictionsand when he is unable to prevent them or remove them, he faces the heavenswith his heart and seeksfor His Lord'said to removehis distress even thoughhe may denounce Lord and worshiohis his idols in his normaldays. This is an undisputable fact. Even tne animal raises his head up and looks at the sky wheneverit is visited by an affliction. The AlmightyAllah informs us that man, wheneverhe is afflictedwith harm, hastensto his Lord and asks Him to removethe harm.Allaahsays, . . .t ,i ,2,, i e 1., ,t..- -i,,, . ./-: , ? d' :"-.1-rt' , -tr-* - ,.. 5- "P Je -Lj4J l:l-rrl *. J.?i Ji ,y 4) tp4 jg {,,1!1;6i-:ef ;UfW "And when some hurt touches man, he cries to his Lord (Altah Alone), turningto Him in repentance.But when He bestowsa favor upon him from Himself, he forgets that for which he cried for before,and he sefs up rivals to NEh.'r He alsosaysaboutthe idolaters, I Az-Zunar 39:8
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And 6 &, 9K ,f c t{i r^;t;r!4c bt ltv r:i"** t ;-P -b.-l c:1oui (a .V') u"f*ri , 'i-". ;-E t; 64-6+; u;tt*,a3tit4i y A*"irr Jte / ,;=) -. / . ; ' i": & ,-'.) vJ r.l.p "He it is Who enablesyou to travel throughland and sea, till when you are in the ships, and they sail with them with a favorable wind, and they are gtad therein, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides, and they think that they are encircled therein. Then they invoke All6h, making their Faith pure for Him Atone, (saying): "lf You (Neh) deliver us from this, we shall trutybe of the grateful."But when He deliveredthem, behold! They rebet (disobey All6h) in the eafth wrongfully. O mankind! Your rebetlion (disobedienceto AIl6h) is only against your own se/ves, - a brief enjoyment of this worldly life, then (in the end) unto Us. is your return,and We shaltinformyou that whichyou used to do."' He alsosays, ;.t v:'3 ,^':'i 4.:1': ]1i JEit u* .n 2F "And when a wave covers them like shades (i.e. like clouds or the mountains of seawater), they invoke Aileh, making their ' Yoonus l0:22-23
  • 22 Isluum: Its Foundations And Concepts invocations for Him only. But when He brings them safe to tand, there are among them those that stop in between (Betief and disbelief). But none denies Our Signs except every perfidious ingrate."' This Lord who broughtthis universeto existence, createdman In the bestform,embedded his natureservitude submission in and to Him, subjected humanreason the beliefin His Lordshio to and His exclusiveworthinessof being worshipped. is Allaah whom all lt nationsunanimously testifyto His guardianship... He should as inevitably be One in His Lordship and worthiness to be worshipped. He has no partnerin creatingHis creatures,He As shouldalso have no partnerin His worthiness beingworshipped. of Thereare numerous evidences this,-some of whichare: for 1- Thereis only in this universe one God Who is the creator and the sustainers all. None bringsharm or benefitexceptHim. Had of there been any other god besidesHim, that god would have had his own work, creationand commandand none of bothwould have allowedanotherto sharethe creation with him. Hence,one of them must have overpowered and subduedthe other. In that case, the subduedcould not have been a god and the Subduershouldbe the real God with whom none can sharethe rightto be worshipped just as noneshareswith Him His guardianship lordship. and Allaah says, iJ- q ll S.-;'i,il'El; ,:^;: Jrt; t -r n Ai ii Cy lb 4 :l' J)r,-a,_& ii :i*'uzl jo -fi; ,1,;, "M son (or offspring)did AlEh beget, nor is there any il6h (god) along with Him; (it there had been many gods), then each god I Luqmaanl:32 3 *For rnoreof theseevidences, Kitaabut-Tawheed Muharnrnad see by lbn AbdulWahhaab.
  • Isluam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 23 woutd have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others!Glorifiedis Allah above all that they attributeto Him!"1 2- None deservesto be worshipped but AllaahWho createdthe heavensand the earths;for, man seeks to gain the favourof the Lord Who brings him benefit and prevents harm, evils and calamitiesfrom him and none but the One Who owns the heavens and the earth is capableof doing all these. Had there been any other lords as the idolaters claim, human would have taken do ways that leadto the worshipof AllaahWho is the True Sovereign. This is because,all false deitiesthat are worshippedbesidesthe True Lord, they themselves,used to worship Allaah and seek nearness Him alone. to Therefore, those who want to seek nearnessto Allaah,Who has the power to give benefitsand bestow harm, should worshipthe True LordWhom all that is in the heavensand the earth-including the false deities-do worship.Let those who are searching the for truthread (thefollowingverse): O"it e:i -tsy 'lt| .-' < L^e+ ui.r)r 4 )j '':jp-:Jt r.* o: re 'l Yi {i "r J - ' 't r t" ,<ti -.i 'iJ ,i.r:c a'lJl 4 ,"J:r)1,--l ti:: Say:(O Muhammad (peacebe upon him) to those polytheists, pagans) (fo "Caltupon thosewhomyou assert be associate gods) beiraes Attah,theypossessnot evenan atom's (or a small ant's) eitherin the heavens on the earth,nor have they any weight, or sharein either,nor there is for Him any supporterfrom among ' A l - M u ' m i n o o2 3 : 9 1 n
  • 24 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts them. lntercesslon with Him profits not except for him whom He permits."l These verses and others keep the heart from incliningtowards otherthingsbesides Allaahthroughfour factors. One: That those whom the polytheists worshippossessnot even the weight of an atom with Allaah, and he who possessesnot a weight of an atom cannot benefitnor harm and therefore,is not worthyof beingworshipped beingtakenas Allaah's or associatein worship lt is AllaahaloneWho ownsthemand controls them. Two: That they possessnothingin the heavensand the earth ano they do not even havean atom weightof sharein them. Three:Allaahhas no helperamong His creatures. Rather,He is the one who helps them in what is of benefitfor them and drives away from them what harms them. For, He completelyhas no need of them; it is they who are ratherwho are in absoluteneed of Him. Four: That these so-called associates are not capable of interceding with Allaahon behalfof theirfollowersand thev will not even be given permissionto do so. Allaah does not qtve permission intercede to exceptto His friends,and His friends Slso cannot intercede except on behalf of the one whom Allaah is pleasedwith his sayings, deedsand belief 2 3- systematic arrangement and preciseexecution the affairsof of this universeis the strongestindicationthat its controlleris one Lord, one (King),besideWhom there is no other creator.As it is impossible this universe havetwo creators, it is impossibre for to so for it to havetwo Lords.Allaahsavs. ' saba'34:22-23 r Sec 'uyoonil-muwalihideen Qurratu p.100
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 25 . ,'t.'. -'i r77 e cii 4,i# U,L-.-oJ 4tJl r "lt; ;A. "t "Had there been therein (in the heavens and the earth) alihah (gods)besrdesAttah,then verilyboth wouldhave been ruined."' Had it been assumedthat there was in the heavenand the earth another god besides Allaah, they would have been ruined. Because;had there been anothergod besidesAllaah,both [Allaah and the other godl would need to be autocrattc and have the right of free disoosal.That would have then lead to contentionand fightingand the ruin of the heaven and the earth would have occurredas a result. lt is impossiblefor the body to have two controllingsouls;if that happens - the bodywill be destroyed how then can it be imagined which is greater,should that this universe, havetwo lords? 4- Consensus the Prophetsand Messengers: nationsagree of All that the Prophets and Messengers the wisest,most intelligent, are most sincere,most knowledgeable what Allaah best in morality, of wants and the most rightlyguided of all people,because,they receivedrevelation from Allaahand conveyedit to people.And all - Prophetsand Messengers right from Adam to the last Prophet who is Muhammad, peacebe uponthem all - haveall calledthelr peoplesto the belief in Allaah and abstentionfrom worshipping anythingbesidesHim and that He is the only True Lord.Allaah says, ,a/ Y ,arl f;Jl - ,>9 ; ll Jl t J a ,lr* - r .'-r /t r-t. zrr.i --2JJJ .' .'.e v' ur4i c; y {,.. 93i5ti ' A l - A n b i y a2 l : : 2 a
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Conc And We did not send any Messengerbefore you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) but We revealed to him (saying): La itahaitta Ana (none has the right to be worshipped but | (NEh)) so worship Me (Aloneand none else)' He also says aboutNoah- Peacebe upon him - that he told his peopre, {tg- i,7 ' ,tn "64;ovi;17r sti;i5 { ,ri} "T.hatyou worshipnone but Allah;surely, I fear for you the torment of a painfulDay.'' Allaah - may He be glorified- says about the last of all Messengers, Muhammad, -raiil r-i jl r :jr Jj>:l-; ;i 3A"L iUl ,g i r^rlA y "Say (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) "tt is revealed to me that your ll6h (God) is onty one ttdh (God - NEh) Wiil you then submit to His Will (become Muslims and stop worshipping others besidesNEH?'S This God ,, ,n" On" who wonderfully createdthe universefrom naught;He createdman in the bestform and perfected creation his and impressed his naturethe affirmation His Lordship in of and His exclusiverightto be worshrpped. lets him have peace of mind He throughhis submission Him and followingHis path and He to ordainedit on his soul not to be at rest until it surrenders its to creator and be in continuous contact with Him. He also makes rt impossible contact to with Him exceptthroughHis straightpath, I Al-Anbiyaal:25 2 I Hoo<i l:26 I t A I - A n b i y a2 l : 1 0 8 a
  • )'7 Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts which the honourable Prophets conveyed. He gave man which only becomesuprightand functionsproperly intelligence, when he believes Allaah, in Glorvbe to Him' When one has an upright nature, peaceful a soul and a believing heart, one achieveshappiness, securityand peace in this world and the Hereafter. when man refusesall that, he will live in the But alleys of this world disorganised and dividedamong its gods, ignorantas to who can benefithim or preventharm from him. lt is in order that true faith may be established the heart and the in ugliness disbelief of may be exposedthat Allaahmakesa parable - for parablesbring meaningscloserto understanding. makes He a parableof a man whoseaffairis dividedbetweennumerous gods and a man who worshipshis Lord alone.He, may He be glorified, says, 'J:'4; i:Li+* "All6h puts fofth a similitude: a (slave) man belonging to many partners (like those who worship others along with All6h) disputing with one another, and a (slave) man belonging entirely to one master(like those who worshipAll6h Alone). Are those two equal in comparison?Allthe praisesand thanks are to All6h! But most of them know not."' Allaahlikensthe slavewho is a polytheist a slavewho is owned to by differentassociatesand over whom they all contendwith each other.He is dividedamongthem and everyone of them directshim and assigns responsibilities him. He is confusedamong them to and rs always unstable.He is unableto satisfytheir differentand contradicting apart. desiresthat tear his energyand directions ' Az-7,tntar 39:29
  • 28 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts He also likens the slave who is a monotheistto a slave who rs owned by a single master.He knows what his masterwants and the assignments gives him. He is therebycomfortable he and settledon a clear path. Both of these two slavescannotbe equal. For, one submitsto a single master and enjoys the pleasureof uprightness, knowledge certainty and and the otherone submits to differentand disputingmasters and is thereby punishedano distressed. is not stableon a condition He and cannotpleaseeven one of them let aloneall of them. After proofs on the existenceof Allaah, His Lordship and His exclusiveright to be worshippedhave become clear, we should then acquaintourselveswith His creation the universe of and man and knowHis wisdombehind that
  • And Concepts Islaam: ItsFoundations 29 Creationof the Universe This universe, earth,stars,galaxies, with its heavens, seas,trees and all livingthingsare createdfrom non-existence Allaah- the by Glorified and ExaltedHe savs, ',,,'.t, :..; i-:. i:- ..'rl'.'!2:r.?r(-rt"' ..:-fJ ril-ul ,"J ,4)'ct w-y- a.f-,it;L 15.-1?l o F ) " .S-ilt?,rrfu u '^-)i L1 A +'*iW ,'ui W !;t t{i ,,: e'i) W fi L.:;';tiAi 't ,rr:iti ,:rtt"ov3 r-uii J){t'yti ,ei q" A,>rr-- {- "fr*i {-;, *IJt ',.Jt "Say (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) "Do you verily disbelievein Him Who createdthe earlh in two Days? And you set 'Alamin up rivals (in worship) with Him? That is the Lord of the (mankind, |nn and attthat exisfs,). placed therein(i.e. the earth) He firm mountains from above it, and He blessedit, and measured therein lfs susfenance(for its dwellers)in four Days equal (i.e. all these four days were equal in the length of time) for all those who ask (about its creation) Then He (rose over) lstaw€ttowards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earlh: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly " They both said: "We come, wittingty."Then He completedand finishedfrom their creation(as) seven heavens in two Days and He made in each heaven its affair. And We adorned the nearest(lowest)heaven with lamps (stars)to be an adornment as welt as to guard (from the devils by using
  • 30 Islasm: Its Foundations And Concepts them as miss/es against the devils).Such is the Decreeof Him the All-Mighty. the All-Knower."1 He alsosavs. . ";i;{i; - 'r t,-r. -lJ>q r^., u:t+ r45 ,:,'+^:li Li ir; Uitt; ;:li y *i-; ,u" ,F ,t;i eiri'nt tu-a; :;-ti ut;;; I) .r-r-ui.fet-l lt^: aW uAu-t;.; ,, ttl"t* 4.'.V't: Qyl; Oo Have not those who disbelieveknown that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? And We have placed on the eafth firm mountains, lest it should shake with them, and We placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may be guided. And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well guarded. yet they turn away fromits srgrns (i.e. sun,moon, winds, clouds,etc.).'2 Allaahcreated the universe manygreatpurposes. for Thereare tn everypartof it greatwisdomand dazzling srgns. you ponder lf over a singlesign thereof,you wrllsee wonders. Beholdthe wonders of the creation Allaahin the plantsin whichalmosteveryleaf,stem of and fruit is full of benefit that human intellectcannot fully comprehend and understand details. its Beholdthe watercourses of thosetenderand weak stems, whicheyescan hardlysee except by carefulobservation, how they are able to draw water from tne bottom to the top and the water then moves in those courses according their acceptability capacitieslt then breaksinro to and particlesthat cannotbe perceived human eyes. Then behold by ' F u s s i l a4 l : 9 - 1 2 t ' Al-Anbiyaal:30-32 2
  • Isluam: Its Foundations And Concepts 31 the fruit of a tree and how it movesfrom a stageto anotherlike the invincible movementof the conditions a foetus.You see a tree of growingfrom a mere naked wood with no coveringon it, then its Lord and Creator covers it with leaves in the most beautiful manner.He then bringsout its fruit tenderand weak after He has broughtout its leaf in order to preserveit and make it like ctothing for that weak fruit so as to protectit againstheat, cold and other harmfulphenomena. then providessustenance these fruits He for through their stems and watercourses that that can nourish so them, as an infantis nourished the milk of its mother.He then by nurtures fruitsand develops the them untilthey becomecompletely ripe. He therebybroughtout that delicious fruit out of that lifeless wooden-like particle. When you look at the earth and how it was created,you will see that it is one of the greatestsigns of its Creator.Allaahmakes it a resting place and as a bed, and subjectedit to His slaves. He makes their sustenance, provision and sourcesof livelihood there and created therein for them ways and paths so that they can move about to meet their needs.He fixed it firmlywith mountains and makesthem as pillarsin orderto protectit againstshaking.He flattensit, extendsit and spreadsit, makes it a receptacle the for living that brings them together on its surface and makes it a receptacle the dead that bringthem togetherin its interior for after theirdeath. lts surfaceis a placeof dwelling the livingand its for interior the placeof abodefor the dead. is Then look at its revolvingorbit, with its sun, moon, stars and zodiacs and beholdhow it continuously revolvesaroundthis world till the end of time in thisorderand proper succession see the and differencesin the night, day, seasons,heat and cold which are resultsof these wonderfulmovements, and the benefitsthey give to all kindsof animals and plantsand all thatexists the earth. on Then reflectover the creationof the heavenand take anotherlook at it; you will see that it is one of the greatestsigns of Allaah in altitude.exDansiveness stabilitv. and Thereis no pillarunderneath
  • 32 Isluum: Its Foundations And Concepts it and there is no suspender over it but held by the infinitepowerof Allaahwhich holdsthe heavenand the earth lestthey fall asunder. When you also look at this universe, the composition its parts of - and its best arrangement that show the perfectomnipotence of their Creatorand His perfectknowledge, wisdom and grace - you will find that it is like a constructededificein which all rtstools ano requirements provided.The heavenwas erectedwith its roof are raisedabove it; the earth made like a placeof rest and a carpetfor its dwellers; the sun and moon which are like lamps illuminate the earth; and the stars which are its lanternsand adornmentgive directions the travellerin the paths of the universe. to The iewels and mineralsthat are hiddenin the earth like preparedtreisures are all made for the purposethat best suits them. All kinds of plantsand animalsare also preparedfor what they are good for. Some animalsare good for riding,some are good for milking; some are good for food and some are betterused as guards.And He made man theircontroller and like an authorised king above all of them. lf you also ponderover this universe eitherin every respector in a partof it, you will see a lot of wonders.lf you deeplyreflectand you are sincere with yourself and free yourself from the noose of whims, capricesand blind imitation, you will know with certainty that this universe was createdby the All-Wise, All-powerfuland All- Knower,Who measuredit in the best manner and arrangedit in the best form. You will atso know with certaintythat it is simply impossible that the Creatorshould be two; He is only One Lord besideWhom there is none other worthy of worshipand that hao therebeen any othergod in the heavensand the earth,theiraffarrs would have been corrupted, theirorder disruptedand theirwelfare brokendown. lf you howeverinsiston attributing creatron othersbesidetne the to Creator, whatwillyou say of the mechanism revolves that arounda river whose tools and composrtionhave been perfected and excellently measuredthat the observerdoes not see any defectin it or its picture. This riveris situated the middleof a longgarden in
  • Islaam: Its Foandations And Concepts 33 in whichthereare different kindsof fruitsthatget theirwaterfrom this river,and thereis in this garden caretaker a who bringsits disunited parts together and perfectly takes care of it so that nothing it becomes of defected and nothing its fruitsbecomes of decayed. This caretakerthen portions its partsto the outlets out according man'sneeds to and necessities, giving eachgroup what it deserves portioningoutin thiswaycontinuously. and it Will you thensay that all this happened without handof any the creator, hasfreedom choice who of and is a planner? yousay Will thatthe existence thatmechanism garden just accidental of and is without creator planner? youimagine any or Can whatyourreason will tell you if all thesewereto cometo beingaccidentally? Can you imagine to whereyourreason directyou and counsel as will youabout?' Theunderlying reasons: Afterall thesereflections over the creation the universe, of we deemit fit to mention someof the reasons which for Allaah created thesehuge beings astounding and signs. 1. To subject them to man: WhenAllaahdecreed createa to successor thisearth would worshipping andinhabit on that be Him the earth;He created thesethings him,thathe mighthave all for an upright and havematters his present and thatof his life of life final put abode right him. for Allaah says, I This section expunged is from differentplacesfionr the book, "Miftaahu d a a r i s - s a ' a a d o t2 5 1 2 6 9 . a . -
  • 34 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts And has subjectedto you all that is in the heavens and allthat is in the eafth; it is atlas a favor and kindnessfrom Him.n He also says, '6_?G',c ,y -, ,:c-ai3: Jlis u..,{ri o"iAi * ,sfr i'i y E ;i"-t.;=i ii a &e. <ffin e;i"E Grty'Ai /"' 'gt :A,FIJ JJI t *i" itit';:1 ;Ai ;i,A'A3'tl ,.i,f . jrj)l z -_t! t6t;! J - . i q . . ji'l{--.4 t i . , ls-i; OIt ;}:,:JL , , .Lt "=. r i i..-_i2. .Lt tti(, r 2: vll^ Ot ftul;i - - .. a / D t. / ( r'g)it"=- lrt'hJ 'All6his He Whohascreated heavens theeafthandsends the and down water(rain)from the sky,and therebybroughtforth fruitsas provisionfor you; and He has made the shrpsto be of serviceto you, thattheymay sailthrough sea by His Command; He fhe and hasmaderivers (also)to be of serviceto you. And He has made the sun and the moon, both constantly pursuingtheir courses,fo be of serviceto you; and He hasmadethe nightand the day, to be of serviceto you. And He gaveyou of all thatyou askedfor, and if you countthe Blessings All6h,neverwill you be able to count of them. Verily!Man is indeedan extremewrong-doer, disbeliever a (an extreme ingrate, whodeniesAll6h's 8/essrngs disbelief, by and by worshipping othersbesrdes All6h,and by di2obeyingAlldhand HisProphet Muhammad (peace uponhim)).'" be 2. To make the heavens and the earth and all that is in the universeproofsof Allaah'sLordship and signsof His Oneness. Because, greatest the thingin thislife,is to affirm Lordship the of Allaahand His Oneness. And because the fact that. it is the of ' A l - J a a t h i y a4 5 :l 3 h 2 lbraaheem 14.32-34
  • Islaam: Its FoundotionsAnd Concepts 35 greatest matter, Allaah has establishedin its support greatest evidences and signsand provedit with the most convincing proofs. So, Allaah createdthe heavens,the earth and all other beingsto make them evidences that.That is why statements for like, "Among His srgns"are mentionedin the abundancelike in the following verses. ar- 4u.l{i ?';-ui Jtt -:;-t; us ) "And among Hls SrErns fhe creationof the heavensand the ls eafth." 4 zQi;,FV*c '*'r; a: "And among Hrs Srgns is the sleep that you take by night and by day." '..ai') ',- ' . , rr l - i . , 1 . , , -a:+te glJ f t t'4JaJ tif OrCt e=.t-t "And among His Signs is that He shows you the lightning,for fear and for hope." | .a a-J ', t. a . 4 ':rJ6tr:Cat f* 6t '1;'l; asb and the earth stand "AndamongHis Srgrns fhaf the heavens ls by HisCommand."' 3. To make them evidences the existence the Day of of of since Resurrection, thelifeis two lives, lifeof thisworldanda life a ' Ar-Roorn 30:22-25
  • 36 Islaam: Its Foundations,And Concepts of the Hereafter thoughthe life of the Hereafter the real.Allaah is says, 't .a t ,. -.i'i 'r;-ti .v i'll c--tl .l s.P {r Wi1 :+- c 5 Y ,t..- / 'i" ittJu- lt. ( ,':r: .-r.,jp.lr? "And this life of the world is only amusement and ptay! Verily, the home of the Hereafter - that is the life indeed (i.e., the eternat life that will never end), if they but knew."I This is because the home of the Hereafter is the home of recompenseand reckoningand there is there eternal bliss for those who deserveit and eternaltormentfor thosewho deserveit. Since man cannot reach that home except after he dies and is resurrected; existenceis denied by those whose relationship its with their Lord has been cut, whose naturehas suffereda relapse and whosesenseof reasoning has beendamaged.lt is because of this that Allaah establishedproofs and evidencesin order that souls might believe and hearts might have conviction; for reproduction the soul is much easier than its first creationand of the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the reproduction man.Allaahsavs, of '+' t j!.i ,^t ,1.;-I ,tt;Ji s. *i y i"+ "AndHe it is Whooriginates creation, the repeatit (afterit therywill hasbeenperished) thisr's and easier Him.'" for Healsosays, ' Al-Ankaboot2g:64 2 A r - R o o m3 0 : 2 7
  • Islaam: Its Foundotions And Concepts 37 ! r6i ;oi ,*S *L:J | ,'.i,; ,'Ai O.t{i.2,'e-:ti ,p V . t-.,. t::l ).}.!l "Thecreationof the heavensand the eafth is indeedgreaterthan thecreation mankind. most mankind of vet of knownot."l He alsosays, -:. .ti ,47 , 4irr f CJ t9+r ',ziit*Ai ;i<ji w. ;tri';'j' ,# Ft 6A?5 ,-4 SG, ttl 4':t>'o*;'&t "All6h is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you can see. Then, He rose above (lstawd) the Throne (really in a manner fhat suifs His Majesty).He has subjectedthe sun and the moon (to continue going round), each running (its course) for a term appointed. He regulates all affairs; explaining the Ay6t (proofs, evidences, yerses, /essons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail,^thatyou may believe with ceftainty in the meeting with your Lord.'* After all this O man! lf this entire universehas been subjectedto you and all its signs and proofshave been shown to you, you will testifythat there is no Lord worthy of worshipexceptAllaahAlone Who has no partner. When you have knownthat your resurrection and life after death is easierthan the creationof the heavensand the earth, that you shall meet your Lord Who will call you to accountfor your deeds and you have known that all this universe I Ghaafir 0:574 t A r - R a ' dl 3 : 2
  • 38 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts worships its Lord that all His creatures glorify their Lord with praisesas confirmed Allaah, by .i :t7 ! ,i.: ,,1: i :r . . t / ,-, z.i .- z rl ,. { :,t.-=!cl-t J;)t ,J-J|A1 .:-ttli;,r)i 4 t4 ,>''931 C Y * &;-y "Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the eafth glorifies Allah, the King (of everything), the Holy, the All-Mighty, the Att-Wise."1 That,they all prostrate His Majestyas He says, for ';a1 3Ai, u.r'lt g;p3,->,'9^ai n ,:"i ..J'-f-fii ,r ,i y a :rri "crii *:; -si o1i G"i4,L. rittii';uii Jaji i$ii ' 'i,-:,41 -. )t ' -," t '. ,.r, ral L+J a! | .' * .. J tI z v. vr-v "Seeyou not that whoeveris in the heavens and whoeveris on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and Ad-Dawab (moving (iving) creatures, beasfs,),and many of mankind prostrate themselves to Allah. But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is iustified. And whomsoeverAll6h^disgraces, none can honor him. Verily!Allahdoes what He wills.'' Even these beingsworshiptheir Lord in a way that suits them as explained Allaahin this verse, by I Al-Jumu'ah 2:l 6 'at.lr.aiizz:tt
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 39 '4"^i lii ii lL i "S-;-i* fuii *r{tr,.r"*ai a c*n ; V "See you not (O Muhammad(peacebe upon him)) that All6h, He it is Whom glorify whosoeveris in the heavens and the eafth, and the birds with wings out-spread (in their flight). Ot each one He (AlEh) knows indeed hls Sa/df (prayer) and his glorification, (or everyoneknows hls Sa/df(prayer)and his glorification)."' lf your entire body does actuallywork in order accordingto the decreeof Allaahand His regulation: heart,the lungs,the liver the and all otherpartsof the bodysubmitand surrenderto theirLord... Will your optionaldecisionafter all this be betweenbelief in your Lord and disbeliefin Him? Will your decisionbe antipathytowards and deviationfrom this blessedpath of the world aroundyou and even of your body? Actually,the completelysane man will considerhimselffar above choosing antipathyand deviationin the vastness of this great universe. I A n - N o o r2 4 : 4 1
  • 40 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Creatingand Honouring Man It was a decisionof Allaah to createa creaturethat could inhabit this universe and His choicefell on man. lt is also in accordance with His Divine Wisdom that the matter from which man was createdwas the earth. He originatedhis creationfrom clay and then moulded him on this beautiful shapethat he has now.When he has becomecompletely perfectin that shape,He breathedlife Into him through His Spirit (Angel Jibreel-Gabriel)and He made him becomeman in the best form; providedhim with the abilitvto hear, see, move and speak. Then his Lord made him live rn Paradise, taught him all that he neededto know, made lawfulfor him all that was in Paradiseand forbadehim from a sinqletree - as a test for him. Allaah wanted to show man's positionand standing;so He commandedHis Angels to prostratefor him. All of the Angels prostrated but Satan arroganfly and obstinately refused to prostrate. Allaah became angry with him for his disobedience So and expelledhim from His Mercy becauseof his arrogance. Satan asked Allaahto extend his life and give him respitetill the Day of Resurrection.So, Allaah extended his life till the Dav of Resurrection Satanbecameenviousof Adam becauseof the preference and he his childrenwere given over him. He swore by His Lord that he would mislead all the childrenof Adam, that he would come to them from their front and rear, and from their left and from their rightexceptthe sincere,piousand truthfulslavesof Allaahamong them,for suchAllaahhas protected againstthe evil plansof Satan. AllaahwarnedAdam of the evil plan of Satan,but Satan tempted Adam and his wife Hawwain orderto get them out of paradiseano to uncoverfor them that that was hiddenfrom them of their orivate parts. He swore by Allaah to them that he was a srncerewell- wisher for them and that Allaah had not forbidden them from that tree savethey shouldbecomeangelsor becomeof the immortals.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 4l Having been influencedby the deceptionof Satan, Adam and Hawwa ate of the forbiddentree and the first punishmentthat afflictedthem for theirdisobedience Allaah'scommandwas that, of which that was hidden from them of their private parts became exposedand Allaahreminded them of His warningaboutthe tricks of Satan. Adam then sought for the forgivenessof his Lord. So Allaah forgaveHim, acceptedhis repentance, chose him and guidedhim. He then orderedhim to descendfrom the Paradise where he was living,to the earthwhereintherewas his abode and his enjoyment for a time. He also told him that it was from earth that he was created,that on it he would live and die and that !t is from it that he would be resurrected. Adam and his wife Hawwa then descendedto the earth and their childrenprocreated and they all used to worshipAllaah, because their father Adam was a Prophet.Allaah tells us this story in the glorious Qur'aanwhereHe says, -i '-t t t '-.'r: i! r]r*--3 p:) l.e.r*;t -is.fi"ll- ,t- iB rtt , "frf- s ' r* i t , -"e t .7 ;-:,",, t- o " 2: ""i. "!i F 1.i.,.:".,'-'i:. . t -: t,t .,. . .. ...'. -- -i l,rlJtr JX;l 5l r--J ll..:1't t- Jt-ii!) a_t-)-:!Ati d/._,fu ) z 2- H) i.,ir 1.,.i,." r.".,.' , t.-.',. ,t -".i. t.'r- Ol .rU otsv L.r qy L."r'UJLi ':ltt,* J. 'a;Art * s: ,tsil- ^'a -;; ....' . . ,..: - . c-[] Ju '.t", 6;-la-rr2JIU], Jti :D rt"],-Aie,tL) i;u W ;5i .: t'ia .: ,1 . . t1'11 -. - t: ,"1 e :!.' 6:;;'.:*lt gL'/" p trr;) e?t Li9 Jt i:!) cp-lh:Jl ; " w t** & Lt; us"t1r-i tiri.- q, tli J6 r31 3.6i '1,t^r; * '*;i ; <K'tei eLi:t .t"i ki ii6J; r1'3) :.<.
  • 42 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts cl A#.,iu.ni Ct a*i ;D',gLsij, vr<tt';Ai y- p 6i-'j1i**j :y u" ti?i tka u Js'r4r* o, c+-e ( G,j ;Ab rt;,+ u+i ui',* Ci a- rvAi st:tJ'/+ siii 'ol 6 ,*ii ;ei ,;* * k;i if 1; c+tui"-4-i4:i or u^;;, a '*; i obu-:Lir* t,J:lr! ,?=)"q.3iL jJ:hi ,:K e.t.. ,,.,. - . i. 1: L.i . ",r ,2t. i i ".,! ,r) c F3 Je ud.>4r, ". lqb^.al JU :,;fi g_74;Jl - UF U , .J- . - . I t. -a { ::!)i;} q4ii;* t<+:i't+ wJ6;!) J) yi"";u f And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being); then We told the angels, "Prostrate yourselves to Adam", and they prostrated themselves,except lblis (Satan), he refused to be of those who prostrated themselves.(NEh) said: "What preventedyou (O lblis) that you did not prostrateyourself, when I commandedyou?" lbtis said: "l am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay." (NIeh) said. "(O lblis) get down from this (Paradise),it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced." (lblis) said: "Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (i.e. the Day of Resurrectrbn)."(All6h) said: "You are of those resplted." (tbtis) said: "Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path. Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them as thankfut ones (i.e. they will not be dutiful to You) " (Neh) said (to tbtis) "Get out from this (Paradise) disgraced and expelled. Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surety I wiil fiil Heil with you att." "And O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 43 as you both wish, but approach not this tree othervvise you both will be of the Zdtim1n (unjustand wrong-doers)." Then Shaitdn(Satan) whispered suggesflons to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their privafe parts (before); he said: "Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals."Andhe (Shaitdn(Satan))swore by All6h to them both (saying):"Verily,I am one of the sincerewell-wishers for you both." So he misledthem with deception. Then when they tasfed of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts)became manifestto them and they began to cover fhemse/ves with the leaves of Paradise (in order to cover their shame).And their Lord called out to them (saying): "Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Shaitdn (Satan) is an open enemy -unto you?" They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves.lf You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall ' certainty be of the /osers. (Aileh) said: "Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (i.e.Adam, HawwA'(Eve), and Shaltdn(Satan)) On earth witl be a dwelling-place for you and an enioyment for a time." He said: "Thereinyou shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shallbe broughtout (i.e. resurrected)."' Consider greatness Allaah'swork in man. He createdhim in the of the best form, clothed him with traits of honour like intellect, knowledge, eloquence, of speaking,beautiful art figure,moderate body, ability to acquire knowledgethrough analogicaldeduction and thinking and ability to acquire noble characteristics like, righteousness, acts of obedience and submission Allaah.Far is to his conditionwhile he was just a drop of spermkept in the womb of his motherfrom his creation whilethe Angel will enter upon him in the Paradise. (,'C cn-r,ri ;;i'Ai tr(','l I A l - A ' r a a7 : l l - 2 5 f
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And C, "So b/essedbe Atl6h,the Bestof Creators."l This world is a villageand man is its inhabitant. is preoccupied All becauseof him and all is made to work for his interests. oiher All creaturesare made to serve him and providefor his needs. The angels are chargedto protecthim duringday and night.Those of them.who are chargedwith provisionof rain and pllnts strive to providehim with his sustenance; orbits are made to surrenderto him and revolvein his services; the sun, moon and stars are all subjectedto move in line with his time reckoningand for the betterment his food arrangement. aerialworto of The witn its winds, clouds,birds and all that it containsis also subjected him. so is to the lower world with all its seas and rivers,its trees and fruits.its plants and animals and allthatis in it. Allaahsays, '" l: '-' -'rri 'r..t. .. -i;i- ', ,l*, - .. - zi -i- .'i,t- ,y (_Pv',t' 4 oJ'J.f)tr1 9"2:^JJl dI; cj+Jl tii ) '?i 'L' .^* -:fV ^''r. : -ii <-u;rr r - i;i, . . - * - i 1 ,u.,;,r'Ai - 1 t z -, - r-. d.r F-i 4t O 64 E iKl . = . n- v r r i - i'11 '2i .'. - -o -. ,- . -'-if. .1,-t t)i ,. . - :T itillj JJr -<t r-_, eH.t) r4-artr r-*-.Jt E *i (:D ifry1 . l ' / ir-"), ,_r! l^raa j ,iJtj^^! ts^i; olj ;;jL t_ J4 n 6i,ri . - ../ { ;1E,} ik=- t!-hJ "Alldhis He who has createdthe heavensand the earth and sends down water (rain) from the sky, and thereby brought forth fruits as provision for you; and He has made the shrps to be of service to you, that they may sail through fhe sea by His Command; and He has made rivers (also) to be of serviceto you. And He h?s ffiade the sun and the moon, both constanttypursuing their courses, to be of seruiceto you; and He has made the night and the day, to be of service to you. And He gave you of att that you askedfor, and if you count the Blessingsof All6h, never will you be abte to count ' Al-Mu'minoon23:14
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 45 them. Verily! Man is indeed an extreme wrong-doer, a disbeliever (an extremeingrate,who denies Allah's8/esslngsby disbelief,and by worshippingothers besides All6h,and by disobeyingAll6h and His ProphetMuhammad(peacebe upon him))."' To completeHis honour on man, He createdfor him all that he needsin his worldlylife and all that he needsthat can make him attainthe highestpositionsin the Hereafter. as such, revealed He to him His Books and sent to him His Messengers to explaining him the Law of Allaahand calling him untoit. Then Allaah created for him from his own self - meaningfrom Adam himself- a wife,so that he mightenjoythe pleasure living of with her, in responseto his natural needs, be it psychological, intellectual and physical. He then found with her comfort, tranquillityand stability and both of them found in their togetherness peace, contentedness, love and mercy; becauseof their physical, psychologicaland nervous composition,both of them are made to respondto the desiresof each other and both are made to be in harmony in the process of producingnew generations. The soulsof both are enriched with thesefeelingsand their relationship filled with comfort for the soul and nerves, is peace for the body and mind, stability the life and subsistence, for familiarity souls and conscience for and a tranquillity the man for and womanon an equalbasis. Allaahthen chosethe believers among mankindand made them his frrends. madethem obey Him and work for Him according He to his Laws in order to make them qualifyto live in His Paradise. He choseamong them Prophets, Messengers, saintsand martyrsand blessedthen in this world with the best favourthat human souls can enjoy:worshipping Allaah,obeyingHim and supplicating to him. He also distinguished them with great favours- that others cannotget - amongwhich are: peace,tranquillity happiness, and and greaterthan all this is the fact that they know the truththat was brought the Messengers believe it. Allaahthen keepsfor by and in I l4:32-34 Ibraaheern
  • 46 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts them - in the Hereafter the everlasting - bliss and great success that befit His generosity, glory be to Him. He will atso rewardtheir beliefin Him and theirsincerity Him and willgive them moreout to of His Bounty. The position of woman: In lslaam,the womanis accorded high position, a whichshe was not accordedin any of the previousreligionsand which no nation will accordher but lslaam.This is because,both man and woman on equalbasissharethe honourthat lslaamconferred mankind. on Humansare equal beforerulesof Allaah in this world as they will be equalas regardsHis rewardand recompense the Last Day. on Allaahsays, 4.i:r; A, Lf tdt o y "And indeed, We have honouredthe chitdrenof Adam."1 He alsosays, 914'ii!'; ti L+i ,s;ts; o]j.fii 9t4-;,i 6 e.ei Jt;1).y !; / ' 'il'- (/ i-,:,jjlj "Thereis a share for men and a sharefor women from what is teft by parentsand those nearestretated.'2 6ii t" 33y ' A I - l s r a al 7 : 7 0 . 2 An-Nisaa : 7 4
  • Isluam: Its Foundations And Concepts 47 "And they (women)have rights (over their husbandsas regards over them (as slml/ar(to thoseof their husbands) living expenses) regardsobedience respect) what and to is reasonable."' | ' ..tii. ' t '.tli, ,$u4r.t ;Q)l -ie-b-r'.c*-'t)tt / .'ti,r.f. tt,.' Of i"Jl : Y t "The betievers,men and women are Auliy6' (helpers, suppofters, friends,protectors) one another.'" of (t" e;;t il'it; Ltil..llr;',n ,4: ;es'o Y 1i lt 4 Ai r-';;t Si*i-;f Jii >nr;U tiUei e:i ci;-i -,,j *i *:'ti b J:ri tvt ,:4 6a-it,@ ('"f tri-p rtq.i G{ ,,ort...1.1.1.' 4 :+=)' "Andyour Lord hasdecreedthatyou worship nonebut Him And thatyou be dutifulto your parents. one of themor bothof them lf attain agein your life,saynot to thema wordof disrespect, otd nor shout thembut address at themin terms honour. of And lowerunto them a wing of submission and humilitythroughmercy, and say; 'My Lord! Bestowon them Your Mercy as they did bring me up whenI wasyoung.u ,,:l-i.t 2 'V, l - !: t , - " - - ' i . . r ' i . ir,t+;tr ' i^ { ('i;i ft J 6" ** ,Y .,ri+i i+r F ' Al-Baqarah2:228 2At-Tawbah :71 9 t A l - l s r a a1 7 : 2 3 - 2 4 .
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And C, "So their Lord accepted their supptication and answered them (saying); 'Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female.'1 ta. tt: .-t ; tt+; J+ cf > . , .t- ,:t:.i '4+--.D tf)- *s ,;;t 5t fs , =- ,,.--,, t.' --a t.., ,. tt, . ( Lg--;" o'^a l;la L. J;L, ;<-_i!; .^ii "whoever works righteousness whethermale or female- while he - (or she) is a true believer (of rslamicMonotheism) veriry,to him we will give a good life (in this wortd with respect, contentment and lavvful provision), and we shail pay them ceftainly a reward in propottion to the best of what they used to do (i.e. paradise in the Hereafter).2 '. '.' ': 'q olI;J:.rtsit-,a a z t *i . &i :i .+t . n,:,-Lt/:i il :, -i,l .' .' a Uy o "S;,a__r_rj ) 4 ri) t4 t AL:.,ti'tai "And whoeverdoes righteousgood deeds,mate or female,and is a (true) believer (in the oneness of Aildh (Muslim)) such will enter Paradiseand not the least injustice,even to the sizeof a speckon the back of a date-stone,will be done to them.',3 This honourthat the womanenjoysin lslaamhas no equalin any other religion,creed or law. Roman civilization had it established that womanshouldbe a slaveand a subordinate man and that of she-should absolutelyhas no rightsat all. Therewas even a great conference Rome where affairsof the woman were discuised. in The conclusionreachedat the conference was that, the woman ' A a l - l m r a a n :l 9 5 3 t A n - N a h ll 6 : 9 7 3 An-Nisaa : 124 4
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 19 was a lifelessbeingand as such could not have share in the life of the Hereafterand that she was impure. In Athens,woman used to be regardedas a scrap. She would be sold and bought like any other commodityand she was being regarded abomination Satan'shandiwork. an of Accordingto the ancient lndian statutes,the plague, death, hell, poisonof serpents and fire are betterthan woman.Her rightto live used to end with the deathof her husband- who was regarded as her master.When she saw the corpseof her husbandbeingburnt, she must throw herself into it and if she did not, she would be accursed. judgementwas passedon her in the As for Judaism,the following Old Testament. "l appliedmine heart to know and to search and to seek out the wisdom and the reasonof things and to know the wickednessof folly even of foolishness madness..and I find more bitterthan in death the woman and whose hearth is snares and nets and her handsas bandswhoso pleaseth God shallescapefrom hell but the sinner shallbe takenbv her."' Such was the condition woman in the ancienttimes. As for of medieval and contemporarytimes, the followingevents explain that. I 1:25-26.It is knownthat the Old Testament hallowedand is Ecclesiastes believed by both the Christians the Jews. in and Note: Christians past and present of ageshallow the two testaments but nowadays, they only regardthe old testament a holy book which they as are not obliged to follow. As for the Jews,they never regardthe New Testarnent a holy book for they never believedin the Prophet[i.e. as Jesusl whornit is ascribed. to =AA.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And C, The Danish writer,Wieth Kordstenexplainedthe positionof the CatholicChurch as regardswoman when he said, ,,During the medievaltimes, the concern that was had for Europeanwoman was very limited and this is in conformitywith the view of the Catholic creed that used to regard woman as a second-class humanbeing." In France,a conference was held in the year 586 A.D. where the issue of woman was discussedas to whether she should be regarded as a human being or not. At the end of the discussion, the discussantsconcludedthat she was a human being but that she was createdfor the serviceof man. ln Frenchlaw, article217 says;"The marriedwoman- even if her marriageis based on separationbetweenher right of ownership and that of her husband-shouldnot give anyone ownership of anythingof her propertywith or withoutcompensationexceptwith the participation her husbandin the transaction his written of or consentto that." In England,Henry the Vlll prohibited the Englishwoman from readingthe Holy Book, until 1850, women were not considered citizens England of and up till 1882,theyhad no personalrights.l As for the conditionof woman in contemporary Europe,America and otherindustrial nations, she is regarded a commoncreature as that shouldbe utilized commercial for purposes, she is a part of for commercialadvertisement. This has even reached a situation where she is strippednaked in order to advertisecommoditieson her body.Her bodyand honourhave becomedesecrated basedon regulationslaid down by men in order to make her an object of enloyment everywhere. The contemporary woman is an abject of care and attentionas long as she is able to give out her wealth,intelligence body. and But when she becomesold and loses her means of giving,the ' - S i l s i l a t u u q a a r a n a t i d y a a n D r . A h m a dS h a l a b y 1 2 1 0 - 2 1 3 m al 3
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 51 and collectively society individually abandons her and she lives lonelyin her houseor in the sanatorium. Comparethe above - althoughthey cannot be equal - with what says, the NobleQur'aan . .,t11-.- t -.rfi.; t .". ri.t-,t- tt..., (-.fr-? ;t!^gt g-6-.ar4:.r:'.t-tt OtJi4tt, "Thebelievers, men and womenare Auliya'ftelpers, suppofters, protectors) oneanother."' friends, of , . ...1.1 , -',' .oi t,, .ti. , 4.qtFV,J#' 6rtJt,-F: #s f "And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards tiving expenses)slml/ar(to those of their husbands)over them (as regardsobedienceand respect)to what is reasonable.'" "Andyour Lord hasdecreed that you worshipnonebut Him.And thatyou be dutifulto your parents. one of them or both of them lf nor attainold age in your life, say not to thema wordof disrespect, shout thembut address at themin termsof honour.And lowerunto them a wing of submisslon and humilitythroughmercy, and say; ' At-Tawbah :71 9 2 Al-Baqarah2:228
  • 52 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 'My Lordl Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up when I was young.'t "And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents.lf one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect,nor shout at them but address them in terms of honour.And lower unto them the wing of submr'sslonand humility through mercy, and say: 'My Lord! Bestow on them your mercy as they did bring me up when I wasyoung." WhileAllaahhonours woman,He makesit clearto all mankind that He created her to be mother, wife, daughter and sister; and ordainedfor these roles, special regulations that are peculiarto her. 'Al-lsraa 7:23-24. 1 ' Al-lsraa ll:23-24
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 53 Why was man created? It has been discussedin the previouschapterthat, Allaahcreated Adam and createdfor him his wife, Hawwa and made them live in Paradise.Then Adam disobeyed Lord and later soughtfor His his forgiveness.Allaahthen acceptedhis repentance and guidedhim. Allaah then ordered him to go orit of the Paradiseand descend unto the earth.Allaah,glory be Him and He be exaltedhas in that, a wisdom which human intelligence cannot perceiveand which their tonguecannotdescribe. We are going to mentionhere some of thosewisdoms and underlyingreasons. 1. Allaahcreatedthe creation the purpose worshipping for of Him. He says, - tt" . a. ia a ?' , ".. t I) o-r't='J-)l ;)lj Jtt c--hJ; ui , "And | (AlEh) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worshipMe (Alone)."' It is also knownthat the perfection the worshipthat is required of of man cannottake place in the abodeof blissand eternitybut in the The abodeof eternityis that of bliss, abode of trialsand tribulation. not that of testsand commandments. 2. Allaahwantedto take among mankindProphets, Messengers, friend and martyrswhom He would love and who would love Him. He then left them alone with his enemiesand put them to trial by them. So when they preferredHim above all other things and sacrificedtheir lives and propertiesin order to gain His pleasure and love, they attainedof His love and pleasurewhat they could not have attained withoutthat initially. the statusof prophethood So and martvrdomis of the best deqreesbeforeAllaahand could not ' Adh-Dhaariyaat: 56 5l
  • 54 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts have attained that except by the way decreed by Allaah that Aadamand his offspringhad to descendto the earth. 3. Allaahis the only True and EvidentKing.The King is the One Who commandsand forbids,rewardsand punishes; disgraces and honours;strengthens and debases.Allaah'ssovereignty therefore necessitates that he sends Adam and his offspring an abode in to which the rules of sovereigntywill be implemented them and on then move them to an abodewherethere is rewardfor all that they did. 4. AllaahcreatedAdam from a handfulof all soilsof the earth:and there is good and bad and low and high in the land.Allaahknows that there are among - the childrenof Adam - those who are unsuitableto stay with Him in His House; therefore,He made Adam descendto an abode where He distinguishes betweenthe good and bad ones. Then Allaah chose for them two distinct abodes:He made the righteous ones dwellersof His Abode (made them enter Paradise),and made the evil ones dwellers of the abodeof misery (Hell-Fire). 5. To Allaah belongthe BeautifulNames.Among His Names are: Al-Ghafoor(the Oft-Forgiving),Ar-Raheem (the Most-Gracious). Al-Afuww(Oft-Pardoning), Al-Haleem(Most-Forbearing).Since the impacts of these names must manifest,the Wisdom of Allaah necessitates Adam and his childrenmust descendto an abode that where the impacts of the Beautiful Names of Allaah could materialise them. So that He might forgivewhoever He wills, on have mercyon whomeverHe wills,pardonwhosoever wills and He forbearfor whosoeverHe wills and other differentways in which His Namesand Attributes can be manifest. 6. AllaahcreatedAdam and his children from a compositionthat is naturallyinclinedto good and evil, responsive the causes of to lustsand temptations and to the causesof reasonand knowledge. He createdin him reasonand lust and createdin both necessary factorsso that His Will might be accomplishedand that He might show to His slaves His greatnessin Wisdom, Might; and His
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts f,f, Mercy, Kindness and Benevolence in His Authority and Sovereignty.He then, out of His Wisdom sent Adam and his childrento the earth so that the test might take place thereinand impacts of man's preparedness for these factors and his responsiveness them might become manifest,and Allaah may to then use that basisto awardhonouror disgrace whom it is due. to 7. Beliefin the Unseenis the useful belief.As for the beliefin the seen, everyonewill belreveon the Day of Resurrection. people lf were createdin the Abode they would not have of Bliss(Paradise), attainedthe degreeof beliefin the Unseenthat ends in enjoyment and honour.lt is for this reasonthat Allaahsent them to the abode in whichthey could haveopportunity believein the Unseen. to 8. Allaah wants by that, to show His slaves on whom He has bestowedHis favour,the perfectionof that favour and its greatness so that they might thank Allaah and love Him the most and have the fullestenjoymentof the bliss, which Allaah has bestowedon them. Allaah therefore,shows them what He did to His enemies and the punishment that He has prepared them. He also makes for them witnessthe highestkindsof bliss,which He has bestowed on them, so that their joy might increase. This is an aspect of completrng favourson them. Therefore, make them achieve His to all this, He must send them to the earth,put them to test and then make whosoeverHe wills to succeedout of mercy and kindness from Him,and disgrace whosoever willsamongthem out of His He wisdomandjustice, He is All-Knower, for All-Wise. 9. Allaah wants Adam and his childrento go back to the Paradise whilethey are in the beststate.So beforethey enter it, He wantsto make them taste of the hardship, sorrowand distressof the world so that the value of enteringParadisein the Hereafter be great will in their gstimation, it is the oppositeof an objectthat shows its for beauty.' ' See:Miftaahdaaris-Sa'aadah/ 6-l I I
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts After the originof man has been made clear,it is now appropriate to explainhis needfor the true relioion.
  • And Concepts Isloam: Its Foundations 57 Man's Need for Religion Man's need for religion is greater than his need for other necessittes life. For, man must know the things that please of Allaahas well as those that displease Him. He must also carry out activitiesthat can bringhim benefitsand othersthat can avertfrom him harm. So, it is the DivineLaw that distinguishes betweenthe deeds that benefit and those that bring harm. That is Allaah's justice in Hrs creationand His Light among His servantsand it is not possiblefor peopleto live withoutDivine Law with which they can differentiate between what they should do and what they shouldnot do. lf man actuallyhas a will, he must then know what he wants.Does he want what will benefithim or what will harm him? Does he want what will reformhim or what will corrupthim? Some peopleknow this naturally,some know it throughapplication their senseof of reasoning and some yet do not know it exceptthroughexplanation by the Messengers theirguidance.' and However the atheistic and materialistic thoughts may be widespreadand adorned;and ideologiesand theoriesthrive, and societies individuals For will never do withouttrue religion. theseideologies neverprovide man'sspiritual can for and physical needs. And the more man goes deeper in them, the more he is convincedthat they cannotglve him securitynor satiatehis thirst and thatthe truereligion unavoidable. is ErnestRinansaid,"All thingsthat we hold dear can dwindle, and freedomof usingone's intelligence, knowledge and expertisecan becomeworthless. But it is impossible religion for to be effaced.lt wiil rather remaina living proof on the futilityof materialideology I S e e A t - T a d m u r i y y a h y S h a y k h u l - l s l a a m n T a y m i y y a hp . 2 1 3 - 2 1 4 , b Ib 2 / 383 a n dM i f t a a h u a a r i s - S a ' a a d a h d
  • 58 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts that wantsto restrict man into despicable narrows the earthly of life."1 Muhammad Fareed Wajdee said: "lt is impossiblefor religious thinking vanish,for it is the highestand noblestof humanmind,s to inclinations, not to mention the fact that it is an inclination that elevates man. Rather than dwindle, this inclinationshall be increasing.Religious natureof man willalwayspursuehim as long as he can discernwhat is beautifuland what is ugly and this nature shall continue to increase in him accordingtg sublimityof his mentalfaculties progress his knowledge."' and in So if man keeps away from his Lord, it is throughthe sublimityof his mental faculties and wideness of his knowledge that he recognizes greatness his ignorance the of about his Lord and what is due to Him, and his ignorance his own self, what is good for of him and what is harmful to him; what gives him happinessand what will cause him misery.He will also recognise ignorance his of scientificdetails like astronomy,science of galaxies,reckoning, nuclearsciencesand so forth.lt is then that the worldwill abandon the stage of delusion and arrogance to that of humility and submission and then believethat there is behindthese sciencesa knowledgeable and Wise One and that there is behindthe nature an Able Creator.This realitywill then force the impartial scholarto believein the unseen,to surrenderto the uprightreligionand to respondto the call of natural instinct.But when man withdraws from this path,his naturewill relapseand he will come down to the levelof dumbanimals. - We concludefrom all the above, that the true religiosity that dependson beliefin the Onenessof Allaahand performing acts of - worshipaccordingto His injunctions is a necessaryelementof life, so that man actualizesthroughthat, his servitudeto Allaah, Lord of all the worldsand attainthroughthat, happinessand safety from destruction, hardship and misery. lt is also necessaryfor ' S e eA d - D e e n y M u h a m r n a d b d u l l a hD a r a a zp . 8 7 . b A t t b i d .8 8 .
  • Islsam: Its Foundations And Concepts 59 perfecting theoretical the aptitudein man. lt is only throughit that the intellectualhunger can be satiated, and its highest goals attained. Equally,religionis a necessary elementfor purification the soul of and refinement emotional of power,for noblesentiments find in the religion abundantspaceand a springwhose water does not dry an up where noblesentiments find theirgoals attained. It is a necessary elementfor the perfection will power because of of the supportit gives it throughgreat impetusand majormeansof resisting elements desPair. of In view of this, if there are some who say that man is civil by nature,we must also say: "Man is religious nature", man has by for two powers: scientific speculativepower and will power. His completehappinessdependson perfectinghis scientific and will power and the perfectionof his scientificpower cannot take place exceptby knowing following: the 1. Knowingthe True Lord Who is the Creatorand the Provider, Who createdman from nothingness bestowed him favours. and on 2. KnowingHis Names and Attributes and all that is due to Him the and understanding impactsof theseNameson His slaves. 3. Knowing way that leadsto Allaah,may He be glorified. the 4. Knowingthe hindrances and harms that preventman from knowingthe way and the greatblissthat the way leadsto. 5. Having a real cognisanceof your own soul, its needs, recognising what is good for it and what is harm to it, and knowing and defects. its oualities theseftvethingsthat man can perfect scientific It is by knowing his power.And perfection his scientific of and will power cannotoccur except by respectingthe rights of Allaah upon His slaves and carrying out these rights sincerely,truthfully,accordtngto the Sunnahof the Prophet, blessings and peacebe upon him, and as
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd a testimony His favouron him. There is no way to perfection of of these two powers except by His help. He thereforeneeds to be gurded the Straight to PathwhichAllaah guidedHisfriends.l After we have known that the True Religionis the Divinesupport powersof the soul,we shouldalso know that religion for different is the protectiveshield for the society.This is because humin life cannot be alright except through mutual cooperationand this cooperationcannot take place except through a system that regulates human relationships,defines their obligations and guarantees their rights.This system is also in need of a curbing and restraining authoritythat can preventthe soul from violating the system,encourageit to preserveit, guarantees relevance its and preventsmen from desecrating What then is this power? it. There is not on the face of this earthany powerthat can matchthe power of religiosityor even close to that in guaranteeingthe respect for order, societalcohesion,stabilityof it,s system and harmonising meansof comfortand tranquillity the society. the in The underlying reason for this is that, man is distinguished from otherlivingthingsin that,all his voluntarymovements and actions are controlled an inaudible invincible by and element. Thatelement is faith, which refines the soul and purifiesthe limbs. Man, is therefore, alwayscontrolled a true or false belief.lf his beliefis by correct,everything him will be correct,but if his beliefis corruot. in everything him will be corrupt. in Faith is a spontaneous watcherover man; and it is - as noticedin all men - of two types: - Belief in the value of moral excellence, human dignityand other ordinaryconceptsthat high-minded people will feel shy to violate even if they were free from externalconsequences and material recompense. I A l - F a w a a i d| 8 , 1 9 .
  • Islgam: Its Foundations And Concepts 61 - Beliefin Allaah- may He be Glorifiedand Exalted- and the fact that He is Ever-Watchful the secretsand knows all that is of hidden; fromWhoseCommandments prohibitions lslaamic and the Law derivesits power and beforeWhom the sensesprofusely feel mortifiedout of love for Him or fear of Him or both. There is no doubt that this type of faith is the stronger of both in exerting authorityover human mind. lt is also the strongerin resisting the tornadoes whims and inconsistency of of sentimentsand quickerin leavingimpactson the mindsof peopleand their leaders. It is because of this that religion is the best guarantorfor the establishment relationships of among peopleon the basisof justice which is a necessityin any society.There is no and impartiality, wonder then that religion occupies in the human society the position the heartin humanbody.' of lf this is the position religion of - generally and what we see in today's world is multiplicity religions of and creeds, where each group rejoices its beliefand holdstenaciously it - what then is in to the true religionthat can achieve for the human mind what it yearnsfor? And what are the generalcriteria the True Religion? of ' S e e :A d - d e e n . 9 8 , 1 0 2 p
  • 62 Islaam: Its Foundations And ConcEtts Criteriafor ldentifyingTrue Religion Every adherentof a creed believes that his creed is the true one, and all followersof a religionbelievethat their religionis the ideal one and the most upright path. When you ask the followersof adulterated religionsor followersof man-madecreeds about the proof for their belief,they argue that they found their fatherson a faith and are just followingtheir paths.They then relatenarrations and storieswhose chainsof transmitters not soundand whose are texts are not free from faults and defects.They only depend on inheritedbooks whose authors,recordersand even their original languages theirsources unknown. and are They are onlymixed-up stories concocted together, magnifiedand inheritedgeneration aftergeneration withoutany scholastic verification theirchainsof of transmitters precisechecking theirtexts. and of These unknownbooks, narrations and blind imitationscannot be taken as evidencesin matters of religionsand beliefs.Or is it possible that all theseadulterated religionsand man-made creeds are true or false? It is impossible all thesereligions true,for truthis only one that are and cannot be numerous.lt is also impossible that all these adulterated religionsand man-madebeliefsare all from Allaahand thereforetrue. Then, since there are numerousreligionsand the true is only one, which of them is then the true religion? There should,therefore, criteria distinguishing true religion be for the from the false. lf we find that these criteriafit a religion, know that it we is the truereligion; whenall or one of thesecriteria lacking and is in any religion, knowthat it is a falsereligion. we The criteriaby which we distinguish true religion the from the false onesare: One: That the religion must be from Allaah,revealed throughan angelto one of His Messengers orderto conveyit to mankind. in For the true religion Allaah's, is and it is He Who will recompense
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 63 His slavesand take them to reckoning the Day of Resurrection on concerning religion the that He revealed them.He says, to ( -ct'ri -61 J] t> rlq aoJl ., | 'v' + . .ari. ':--r)ta v, - 7+) I' t J) u;ii tx s:t ' F t . t /- , | ,. - 2',, t)t,/AJ etlY-J ?rtJ > ('i:' 4 {32ti} ; !,'3r r;'r'o+;: t "Verily,We have sent the revelationto you (O Muhammad(peace be upon him)) as We sent the revelation to N1h (Noah) and the Prophets after him; We (also) sent the revelation to lbrdhim (Abraham), lsm6'il (lshmael), lshdq (lsaac), Ya'qlb (Jacob), and '/sd (Jesus), Ayylb Al-Asbat (the twelve sons of Ya'qlb (Jacob)) (Job), Y1nus (Jonah), Hdrin (Aaron), and Sulaimdn (Solomon), and to Dawld (David)Wegave the Zablr (Psalms)."' He, may He be glorified- alsosays, -il ",ji ill { ,:;i 4) t t t .,-; {l ztt,i ,lu ' tt t ' . . + -i-IlJ -' .s a)' LiLrt t-, F /t 'i). - tt.a' ,'rrJ^-sLi '-' :J "And We did not send any Messengerbefore you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) but We revealed to him (saying) LA il6ha illa Ana (none has the right to be worshippedbut I (NEh)) so worship Me (Aloneand none else).'" Basedon the aboveversesand criteria, religion any that is brought and not to Allaahis definitely by any man and attributed himself to a falsereligion. I A n - N i s a4 : 1 6 3 a 2 Al-Anbiyaal:25 2
  • 64 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Two: That the religion shouldcall to the worship Allaahalone; of shouldprohibit Shtrk(polytheism any form)and all that can lead of to it. This is because:the call to the Onenessof Allaah is the primarymissionof all Prophets and Messengers. Every Prophet toldhis people, ,tJ;o 4. A; e v ii Uiii y Worship Allah! You have no other ll6h (God) but Him. (Ld il6ha iltaltdh:none has the right to be worshipped NeD.'r but Three: lt shouldbe in agreementwith the principles unto which all the Messengers their peoplewhichare to worshipAllaahalone call and to avoid polytheism,unruliness parents,killingof a person to unjustlyand all otherimmoralthings,be they hiddenor apparent. Allaahsays, 'i-i -' -'".i'i, 3t o, ur3i q y - l.ir t'z ,s1i9l3 trl )l 4-Jl ,*t +)t.-fy, )J l*j U 'l 'L F r,. )' ii_2 "And We did not send any Messengerbefore you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) but We revealed to him (saying): Ld ildha illa Ana (none has the right to be worshippedbut I (NehD so worship Me (Aloneand none else).'" He alsosays, ' A l - A ' r a a fL l 3 t Al- 2r:25
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 65 b it,iU €i -yii$Sr "4 EE ti* : euS'Qi rh ,ii^,) -.rrii'ra...*-i.,..,.. j.: : . i i . i , ' . 1 , 1 . , . _ ' r i- ...,... __i-.jt,:1 ^, lF JJI -- *njJl trUa: )j -'. ,b. Ui 4: P U ;r,Fll , . 'ftJ ta 2 t t . L { i€) i+;: -- ,<'*t fi;: "Say (O Muhammad(peacebe upon him)) "Come,lwill recite what your Lord has prohibitedyou from. Join not anything in worship with Him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children becauseof povefty - We provide susfenancefor you and for them; come not near to Al-Fawdhish (shameful sins, illegal sexual intercourse) whether committed openly or secretly; and kill not anyone whom All6h has forbidden, except for a just cause (accordingto lsldmic law). This He has commandedyou that you may understand."' And He says, ut*lt J. ,ll-r # ,t -.- "And ask (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) those of Our Messengerswhom We sent beforeyou: "Did We ever appointaliha (gods)to be worshippedbesidesthe Most Gracious(NEh)?* Four: lt shouldnot be self-contradictingcommanding by something and contradicting by another.lt shouldalso not forbidsomething it I A l - A n ' a a r6 : l 5 l n 2 Az-Zukhruf 43:45
  • 66 Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts and then allowwhat is similarto it withoutany reasonor prohibit something some groupand permitit for others. for Allaahsays, c, ,z-. t.... ../ v-4 Jt;?t otJ4 Ytl F t ('.4J- "Do they not then consider the Qur'6n carefully?Had it been from other than All6h, they would surely have found therein many a contradiction."' Five: The religionshouldincludewhat can preserve people, for their belief, honour, properties,lives and offspring through its commandments, prohibitions, deterrents moralsthat it ordains and to protectthesefive generalfactors. Six: lt should serve as a mercy for mankindand save them from their own injusticesand the injusticesthey commit against one anotherthroughusurpingothers'rightsand the generalamenities or throughmisleading weak at the handsof the strong. the Allaah says whileexplaining mercythat the Torah,whichwas givento the Prophet Moses, entails, /, . .i-. . .1;y.. ., ,. .. -: .-t.,-i(ii , , j:ii r ,ri. J-Na{i.g-r-a [-; .g! Cltil -rtli -^;jjl . si uo (5- LJ; F (,.Di#i de "And when the anger of M1sd (Moses) was calmed down, he took up the Tablets;and in their inscriptionwas guidanceand mercy for thosewho fear their Lord."' I An-Nisaa :82 4 2 A l - A ' r a a f7 : 1 5 4
  • Islasm: Its Foundations And Concepts 67 He also says informing aboutthe message Jesus,peacebe us of onhim. <6 r;rt q(t qr;;'rl;A:b "And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind and a mercy from Us."' He saysaboutProphet Saalih, .Ft;: ji rr * J' ,: *4 ol A;;i 4'-*+ y tt ' .i 1.".t' Jt*4.t^3 +4 o+ Ju 4,:[,;t 4;ri J_, He said. "O my people! Tell me, if I have a clear proof from my Lord, and there has come to me a Mercy (Prophethood)from Him, who then can help me against AlEh, if lwere to disobeyHim?"" He says aboutthe Qur'aan, ,. !.- t: . -'i1 ,,-.' 4.;:t:j^1.^-r)t;LLa .5ot 3t;Pt 3r Ji.:b ",i "And We send down from the Qur'6nthat which is a healing and a '3 mercy fo fhose who believe(in lstilmicMonotheismand act on it) Seven: lt shouldentailguidance the Law of Allaah,and teach to man the intention Allaahby that Law. lt shouldalso be able to of tell man his originand his finaldestination. Allaahsays aboutthe Torah, I M a r y a ml 9 : 2 1 2 H o o dI l : 6 3 I A l - t s r a a7 : 8 2 l
  • 68 Islaom: Its Foundations And Concepts 4.'jj: u'"^ WL-,?i uS;i-(,yy 'Verily, We did send down the Taurlt (Torah) (to MIsA (Moses)), thereinwas guidanceand light."' He says aboutthe lnjeel(the Bookgivento Jesus), 4 ih u"^ * kti';+tib "And We gave him the lnjeel (Gospel),in which was guidance and tight.'" He saysaboutthe Qur'aan, .,i*: J4i--:f * F 4 4i u,-;:'.st/: "lt is He Who has senf His Messenger (Muhammad (p^eace be upon him)) with guidanceand the religionof truth (lsl6m).'' The true religion the one that includes is guidance the Law of to Allaah,gives peaceand tranquillity the mind,protect from all to it answers its questions resolves insinuations, all and everyproblem. Eight: lt should call to noble characters and deeds like honesty, truthfulness, modesty,chastityand generosity. should lt also prohibitbad conductslike disobedience parents,killing to innocentsouls,all kindsof immoralities, injustice, lies, aggression, and stinginess sins. I Al-Maaidah :44 5 2 Al-Maaidah :46 5 r At-Tawbah :33 9
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 69 Nine: lt shouldbe ableto providehappiness thosewho believe for in it. Allaahsays, {(!, JA.6t;';ti ct* a}iL iO 4t } "Te-Ha. We have not sent down the Qur'6n unto- you (O Muhammad(peacebe upon him)) to cause you distress."' It shouldalsobe in harmony with upright nature. Allaahsays, "That (lslaamic Monotheism)is the nature upon which Allaah has createdmankind.'- It shouldalso be in harmonywith sound reason,because Allaah ordains true religion the and creates soundreason well.lt is the as thereforeimpossible that the Law of Allaah and the creatureof Allaahshould contradicteachother. Ten: lt should lead to the truth, warn against falsehood,keep peopleaway from error and lead them to the StraightPath where there is no crookedness.Allaahspeaksaboutthe jinn that when they heardthe Qur'aan beingrecited,someof themtoldothers, t'-" . t lri Ci+ ur; (,1u-F+ I t tl LlIa.*v . et )-: ee i-,rti 4,Aft *y iy:-ti Jte+ "They said: "O our people! Verily, we haue heard a Book (this Qur'an) sent down after Mlsa (Moses), confirming what came before it: it guides to the truth and to a StraightPath (i.e. lslam)."' tTaaHaa2}:l-2 r Ar-Room 0:30 3
  • 70 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts It shouldnot call to what will bringmiseryupon people, Allaah as says aboutthe Qur'aan, ,i. . ...,. i. i _. st;'till *$r { .!; ,ra-:;J- U;:t u ::) "t } "Te-He. We have not sent down the Qur'dn unto^ you (O Muhammad(peacebe upon him))to causeyou distress.'" shouldnot enjoinon people The true religion what can causethem destruction.Allaahsays, / ,. :..71r.L L.tltt.t" l {,:D 1.".j i! 16 al ,.rl ff--a:l l-+-ij lj } "And do not kill yours-elves kill one another).Surely,Allah is (nor MostMercifulto you.'' It shouldnot distinguish between adherents the basisof its on race,colour clan. or Allaahsays, 'irt;1. ,..I Ju, G."f-r;j Ai, ft ; i;it u1i (.i- y 61 4 :i>? &'ei3l6*i ;,i'-tK?i "O mankind! We have createdyou from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes,that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with All6h is that (believer) who 'Al-Ahqaaf 46:30 2 Taa Haa20:l-2 r An-Nisaa :29 4
  • Islaam: Its Foundotions And Concepts 7l has At-Taqw6 (i.e. he is one of the Muttaq.0n(fhe pious. See V.2:2).Verily,AllAhis All-Knowing, All-Aware."' Therefore, recognised the criterion givingpeopleprecedence for in the truereligion piety. is After mentioning the criteriafor distinguishing betweenthe true religion and the falseones and citingevidences from the Qur'aan that these Criteria are general in the case of all truthful Messengers sent by Allaah,it is then very appropriate mention to typesof religion. I A l - H u j u r a a4 9 :l 3 t
  • 72 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Types of Religions Mankindare dividedas far as their faiths are concernedinto two categories: There are a people who have a Book that was revealed to them like the Jews, the Christians and the Muslims. As for the Jews and the Christians, the Books that were revealedto their Prophetshave been lost as a resultof their ignorance what was of in their Books;theirtakingof men as gods besideAllaahand the long time that had passedbetweenthem and their acquaintance with these Books. So their priestswrote some books, which they claimedto be from Allaahwhile they were not from Allaahbut only wrongassumptions liarsand distortion fanatics. of of As for the Book of the Muslims(the NobleQur'aan). is the last it DivineBook to be revealed and the strongestand firmest.Allaah Himselfguaranteedits preservation and did not delegatethat to mankind. says, He 'i 4@|rtL:!L ib tli ai ut etr 'Verily We, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Qufan) and surely, We willguard it (from corruption)."' The Qur'aan is thereforepreservedin the people'shearts and in the Book,for it is the last Book,which Allaahhas guaranteed for the guidance mankind. has made it a proofagainst of He them till the Last Hour and has decreedits perpetuity. providesfor it in He everyage thosewho willobserve limits its and words,act by its law and believe it. Further in explanationsaboutthis Bookwill be qiven in a latersection. ' A l - H r 1lr : 9 5
  • Islaam: Its Foundstions And Concepts 73 There is another section of religious adherentswho have no revealed Book from Allaah, even though they possess an rnherited book,whichis attributed the founder the religion to of like Hindus,Magians,Buddhists, Confucians and Arabs before the advenof Muhammad. t There is not a nation that does not have some knowledgeand carry out some activities by which their worldly interests are achieved. This is the generalknowledge which Allaahendowed everyhumanbeing,even animals; the animalis alsoguidedas for to how to attain what benefitsit like food and drink and to avert what harmsit; and Allaahhas createdin it the lovefor the former and aversion the latter. savs, for He .? Gl t':-o : i.E S':'* d- S. s. "Glorifythe Name of your Lord, the Most High, Who has created (everything),and then proportioned it. And Who has measured (preordainments everythingeven to be b/essed or wretched); for then guided (i.e. showed mankind the right as well as fhe wrong paths,and guidedthe animalsto pasture)."' He also says,informing of what ProphetMoosaa(Moses) us told Pharaoh / ..- , ,i",-1. - ' . . , ) , ; ' i - . 1 :, - t , aira j r+n-t> l.r .IS .rLr 5-il1 t,,j ) "OurLordis He Whogaveto eachthingsitsformand nature, then nr rirlarl if arinhl "2 A l l a a h l s oi n f o r m s s a b o u tP r o p h eltb r a a h e e mA b r a h a m ) a th e a u ( th saidof His Lord, I A l - A ' l a a 8 7 :l - 3 r Taa Haa 20:50.
  • 74 Islaom: Its Foundations And Concepts { rOu;+# ,A:- a'it,Y "Who hascreatedme and it is He Who guides me."l It is knownto everysane person- who has the leastreflection and sense of thinking- that adherentsof religionsare betterin useful sciencesand righteous deedsthan those with no religion.There is therefore, good thingfoundwith non-Muslims no amongadherents of other religionsexcept that the Muslims possesswhat is better and more perfect,so the adherentsof religionspossess what othersdo not possess. For sciences and deedsare two types: First: That whichis achieved throughintelligence reasonlike and astronomy, medicalsciencesand vocations. Though adherents of religionsand atheists equalin possession thesethings, are of the adherentsof religions are better in them. As for those things that cannot be known throughmere reason like theologyand religious sciences, theseare prerogatives the followers religions. of of There are amongthis kind of knowledge that which logicalevidences can prove. lt is the Messengerswho guided men unto how logical evidences proofthat;which is both logicaland legal. Second: Things that cannot be known except through the informationgiven by the Messengers. This kind of knowledgeand deeds cannotbe achievedthroughhuman reason,like knowledge about Allaah,His Names and Attributes, bliss that is in the the Hereafter whoeverobeys Allaah and the punishment those for for who disobey Him, the explanations His injunctions on and the informationaboutthe past Prophets and theirpeoplesand so on.' ' A s h - S h u a r a a 2 6 1 8 ,e e : l - J a w a a b s - S a h e e4 , P a g e 9 7 S A A h 2 S e eM a j m o o ' I . a t a a w aS h a i k h ulls l a a m p . 2 1 0 - 2 1 1 . a 4
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts /f Gonditionsof the existingreligions Great religions, their old books and ancientlaws have become easy preysto frivolous and fraudulentpeople,an objectof mockery and hypocrites for distorters and targetsof bloodyincidences and great calamities much so that they have lost their spiritand so shape.lf their first adherents and prophets were to be resurrected now, they would surely have denied them and proclaimed be to ignorant them. of Judaism. today- has becomea set of ritualsand traditions - with peculiar a no spiritor life.Apartfrom this,it is an racialreligion to particularrace and carries no message for the world, nor any missionfor the peopleor any mercyfor mankind. This religionhas been afflictedin its fundamental creed, which is its motto among other religionsand nations.And it has been a noble religionwhile it was the religionof monotheism, which Prophets lbraaheem (Abraham) and Ya'qoob(Jacob) commanded theirchildrento follow.The Jews had adoptedmany concepts from the beliefs of corrupt nations with whom they shared neighbourhood underwhose authority or they had been subjected. They had also adopted a lot of pagan customsand traditionsof these people.Unbiased Jewishhistorians have confirmed this. In Jewish Encyclopaedia, we can read in it what approximately means, "The prophets'wrath over the worshipof imagesdoes indicate that worshipping idols and false deitieshad crept into the heartsof the lsraelites and that they had embraced the polytheisticand - For further reacling, the book, "lfhaam al-Yahood"by Samuelbin see YahyaAl-Maghrabi.He was a Jew who reverted Islaam. to
  • 76 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts superstitiousbeliefs.The Talmud also testifiesto the fact thar paganism has a particular attraction the Jews."1 for - The BabelTalmud2 whichthe Jews extremely hallowand prefer to the Torah,was widelycirculated among the Jews of the Sixth Century, and whichcontains lot of strange a manifestations their of simple-mindedness, absurd sayings,insolentbehaviour towards Allaah,scorning the realityand gambling with religion and human - intellect showsthe extentto whichthe Jewishcommunity thisof age hasdegenerated intellectually religiously." and As for Christianity", is also afflictedsince its earliestdays with it distortions extremists, of alterations the iqnorant of and paqanism of the Romans who claimed be ChristiansJ to All these distortions, and paganismhave becomethe alterations heap underwhichall greatteachings Christ of were buriedand the light of Monotheism and sincereworshipof Allah were hidden behind theseclouds. I S e eJ e w i s h n c y c l o p e d iV o l . X L L . P 5 6 8 - 5 6 9 E a ' The word 'Talmud' means, 'Jewish book of religious and moral teachings'.It is a compilationof footnotesand cornmentaries their on b o o k ' M i s h n a ' w h i c h m e a n s , t h e l a w ' a c c o r d i n go J e w i s hs c h o l a r s f ' t o differentgenerations. ' R e a d f o r i n f o r r n a t i o n",A l - Y a h o o d a l a a H a s a b a l - T a l m u d " ,b y D r . R o h l a n g ea n d i t s t r a n s l a t i o n r o r n F r e n c h t o A r a b i c i n " A l - k a n z u l f marsood qawaaidit-talrnood" Yoosuf HannaNasrullaah. fee by For details,read,"Al-jawaab as-Saheeh liman baddaladeenal-maseeh" by Shaykhullslaam Ibn Taymiyyah;"lzhaar al-Haqq" by Rahmatullaah Al-Hindee and "Tuhfatul-Areebfee radd 'alaa ubbaadAs-Saleeb",oy AbdullahAt-Turjumaan who was a Christian reverl. " S e e " T h e S t r u g g l e e t r v e e n e l i g i o na n d S c i e n c e " ( p . a 0 - a l ) b y t h e b R , well-known Europeanauthor Draper ( Note: The translatordoes not k n o w t h e a c t u a l a m eo f t h i s b o o k i n i t s o r i g i n a ll a n g u a g n o r t h e c o r r e c t n e s p e l l i n go f t h e n a m e o f i t s a u t h o r b e c a u s e o t h w e r e t r a n s l a t e d n d b a transliterated respectively from Arabic).
  • Islaom: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 77 A Christian writerspeaksabout the extent,to which the trinityhad gone in the Christiansocietysincethe end of the FourthCentury afterChrist 'The beliefthat one God consists threedifferent of godheads had penetrated into the innerlife of the Christian worldand its thoughts since the last quarterof the fourth centuryand had become the officialrecognised creedin all partsof the Christendom ever since. Also, the development Trinityand its secretwere not revealed of untilin the lasthalfof the nineteenth A century D."1 A contemporary Christian discusses a book,"History historian2 in of Christianity the Light of Modern Science",about the in appearance paganismin the Christian of societyin different forms and shapesand the Christians' diversity adopting in religious rites, customs and pagan heroes of nationsand religionsthat are ancientin idolatryunder the pretextof imitation,admiration or ignorance. said, He "Paganismhas ended but has not been completely eliminated. Rather,it has penetrated heartsand everything it has been the in tolerantlyallowedto continue the name of Christianity under in and its cover.Thosewho abandoned theirgods and heroestook one of their martyrsand gave him the title of their former gods then erecteda statue in his name. This is how polytheism and idol worshipare transferred untotheselocalmartyrs. the end of that By century,worshipping the martyrs of and saintsspreadall over the Christendom formeda new creedthat teachesthat saintshave and divineattributes. Thesesaintsand hallowed men were thus made intermediaries betweenGod and man and pagan festivalswere given new namesuntilthe ancient paganSun festival was turned in to Christmas the vear400 A.C." ' S e eN e w C a t h o l i c n c y c l o p a e d iT h e H o l y t r i n i t yV o l . l 4 P . 2 9 5 . E a, I Rev JarnesHouston Baxier, History of Christianityin the Light of ModernKnowledge", Glasgow1929p. 407.
  • 78 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts As for the Magians, they havebeen knownsincetime of old to oe worshippers natural of elements, greatest whichis fire.They the of havelately adhered its worship to and builtfor it altersand temples so much so that fire houseshave becomewidespread all places in in theircountryand all otherreligionsand faithsdisappear except fire worshipand hallowing the sun. The religion, of accordingto these people has become mere rites and traditionsthat are practised special in places' The Danishauthorwho wrotethe book, "lran duringthe reign of Sasanids", describes their religiousleadersand their functions, "These functionaries must worshipfire four times in a day. In additionto this, they also worshipped moon, fire and water. They had an order that they shouldnot let the fire die out or let the fire and water meet each other or let the metalrust,becausethev also hallow metal."2 the These Magianshave practised dualismall the time and that has becometheirmotto.They believed two gods;god of lightor god in of good which they called"ahurmazda"or "Yazdan"and the other god is god of darkness evil,and this they called:"ahur man". or The war and conflict are continuouslygoing between both of them.3 As regardsBuddhism, religion the that is widespread Indiaand in MiddleAsia, it is a paganismwhereofits adherentscarrywith them idols whereverthey go. They build templesfor these idols and erectthe statueof "Buddha" whereverthev qo and settle.a ' Read the book, "lran during the reign of Sasanids" Professorof by Eastern Languages Copenhagen at University,Denmark,and a specialist on the historyof lran. Seealso,"History of lran" by the Magian,Shaeen Makareus. 2 Iran duringthe reignof Sasanids, I 55 p. ' l r a n d u r i n gt h e r e i g no f S a s a n i d s p . 1 8 3 - 2 3 3 . . ' See "The Ancient India", by AishuraToba, a professor f Hindu o C i v i l i z a t i o na t t h e U n i v e r s i t yo f H a y d r a b a d a n d " T h e D i s c o v e r yo f ;
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 79 As for Brahmanism religion India,it has beenpopular the of with a lot of deities.Their paganismhad reachedits peak in the sixth centurv A.C. when the numberof theirdeities reached 330 million gods.1-Everything according to Brahmanism has become wonderful and everything has becomeusefuland a deity to be worshipped. Duringthat age, the art of rdolmakingbecamehighly profitableand many idol stylistscarvedso many idols in different shapes The Hindiwriter,C. V. Vidya,wrote in his book,"The Historyof MedievalHindu" whilediscussing era of KingHarash(606-648 the whichis the era thatfollows advent lslaamin Arabia, A.D.), the of "Hinduismand Buddhism are equally pagan religion though Buddhism mighthavesurpassed Hinduism paganism. origin in The of Buddhism was denialof existence any Lord but it gradually of adopted Budciha(its founder) as the greatestdeity. lt later on added other deitieslike Bodhistavas. Paganismhas reachedits oeak in India so much so that the name Buddha became synonymous with idol or statuein some easternlanguages." is lt without doubt that Paganism has become widespreadin the contemporary world.The whole world from the Atlanticsea to the Pacific ocean is greatly immersed in Paganism. The matter becomesas if the Christianity, Semiticreligions the and Buddhism are competingin glorificationand hallowing idols like racing of horses.' Another Hinduism", the Hindusaid in his book,"The Prevailing that art of makingidolshad not ended yet, but smallidolscontinuedto join the existing'deitiescomplex'in great numbersthroughout India" by Jawaharlal Nehru, the former Indian Prime Minister. p 20 l- 202. I S e e" A n c i e n tI n d i a " b y R . D i t , 3 1 2 8 7a n d " T h e P r e v a i l i n g i n d u i s m " , H by L.S.S.O. alleyp.6-7. M t C . V . V i d y a :H i s t o r y f M e d i e v aH i n d u V o l . I ( P o o n e9 2 l ) o l l
  • 80 Isluam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts differenthistorical periodsthat they have becomean innumerable and an uncountable thongof deities.l This is the condition the worldreligions. for civilized of As countries where great governments were estabrished, where many sciences flourishedand which were the bedrock of civilization,iniustry and arts, they have becomecountries with no rerigions;countriei tnat had lost their origin and power, in which theie are no righteous reformersand teachers,where atheism is publicly proclaimeo, corruption all kindproliferated, standards of all havebeenchanoed and the man has becomevarueress his own serf.That is rirrrv to there are many cases of suicide, severanceof family ties, disruption socialrelations, of increase the numberof patienrs in who visitpsychologists' clinicsand establishment the marketof of magictricksters. In these so-calledcivirizednations,man tries out every enjoyable thing and followsevery inventedand innovated creed, seeiing to satiatethe demandof his soul,to make himselfhappyanO himselfpeace of mind. But ail these enjoyments, live and a[ these creedsand theories failedto achievethesegoalsfor him, and he shall continuein this psychological misery and spiritualtorment untilhe establishesrelationship his creatorand worships with Hrm accordingto the way He is pleasedwith and with which He sent His Messengers. Ailaahsays,whiredescribing condition the the of one who turns away from his Lord and seeks for guidance from othersbesides Him, : i1 - -ii "'-' ,,4-9 A^:-_eJl -t32 tor.z.3g +;., 1i-? "But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e., neither believesin this Qur'annor actson its teachings). Verity,for him is a I S e e" A s - s e e r a t u n - n a b a r v i y yb 1 ,", A b iH a s a n n - N a d w i p . l 9 - 2 g . ah l A
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 8l life of hardshipand We shalt raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection."l also informsus aboutthe life of the Allaah,may He be glorified, truebeltevers theirhappiness thisworldly when He says, and in life . '.-, ' t'i:'i,,i..,-i,l l,l ,..,i-ri',i-i,','..-,1i le:l;..1-rlr ! R .:. JJ-!# eriryt &rr:tt, *4.^.-tt-r+)i "lt is thosewho believe(in the Onenessof Allah and worshipnone but Him Atond and confusenot their belief with Zulm (wrongi-e. by worshipping others besldes NEh), for them (only) there is security and they are the guided.'" He,Whosepraise greatalsosaYs, is i):p't{', L';iiirj t W ,s.4; tL| ,p t'i *fr f r;* } " .i') >!,i ;b',-tbi'eli ;tt "As for those who are b/essed, they will be in Paradise, abiding therein for atl the time that the heavens and-the eafth endure, exceptas your Lord witts;a gift withoutan end.'' - lf we applythe criteria the true religron all these religions of to exceptlslaam, willsee thattheyare shortof all thesecriteria we as it is clearfromthe aboveexposition. The greatestelement,which all these'religions short of, is are Monotheism. For theiradherentshave associated othergods with Allaahin worshipin addition the fact that thesereligions not to do I T a a H a a2 0 ' . 1 2 4 . r Al-An'aar6:82 l 'Hood ll:108.
  • 82 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts providepeoplewith a law that can be applicable all placesano in at all times and that can protectthem, their lives,faith, honour, offspring and properties. Thesereligions also do not guidepeopre to the Law of AllaahwhichHe ordersto be followed neither they do give theiradherents peaceof mind and happiness, a resultof as theirinherent contradictions. As regards lslaam, you wiil come to know in the following chapters that it is the true religion Allaahwhich He is pleased of with and whichHe has chosen mankind theirreligion. for as At the end of this section, it is appropriatethat we define the essence of prophethoodand the need of mankind for it, and explain the foundations the mission the Messengers of of and the realityof the lastand everlasting messageof lslaam.
  • And Concepts Islaam: ItsFoundations 83 The essence of ProPhethood The greatest thingthat man mustknowin this lifeis the knowledge aboui his Lord,Who createdhim from nothingand showeredhim with blessings.And the greatestpurposefor which Allaahcreated the creation to worship is Him alone. But how can man know his Lordas it is due? What are the duties and obligations bindingon him? How can he worshiphis Lord? Man can find who will assisthim duringvicissitudes life,provide of for his needslike treatment an ailment, for givingsome medicine, assisting builda house and so on and so forth;but he cannot to find amongordinary peoplewho can make him knowhis Lordand exolain to him how to worship Him This is because human intelligence cannot independently know what Allaah intends,he cannot even perceive the intentionof his fellow human being beforehe tells him what he intends. How can he then knowwhat Allaah means? Further,it is also because,this matter is only restrictedto the Messengersand Prophets whom Allaah has chosento conveythe Messageand to those who come afterthem amongthe rightly guidedleaders who and the heirsof the Prophet, follow their way, take to their Path and help to convey their message. This is because, human beings cannot receive revelation from Allaahas its bearing beyond directly is theirability. Allaah says, i. ' . t.i -i,,'.Jrt'i,1 ''i"'.i ','r.(t-t y, 1.. cAl;l .s" st t-s )l 4rrl 4;-5j ul U; o p ,)-t"Ji ye. 4;6 ' t(^ ,',L,1'.',' i, - ''. r .-, u / t .l.i,.ir-> dw ra;] rL;J- U -!).1: .l-t+ "lt is not given to any human being that All6h should speak to him unless (it be) by Revelation,or from behind a veil, or (that) He
  • 9! hltt^t Itt f"""a, sends a Messengerto reveal what He witts by His Leave. Verily, He is Most High, Most Wise."1 There shouldthereforebe an intermediary and an envoy who can conveythe law of Allaahto His slaves,Those intermediaries ano envoysare the Messengers and prophets.The angelwill carry the message to the Prophet and the prophet will convey it to the people.The Angels do not carry the messageto men direcfly, for the world of angelsis naturally different from that of humanbeings. Allaahsays, tt -ft -i,i a ,e arr =;-.rl, ' q-UJi e:4- ::-e) 1 -! S.i*) ___-2 "Allah choosesMessengersfrom angels and from men.'" The wisdom of Allaah necessitates that the Messengershould come from the raceof thosewhom he is sent to, so that thev could understand him because of their ability to speak witn nim. lf Messengers had been sent to mankindfrom among the angels, they could not have been able to face him or learnanvthino irom him.Allaahthe exalted savs. t1 '. -o,'. t: , i- ..,-o ,. ,i. , / ' ':, -,, .'r ,.(:: ;l t. .. -1 ! . l: ,!. cs3)a ; 2t,:+nJ KL d';t j: e,X-,,)e Jri j! itu; F ' { O -ar:{ e -+"tLe-lii Lt*i tei'^tt+ "And they say: "Why has not an angel been sent down to him?,, Had We sent down an angel, the matter would have been judged at once, and no respite would be granted to them. And had We ' Ash-shoora a 42:5l. t dt-uail zz]s.
  • Islaam: Its Foundotions And Concepts 85 appointedhim an angel, We indeed would have made him a man, and We would have certainly confused them in which they are alreadyconfused(i.e. the Messageof Prophet Muhammad(peace be upon him))."' He alsosays, c 3-;r .: (ui Strtil re,l VrJr|:Fi b <w u;ri v, y ' '; -a<rtJl t'- '" ' l -" 1 ' - t' I V-t ,.es;i u* J, lrl t!;ul 7r;1r! s"-rltJtrj / .- .t, .. ,, . t,1. . 4 :!: t-*5 tzft'fti"s1,=;tt g taS;t "And We never sent before you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) any of the Messengersbut verily,they ate food and walkedin the markets And We have made some of you as a trial for others: witl you have patience? And your Lord is Ever All-Seer (of everything).And those who expect not a Meeting with Us (i.e. those who deny the Day of Resurrection and the life of the Hereafter),said: "Why are not the angels sent down to us, or why do we not see our Lord?" lndeed they think too highly of fhemse/ves, and are scornfulwithgreat pride.'* H e a l s os a v s . - . L tt s ' x dl uy lQ: {t"le - . uL;,lciY " ' Al-An'aar6:8-9. n t Ai-Furqaan 5:20-21 2
  • Islaam: Its Foundutions And C, "And We sent not (as Our Messengers/before you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) any but men, whom We inspired,(to preach and invitemankind to believein the Onenessof Attah)."1 He alsosays, I 1 );: o ut*;it; y n ..--, <'' i7,'i7.' .'ri'.' .,.t-":u.J t -tl, S^S 'qJ- 6)+-J "And We sent not a Messengerexcept with the tanguage of his people, in order that he might make the Messageclear to them.'2 These Messengers and Prophets possessed completeand perfect reason, sound nature, truthfulnessin words and deeds, and sincerity in conveying what was put in their trust. They also possessedDivine immunityfrom all that could tarnish human conductand physical appearances that are free from all thingsthat are repugnantto sights and repulsiveto sound human taste.3 Allaah purifiedthem in their personsand manners.They are the most perfect in manners, purest in souls and most generous. Allaahcombined them good mannersand excellent in conduct as He combinedin them deliberateness, knowledge, magnanimiry, generosity, bravery and justice. By these qualities,they were distinguished amongtheir peoples. The people.ofprophelSaalih told him as Allaahinforms in His Book, us 'o .!:- t 4 u;Lr,';c tt.. . .t-/ ii ,ti un;ii i.,-,; t+? u4c-s * d;iiju E y ' A n - N a h ll 6 : 4 3 . 2 lbraaheeml4:4. r S e e :L a w a a m i ' ua n w a a r l b a h i y y a h o l . 2 p p . 2 6 5 a n d , , , A l - l s l a a m 'y l a V b, Ahrnad halabee I 14. S p.
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 87 "They said: "O Selih!You have been among us as a figure of good hope (and we wished for you to be our chief) till this (new thing which you have brought that we leave our gods and worshipyour God (Allah)Alone)! Do you.(now) forbid us fhe worshipof what our fathers have worshipped?"' He alsoinforms of whatthe people Prophet us of told him, Shu'aib -. 1'.. J, Jt-" / ' | ,i efiv 'i; c $ ui a):tt Ai;i {;;i'lri y 'rt '.' '' z .=* 1 t t'ii -rjrJt;=t*Jlc!) "tti < ' a ' E "ljiS - bl t '', -'i l- t-,J'il {:';) "They said: "O Shu'aib!Doesyour Sal6t(prayer)commandthat we give up what our fathersused to worship,or that we give up doing what we like with our propefty? Verily,you are the forbearer, right- '* minded!"(They said this sarcastically). The Messengerof Allaah, Muhammad,blessingsand peace be upon him, was also popularamong his peoplewith the title "Al- even before he receivedthe revelation, Ameen" (the trustworthy) His Lorddescribes saying, him {t;)-$,!, J; dltY "And verily, you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) are on an exaltedstandardof character.'u The Messengers and Prophets therefore, best ones among are the Allaah'screatures. selectedthem and chosethem to carry His He Message and, and conveyit to mankind, ' H o o dI l : 6 2 . 2 H o o dI l : 8 7 . r Al-Qalam 8:4. 6
  • 88 Islasm: Its FoundutionsAnd Concepts 4.|J;r'J+* 4;i ii y "AllAhknows besf with whom to place His Message."l Allaahsays, { :i: jyiii * u-: Jt;i ^t'r) Jt;i 6r,-riir; :il*i iti 3l } " "Allah chose Adam, N?h (Noah), the family of lbr1him (Abraham) and the familVof 'lmrdn above the 'Alamin (mankind and jinn) (of their times).'" These Messengers and Prophets- in spite of lofty qualitieswith which Allaahdescribed them and the excellentconductsfor which they were known - are nevertheless humanswho sufferedwhat other humans suffer; they suffered hunger and sickness; they slept, ate, marriedand died. Allaah says, addressingprophet Muhammad. x Z:oji *';L-*"r lY "Verity,you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) wilt die and verily,they (too) willdie.'r Allaahalsosays, q'r.)"5a'iri l u:;r, jttT n :j ur;')i y "":S ' Al-An'aarn :124 6 r Aal 'lrrrraan :33 3 t Az-Zumar39:30.
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 89 "And indeed, We sent Messengers before you (O Muhammad) and maclefor them wives and offspring."' They were even subjectedto persecution; many of them were killed or expelled from their homes. Allaah says addressing Proohet Muhammad, *,tl ,.L..- t)"..''., , :t -l'., t i-,,', ,.2. ..? '2..1-1. ;!r5-ri osf-ts !:.f jt A*1:t ' . i -l*l i'-- ., t, trr,cSrt-iltJ-tF"e ).5 ) , 'ii '. : 'r' .:.,.(./-r:'-o- ali "And (remember) when the disbelieversplotted against you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) to imprison you, or to kill you, or to get you out (from your home, i.e. Makkah); they were plotting and All6h too was plotting; and Alldh ls fhe Eesf of those who plot.'" But to them were the end, victoryand authority this worldlylife in Allaahsays, and the Hereafter. 4;:;;;, i,i i-i^;ty "All2th help thosewho hetp His(cause).'3 witl He alsosays, ' Ar-Ra'd 3:38. 1 2Al-Anfaal8:30. ' l.t-uaiizz:lo.
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts "All6h has decreed: 'Verily! lt is I and My Messengers who shallbe the victorious." Verily,AltAh is Att-Powerful,All-Mighty.m 'Al-Muiaadilah 58;21.
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Conce Signs of Prophethood Srnce Prophethood a means by which the noblest of all is knowledge be acquired can and the greatest and most honourable deeds can be carried out; it is of Allaah's mercy to give these Prophets the signs by which they could be known and through which they could be identified, though, every one of those who claimedto have a missionhas some signs and conditions that could indicate truthfulness he is truthful otherwise he is a his if or if liar. Thesessignsare many,the mostimportant whichare: of 1 The Messenger shouldcall to the worship Allaahaloneand of of worshipping to the abandonment othersbesidesHim. For this is the purpose whichAllaahcreatedthe creation. for shouldcall people believe him, and put his 2. The Messenger to in message into practice. Allaah commands His Messenger, Muhammad, blessings peacebe uponhim,to say, and ' ', ' -, -'. -1, .i ( tl.n'*^lt gt Js*s U] -rtJt , . , 1 .t{ti- ' . ,-p } ' .!: '- "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Nteh.'t 3. He must be supported by Allaah with various signs of prophethood Amongthesesignsare the versesthat the Prophet Muhammad,blessingsand peace be upon him, broughtfrom Allaahand whichhis people couldnot repudiate produce like. or its Anotherexampleis the sign of ProphetMoosaawhen his rod turnedto a snake;the sign of Prophet Eesaa(Jesus) who healed the blrnd and the leperby the permission Allaah, of and the signof M u h a m m a d l e s s i n ga n d p e a c eb e u p o nh i m ,w h i c hi s t h e G r e a t b s ' A l - A ' r a a7 : 1 5 8 f
  • 92 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Qur'aan, in spite of the fact that he was an illiteratewho could readnor writeamongmanyothersignsof the prophets. neither Amongthesesignsis the clearand vividtruthwhichthe prophets and Messengers broughtand which their opponentscould not disproveor deny. Rather,their opponentsknew that what the Prophetshad broughtwas the truththat could not be resisted. Among the signs also are perfectconditions, beautifultraits and magnanrmousconduct with which Allaah distinguishedthe Proohets. 4. His message shouldagreein principles the fundamentals with to whichall Messengers Prophets and called.l 5. He shouldnot call othersto the worshipof himself to direcr or any act of worship to him. He should also not call to the glorification his tribe or clan. Allaah commandsHis proohet of Muhammad, blessings peacebe uponhim,to tell people, and 4U6;cstui "Say. I do not tell you that with me is the treasure of Ailah, nor (that) | know the Unseen; nor^l tell you that I am an angel. I but follow what is revealedto me."' 6. He shouldnot ask from peopleany of the thingsof thisworldas a wage for his mission.Allaah says, informingus about His Prophets Noah,Hood,Saalih, Lootand Shu'aib, thatthevtotdtheir people, 'See: M a l r n o o ' F a t a a wb n T a y r n i y y aV o l . 4 p . 2 1 2 - 2 1 3 . Ia h 'Al-An'aam 6:50.
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 93 q { ::':cnj;ii J'it'sii'ul ri:r 4" t't;iu; Y "No reward do t ask of you for it (my Message of lsllmic 'Alamin Monotheism); my reward is only, from the Lord of the jinn and all that exlst$. "' (mankind, Prophet blessings peacebe uponhim,alsotold Muhammad, and his people, { :lr ;+5ii 3ri ct ri :-, ;L l'tit :P} "Say (O Muhammad(peacebe upon him)) "No wage do I ask of you for this (the Qur'6n),nor am I one of the Mutakallifln (those who pretend and fabricatethings which do not exist).'" These Prophets and Messengers whom I have told you something and signsof their prophethood, many.Allaah of theirqualities are says, "And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (communitY, All6h (Alone),and nation) a Messenger (proclaiming):"Worship ' A s h - S h u ' a r a2 6 : 1 0 9 ,1 2 1 ,| 4 5 , 1 6 4 ,l 8 0 . a 2 Saad 8:86. 3
  • 94 Islaam: Its Foundetions And Concepts avoid (or keep away from) Tagh0t (all false deities,etc. i.e. do not worshipTAgh0t besrdes AlEh).""' These Messengershave made mankind happy; the history recorded their stories and the injunctions their religionwere of repeatedly transmitted, that they are the truth and just. Likewise, repeatedly narrated the victory is withwhichAllaahhonoured them and destruction theirenemies, of likethe destruction the people of of Noah with flood, drowningof Pharaoh,punishment for the peopleof Loot;and the victory Muhammad, of blessings peace and be upon him, over his enemiesand the spread of his religion. Whoever knows this will know certainlythat they broughtfor mankindgood and guidance; that they directedthem to all that couldbenefit them and warnthemagainst thatcouldbe harmful. all The first of them is Adam and the last is Muhammad. oeace be u o o nt h e ma l l . ' An-Nahl6:36 i
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Co Mankind's need for the Messengers The Prophets are Allaah'sMessengers His slaves,they convey to His commandments them, they give them glad tidingsof the to bliss which Allaah has preparedfor them if they obey His Commandments, warn them of the everlastingpunishment they if disobeyHim and tell them the storiesof the past nationsand what befellthem of the punishment and tormentin this world because theydisobeyed commandments theirLord. the of These DivineCommandments prohibitions and cannotbe known independently human reasoning, by that is why Allaahordained and prescribed commandments and prohibitions a honourfor as mankindand to protecthis interests. peopletend to obey their For desires,therebyviolatingforbiddenthings,attackingother people and usurpingtheir rights.lt is thereforeout of the utmostwisdom too that Allaahshouldsend Messengers among mankind, every now and then,who would remindthem of the commandments of Allaah, warn them against disobedience, recite to them admonitions and tell them the stories of past generations. Because, when wonderful stories are heard and marvellous conceptsawakenthe psyche,the sense of reasonembracesthat, in increases knowledge and has right perception. The more man listensthe more he thinks;the more he thinksthe more he reflects; the more he reflectsthe more he understands and the more he understandsthe more he acts. So, sending Messengers is inevitableand there is no alternative them if the truth is to be for established.l Shaykhul lslaam lbn Taymiyyah2said, "Divine Message is necessaryfor reformation man in his worldly life and his final of abode.As therewill not be well-being him in his Hereafter he for if ' A ' l a a n .A n - N u b u w w a y ' A l e e b i n M u h a m m a d l - M a w a r d e p . 3 3 . , b A e t H e i s A h n r a db i n A b d u l - H a l e e m ,o p u l a r l y n o w n a s l b n T a y m i y y a h . p k H e r v a sb o r n i n t h e y e a r6 6 I A . H a n d d i e d i n t h e y e a r7 2 8 A . H . H e w a s one of the greatIslaarnic Scholars the authorof many valuable and books.
  • 96 Islaum: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts does not followthe message,there will also not be well-being for him in his worldly life if he does not follow the Message.He is therefore, bound to follow the Law of Allaahfor he lives between two movement: movementby which he seekswhat benefitshim a and anotherby which he wards off what harmshim The Law of Allaah is then the light that shows him what can benefitor harm him. That is the Light of Allaahon the earth, His justice between His slavesad His fortress whichprovides safetyfor whoeverenters it. What is meant by the Law of Allaah is not physicaldistinction betweenthe harmfuland useful;for even the animalscan do that. The donkeyor camel can differentiate betweenbarleyand sand. What that means is to be able to distinguish betweendeeds that can harm theirdoer in his worldlylife and his Hereafter and deeds that can benefithim in his woddly life and his Hereafter. Like the benefit of faith, belief in the Oneness of Allaah, justice, righteousness, kindness,honesty,chastity,courage, knowledge, perseverance, enjoining that is good,forbidding that is evil, all all beingkindto the kithand kin,beingdutifultoparents, beingkindto neighbours, fulfilling purifying obligations, deedsfor Allaah, putting trust in Him, seekinghelp from Him, beingpleased with His pre- decrees, submissionto His rule, believingin Him and His Messengers all thatthey informhim and all otherdeedsthat are in beneficial man in his worldly life and his Hereafter. the to In opposite the above lies his miservand harm in his worldlvlife of and his Hereafter. Had it not been because of the Divine Message,the human intellectwould have not been guidedto the detailsof what could benefitor harm him in his worldlylife.Among the greatestfavours of Allaahupon His slavesis that He sent His Messengers them, to revealed them His Booksand showedthem the Straight to Path. Had it not been for this, humanswould have been like catile or even worse. So, whoever accepts the message of Allaah and standsfirm on that is amongthe bestof all creation. whoever But relects it and deviatesfrom it, such is among the worst of the creation and worsein condition thanthe dog and pig and the most contemptible creature. Thereis no way the inhabitants the earth of can surviveexcept by the effectsof the messagethat is existent among them, for when the impacts of the messaqe become
  • Islasm: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 97 exterminatedfrom the earth and the signs of their guidance becomewiped off, Allaahwill dismantlethe heavenand the earth and bringforththe Resurrection. Further, dweller the earth'sneedfor the Message not like the of is their need for sun, moon,air and rain,and it is also not like their need for their own soulsor like the need of the eye for the light;or like that of the body for food and drink. Ratherthe need for the Messenger greaterthan all that and all otherthingsone could is think of or assume.The Messengers the intermediary are between Allaah and His creatures as far as His commandmentand prohibitions concerned; are they are the envoysbetween Him and His slaves. The last of them,theirleaderand the dearest them of to Allaahis Muhammad. Allaahsenthim as mercyfor mankind and all that exists.He makes him a proof for the followers the right of path and a proofagainst creatures. commanded slaves all He His to follow, love, respect and honour him, and to give him all obligations to him.Allaahtook covenants due and pledges from all other Prophetsand Messengersthat they would believe in and followhim (if they were to meet him or hear of him) and He also ordered them to take the same covenant from their believing followers. Allaahsent him at the threshold the Hour.With him, of He guided many from error,rescuedmany from ignorance, and opened throughhis Messageblind eyes, deaf ears and sealed hearts. He lightenedthe earth through his message,after it had been in darkness and united with it the separated hearts. He straightened with the Messenger crookedfaith and explained the through him the bright path Allaah opened for him his heart, removed from him his burden, raisedhigh his fame and subjected thosewho were againsthim to humiliation and disgrace. sent He him after a break in the succession the sent Messengers of and extermination the impactsof the previously of revealedBooks; when words had been twisted and the law altered,when every nation relied on injustice in their opinions, made decisions regarding Allaahand betweenHis slaveswith their own corrupt sayings and desires.lt was then that Allaah guided mankind throughhim and showedthem the rightway, He broughtpeople from darkness lightthroughhim and made distinction to with him, between thosewho deserve success and thosewho were sinners.
  • 98 Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts Whoeverfollowshis guidance will be rightlyguidedand whoever deviatesfrom His Path will go astrayand such has only oppressed himself.May Allaahbestowpeace and blessings him and all on otherMessengers Prophets.' and We can now summarise man's need for the messaoe in the followingpoints. 1. That man is a nurtured creatureand it is inevitable him to for know his Lord and Creator;to know what He wants from him and why He created him. Man cannot however know all that independentlyexcept by knowing the Prophets and the Messengers and knowing the guidanceand light, which they brought. 2. Man is a component bodyand soul.The nutrition bodyis of for whateveris available food and drink,but the nutrition the soul of of has been prescribedby the One Who created the soul; that nutrition true religion is and righteous deed. So it is the Prophets and Messengers who brought and guidedto righteous true religion deed. 3. Man is religious natureand he must havea religion, by which he must practice, and this religionmust be the true one. So, there is no way to know the true religionexcept through belief in the Prophets in and Messengers to believe all thattheybrought. and 4. Man is in need of knowingthe way that can lead him to the oleasure Allaahin thisworldand to His Paradise of and blissin the And no one can guide to this way exceptthe Prophets Hereafter. and Messengers alone. 5. Man is in himself weak and manyenemies in wait for him. lay Satanwantsto mislead him,evilcompanions makebadthingsfair- seeming him and his base self incites to him to do evil.Hence,he needswhat can protecthim against the evil plansof his enemies rQaa'idah f e e w u j o o b i ll ' t i s a a mb i r - r i s a a l ab y I b n T a y r n i y y a hS e e :A l - h , Fataawaa p.99-102. 19
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 99 and Messengers guidedman to thatand and it is the Prophets who clearly explained to him. it 6. Man is civilby nature, meeting his withpeopleand his relations with them thereforeneed a law by which justice and equalitycan be established among people- the absenceof which can make humanlife be likethat of the jungle. Also,this law must be ableto protect the right of every one without excessivenessand negligenceand none could bring such perfect law except the Messengers Prophets. and 7. Man needs to know what can give him tranquillity and psychologicalsecurityand guide him to means of real happiness. This is what the Prophets and Messengersguided to. After explaining why the creation is in need of Prophets and Messengers, is now appropriate discussthe final returnand it to explain proofs the and evidences support that that.
  • 100 Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts The Final Return Everyman knowswith certainty that deathis inevitable. what is But his fate afterdeath?Will he be happyor miserable? Many peopleand nationsof the world believethat they will be resurrected after death and called to accountfor all their deeds; that they will.earngood rewardif they do good and punishment if they do evil.' This issue- the Resurrection accountability and - are confirmed sound reasonand supported DivineLaws.lt is by by basedon threefundamentals: 1. Confirmation the perfectknowledge the Lord, may He be of of glorified. 2. Confirmation His perfectOmnipotence. of 3. Confirmation His perfectWisdom.2 of There are many textualand logicalevidenceson the confirmation of the final returnsome of which are: 1. Drawingevidenceon the resurrection the dead throughthe of creation the heavens of and the earth. Allaahsavs, V le J$A G. lr,;4tj -''r^1r j; ufr 6i ii i;; a3i y ,! -'.L . -z- ', a ,-p '+ ; , _ , J - - t J J 9c , ) . :ey D ,,t9 ,.l J i'41 Gl ol "Do they not see that All?th,Who created the heavens and the earih, and was not wearied by their creation, is Able to give life to the dead? Yes, He is surely Able to do all things."' I S e e :A l - J a w a a b u s - S a h e e h o l . 4 o . 9 6 . V i S e e :A l - F a w a a i d b y I b n a l - Q a y y i m p . 6 - 7
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 101 He also says, ' ,. ( ,a, .t,. a -.. . i )4 & >dr. C1, Ul ,.Jr 212 ue)t3 ->-t^a)t +tt ,-S+Jt jJ;t I .;-t;tirjJj*ll , - , . 4 1 - { "ls not He Who created the heavens and the earth, is Able to create the like of them? Yes, indeed. He is the All-Knowing SupremeCreator.'2 2. Drawingevidenceof Allaah'sabilityto reproduce the creation once more from His abilityto originatethe creationwithout any previousexample.So, He, Who is able to bring somethinginto existence,should be able to reproduce it with greater reason. Allaahthe Exaltedsays, '11 ' t i:: , --: , ,-'i'i, { ;:!) i-s,J I i;'Jt,*s ;)t1,>"t:Jrr "And He it is Who originatesthe creation,then will repeat it (afterit has been perished); and this r.seasier for Him. His is the highest description(i.e. none has the right to be worshippedbut He, and there ls nothingcomparableunto Him).'" He alsosays, rAl-Ahqaaf46:33. 2Yaa Seen 6:81 3 . 3 A r - R o o m3 0 : 2 7 .
  • 102 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts - t .r . .i- ii . t ,.r,io, -j-- U .i. i,$ ,!) *.t-.r, ,-r'- ,/ gv ,aA-- At t vJ,tJ+i , ,t ',? 'rt(1:1',.i -, .r ..-^ t'^ -'ti "- t '.Ei-l;Je,/" ,h.7i" - . " . ri' Jrl tatsl &-{l "And he (man) puts forth for Us a parable, and has forgotten the factsof his own creation.He says, Who will give life to these bones after they are rotten and have become dust. Say (O Muhammad): He will give life to them Who created them at the first! And He is the All-Knowerof every creation."l 3. He created man in the best shape and in this perfect and complete form. He endowed him with limbs, power and with flesh, bones, veins and nerves;with outlets, characteristics; tools. sciences.wishes and industries. There is in all this the greatest evidenceof His abilityto resurrect dead. the 4. Drawingthe proof of His abilityto resurrectthe dead in the Hereafter,from His raising up of the dead in this worldly life. Storieshave been narrated this in the DivineBookswhichAllaah of revealedto his Messengers.Examplesof this is raising up the dead by the permission of Allaah at the hands of Prophets 'Eesaa,may peace lbraaheem and be on them - among many others. 5. Drawingevidenceof His abilityto resurrect dead from His the abilityto bring about thingsthat are similarto the scenesof the Day of Congregation Resurrection and like: a. Allaahcreatedman from a drop of spermthat was scattered all over the body - that is why all parts of the body enjoy the - intercourse Allaah collectsthis drop from all parts of the body, then makesit go to the womb and created therewith man. lf all the these parts were scatteredand He gatheredthem togetherand createdfrom them that man, then if they become scattered once again after death, what can prevent Him from bringingthem togetheronce more.Allaahsays, ' Yaa Seen36:78-79
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 103 t :ir iril.li i<"ri;n*tA*i; :ZilF y e;ji > "Then tell Me about the semen that you emit. ls it you who createit (i.e., make fhis semen into a perfect human being)? Or are We the Creator?"' b. When the plant seeds - regardless their shapes- fall into of the fertile land and water and soil overwhelrnthem; the logical consequence that they becomerottenand decayed;for, any of is the water and soil is enough to make the seed rotten and the combination both will can it so with greaterreason.But the fact of is that, the seed will not decay but remainspreserved. When the humidityincreases, seed breaksopen and from it comes out a the plant. Does that not point to a perfectpower and comprehensive wisdom? Will this All-Wise and All-Able Lord be incapableof collecting partsof man and reconstituting limbs?Allaahsays, his "Then tell Me about the seed that you sow in the ground. ls it you that make it grow, or are We the Grower?'" A similar is saying, versein meaning Allaah's J+ u: ;Aii,:-i5 c';.^i ;tti 8k uslil:1t{; ti ,' alli ,s}: h .e.ff / z- Q)) ' A l - W a a q i ' a5 6 : 5 8 - 5 9 h 2 Al-Waaqi'ah 6:63-645
  • t04 Islasm: Its Foundations And Concepts "And you see fhe eafth barren, but when We sent down water (rain) on it, it is stirred,(to life) and rt swe//s and puts fofth every lovely kind (of growth)."' 6. The All-Able, All-Knowledgeable and All-Wise Creator is deemedfar from producing creationfor fun and leavingthem in the vain.He says, '3+; 1r''r'uiy # eu;t u.. 'L ,-hP c6;. c, .pr1'tii ;c-ai uat ttt , , .;- ,717. ', t12' .t,' 4 :I) _,,LJt vtsF uN. "We creatednot the heaven and the earth and att that is between them without purpose! That is the assumption of those who disbelieve! Then woe to fhose who disbetieve (in lslimic Monotheism)from the Fire.'2 Allaahcreatedthe creationfor greatwisdomand loftypurpose.He says, t,t'-r - r ' '.i: . - (':f),.r:'t"'J. J , z..is .. )].F)lj. i 7 . JJ'l{-,aI- ,ti } . ii "And I (NEh) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worshipMe (Alone).'" It is therefore becoming thisAll-WiseLordto regardas equal not of thosewho obeyHim and thosewho disobey. says, He ' etuaiizz:s 2 Saad38:27. 3 Adh-Dhaariyaat :56. 5|
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 105 t..'.' .: i:l '.ti-a . r. - ,.,. t,-'i 'f i,, S.e ,t.,,,.;jt .! .y-+t-;'lS v>J;dt lrl^-ei It),1; | 1: sr--rjt-[,a -.1 b y 1V'; r*aK'*s:5i "Shall We treat those who believe (in the Oneness of AllAh - lsllmic Monotheism)and do righteous good deeds, as Mufsid1n (those who assoclate paftners in worship with All6h and commit crimes) on earth? Or shall We treat the Muttaqln (the plous - see V.2:2),as fhe Fujjar (criminals,disbelievers, wicked)?"' the Therefore, is of His PerfectWisdomand Great Powerto raise up it the creationon the Day of Resurrection order to recompense in every human beingfor his deed; and to rewardthe good-doer and punish evildoer.Allaahsays, the , L ' . .',: -,t t! ,', . a: ,z' J-:{Jr Gjil 'oJ1L "', ,p;jert i::,,'.... tj-ta t+tl La> alll -r-ei urn -e'-r' j-t dJl U ,rrt..^. '.,,., .- ( .rz t. _.- ur.i T ri,,i;..i etet :* o: Otri 4 t) i-4 JlJl) b-Li)t{ t-.:-'.l:;"Jl tt*t ty-t; 4 r-? ,.'ii i i{ 6i -1 -_n _rJ - J "To Him is the return of all of you. The Promise of All6h is frue. /f rs He Who begins the creation and then will repeat it, that He may reward with justice those who believed (in the Oneness of All6h - Isl1mic Monotheism) and did deeds of righteousness. But those who disbelieved will have a drink of boiling fluids and painful tormentbecausethey used to disbelieve.'" I Saad 8:28. 3 t Y o o n u sl 0 : 4 . F o r a l l t h a th a sb e e np r e v i o u s l y e n t i o n e d , l - F a w a a i d y m A b I b n a l - Q a y y i mp . 6 , 9 ; a n dA t - T a f s e eA l - K a b e e r y A r - R a a z e V o l . 2 , p . r b e I 1 3 - l1 6 .
  • 106 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Belief in the Last Day - the Day of Resurrection - has great impacts on individuals and the society. Among its impacts are: 1 lt makes man endeavour obey Allaahseekingfor rewardof to that Day and keeps him from disobeying Him out of fear of the punishment thatDay. of 2. Beliefin the Last Day consoles the believer the bliss and on pleasure thisworldthat he misses of with the pleasure and reward of the Hereafter, whichhe hopesfor. 3. lt is throughthe beliefin the Last Day that man knows his fate after deathand knowsthat he will get good rewardfor his deed if it is good, and get punishedif it is evil. He knowsthat he will be made to standfor reckoning; that revengewill be taken on him for those he wrongedin this world and the rightsof those he wronged or oppressed wouldbe takenbackfrom him 4. Belief in the Last Day actualisespeace and securityfor mankindespecially this time that there is inadequate in security and wars ragewith no end - because, beliefin Allaahand the Last Day makes man abstain from doing evil to others privatelyand publicly. That belief even penetrateshis heart and makes him dismiss -if evilintentions he has any. 5 Beliefin the Last Day detersman from doinginjustice others to theirrights. peoplebelieve the LastDay,they will and violating lf in be safe from wronging one another and their rights will be orotected. 6. Beliefin the LastDay makesman lookat thisworldly abodeas just one of the stagesof life and that it is not the reatlife in itself. To concludethis section,let us quote the words of "Win Bet" the American Christianwho used to work in one of the churches ano then embraced lslaamand foundthe fruitof beliefin the Last Day. He says,"l now knowanswers the questions to that had very much
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts t07 occupied life.The questions my are.Who am l? What do.l want? Why did I cometo thisworld?And what is my destination?"' ' A d - D a ' a w a h a g a z i n e o . 1 7 2 2 ,1 9 - 9 ' 1 4 2 0 . 3 7 . M N p
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Con Fundamentalsof the Messengers'Mission All Prophetsand Messengers were unanimousin their call to general fundamentals' beliefin Allaah,His angles,His Books, like His Messengers; beliefin the Last Day and in pre-decree, good its and bad; and like command to worship Allaah alone without ascribing any partnerto Him, to followHis path and not to follow dissenting paths; like prohibiting four kinds of sins: all evil the deeds, the apparentand the hidden; sins; unjust oppression; associating partnerswith Allaah in worshipand worshipping idols. They also agreed on deeming Allaah far from having a wife, children,associate equalas theyagreed prohibition saying or on of about Him what is not true; on prohibition infanticide, of kiiling unjustly, eating usury; usurpingof orphan'swealth.Thev were unanimous enjoining fulfilment covenants on the of and giiing full scale and weight, being dutifulto parents;doing justice between people; being truthful in sayings and deedi; prohibitionof squandering and arrogance well as eatingup people's as wealth unlustly. lbn Al-Qayyim2 said, "All Divine Laws are unantmousin therr - fundamentals even if they differ in any other things. The goodness theselawsare firmlyrootedin the humaninteiectand of had the lawsnot come in thisform,theywouldhave been unwise, unbeneficial and merciless thoughit is impossible that thev should comein any otherform.Allaah says, :-84 .r:,r.t: ,-''tAi p't*i 7;19i 3:ti 61 ;: V ' T h e s e e n e r aflu n d a m e n t aas ei n d i c a t e dn S u r a t uB a q a r a h . 2 g 5 , 2 g 6 , g lr i l 2 a n dA l - A n ' a a m : 1 5 1 ,1 5 3 ;A l - A ' r a a7 : 3 3 ; A l - l s r a la : 2 3 , 3 : - . 6 f j - H i s n a m ei s M u h a m m a d i n A b e eB a k r b i n A y y o o bA z - Z a r , e eH e w a s b . b o r n i n 6 9 1 A . H . a n d d i e d i n 7 5 I A . H . . H e w a s o n e o f t h e q r e a rI s l a a m i c scholars he authored and many greatbooks.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 109 "And if the truth wouldhave been in accordancewith their deslres, verily, the heavens and the eafth, and whosoever is therein would have been corrupted."' How can a wise man deem it permissible the Law of Allaah that Who is the Best of judges shouldcome in a form differentfromits presentform?'" This is why all Prophetspracticedone religionas confirmedby Allaahwhen He says, ib :::.: u& ; ;r"au * Szit n f ,l-ii +P.Y r?' ";Ai ' t ..i /. ltl Lt<l - "et bryag'j Lti-s':'r 'c1-a { :I) 9Fb "O (you) Messengers Eat of the TaiyibAt(all kinds of Hal6l (lawful) ! foods (meat of slaughtered eatable animals, milk producfs, fafs, vegetables,fruits,etc.), and do righteousdeeds. Verily!I am Well' Acquainted with what you do. And verily! This, your religion (of lsllmic Monotheism), one religion,and I am your Lord, so keep is your duty to Me.'' He alsosays, L:> rr G)Jtraj-y,i",cu..^iGEt;"y ' A l - M u ' m i n o o n 2 3 l..1 2 M i f t a a h ud a a r i s - s a ' a a dV o l . 2 , p . 3 8 3 . S e ea l s o :A l - J a w a a b u s - s a h e e h ah V o l . 4 p . 3 2 2 , L a w a a n i ' u l - a n w a b y A s - S a f a a r e e nV o l . 2 , p . 2 6 3 . ar ee I A l - M u ' m i n o o2 3 : 5 1 - 5 2 . n
  • 110 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts "He (Alldh) has ordained for you the same religion (tst6mic Monotheism)which He ordained for N0h (Noah), and that which We have revealedto you (O Muhammad(peacebe upon him)) and that which We ordainedfor lbrahim (Abraham),M1sa (Moses)and '/sii (Jesus/ saying you should esfab/ish religion (i.e. to do what it orders you to do practically), and make no divisions in it (religion) (i.e. varioussecfs rn religion)."' The purposeof religion to make mankindattainwhat they are is created for: to worship their Lord alone without associatingany partnerwith Him.2He ordainedfor them riteswhich they mus-t fulfil and guaranteed them obligations. also gave them means for He that can make them attainthat good, so that they can achievethe pleasureof their Lord and happinessin this world and the Hereafter according a DivineWay that does not tear up man or to afflict his person with deadly diseases that can cause a clash between nature his and souland the worldaroundhim. All Messengerscalled to the Divine Religionthat presentsman with creedai foundationin which he shou'idbelieve,and the law which he shouldfollowin his life.That is why Torahwas a creedas well as a law and its followerswere requiredto make it judge between them.Allaahsays, . , ,. / ar 'r?J':|''. -^J')tli J- rlJ l"Jl gr"-ilt5_rr;t q ,5"^ W LJrrt bt I 4 jr->iii;t;jji;r3r; "Verily, We did send down the Taurdt (Torah) (to Mlsa (Moses)) therein was guidance and light, by which the prophets, who submittedthemselvesto All6h'sWill,judged for the Jews. And the ' Ash-shooraa :13. 42 ' Majrnoo' Fataawaa ol.2, p.6. Y
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 111 rabbis and the priesfs (too iudged for the Jews by the Taurat (Torah)after those ProPhets),"' Then came the christ who brought with him the Gospelin which therewas guidanceand lightand in confirmation the Torah that of preceded AllaahsaYs, it. t, it . t i t," 4.3i: ,St^ 1., _[+jl '/sd (Jesus), son of Maryam "And in their footsteps, We sent (Mail,confirmingtheTaurdt(Torah)thathadcomebeforehim, 'ana in which was guidanceand rye gave hii the tnieel(Gospe/), light.'" Then Muhammad, blessingsand peace be upon him' came with the final Divine Law and the completereligionas a witnessover the laws that had come before it and to abrogatethem. Allaahgave him the Qur'aanas a confirmation the Divine Books that had of come beforeit. AllaahsaYs, '' ' 'i7 ,z -.!. - "<ii;ii,f,i'..i' iJt-, i'*5Jt ':'LJt uJ;:tj I . wJ -^!'.'-.),1 v i 1r+ 3;. d.5i;: L.....,t . , . 1. . t . -,;..(.4: j.o,4;i.r..(t, '-., ).i.^-."JL { j;Ji e !;; e'e;lFl g- )j J}t L'j,'+'r. r:?v attt + "And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) the Book (this Qufan) in truth, confirmingthe scripture that camie before it and Muhaymin (trustworthy in highness and a wltness) over it (old Scriptures). iudge among them by what So ' Al-Maaidah :44. 5 'z Al-Maaidah :46. 5
  • rt2 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts All6h has revealed, and fottow not their,vain desires,diverging away from the truth that has come to you.,' Allaah also explainsthat Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, and the believers who were with him believe Him as in all Prophets who were beforethem had done.He says, '',2''..: 'i,.r.l;. .-?f,'- .1 -',. LAD.:).tj!9 . i Crr' ,p 't '.t7 ,.,, ,Jr"ptii i - -!). . o: e) JSt 4 i' . J;}t Cr.t; b . , - , - -1 o , . - ; i . , . . - 1 1 , . . - ' . ...f ,2. $t-ft u'l2rj f'i:-., tll3) 4);ir t , -.irr",r" rjr. O: l-l ::-^t o"p J -{_j: -*: .r ..-..' .r'ii,. ''r. 4, ,::)J1+Jt " r i -Jr=JU u4) "The Messenger (Muhammad (peace be upon him)) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers.Each one betievesin Att6h,His Angets,His'Books,and His Messengers.They say, "We make no distinctionbetweenone another of His Messengers"- and they say, ,,Wehear, and we obey. (We sbek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and to you is the return (of all).'n I Al-Maaidah :48. 5 2 Al-Baqarah :285. 2
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts r13 The EverlastingMessagel All that has beenpreviously explained the conditions Judaism, of of Christianity,Mazdaism, Zaradashtiyahshows the situation of mankind2in the 6th century A.D. when the religion became corrupted and all political, socialand economical conditions were also corrupted; a time when bloodywars becamewidespread, at dictatorship emergedand mankindlived in stark darkness. This situationled to the darknessof the heartsas a resultof disbelief and ignorance. Moralsbecamedegenerated, honoursand rights were violatedand mischief becamethe orderof the day in the land and on the sea. The situation was so terriblethat if any wise man were to ponderover it, he would have realisedthat mankind- in that age - were dying and that they were headingfor abyss of no returnhad Allaahnot rescuedthem with a great reformer who was bearing torchof Prophethood the lightof guidance order the and in to illuminate way for mankind the and guidedthem to the Straight Path. At that time, Allaah permitted that the everlasting light of Prophethood shouldemanatefrom Makkahin which there is the GreatHouse. The Makkan environment beenlikeotherhuman had environments terms of polytheism, in ignorance, injusticeand autocracy exceptthat it was distinguishedfrom other place with manyqualitiessome of whichwere: that had not been affectedby the 1. lt was a pure environment stainsof Greek,Romanor India philosophy. nativesused to lts enjoy deep-rooted eloquence, lively minds and exceptional dispositions. 2. lt is situated the heartof the world.lt is in the middleplace in betweenEurope, Asia and Africa,an important factorthat makesit easy for the everlasting message to spread quickly and reach thesecontinents a shortperiod. in I F o r d e t a i l e de a d i n g e e : r - R a h e e q u l - M a k h t o o r n u b a a r a k p u r i r s A by M 2 ' C o n d i t i o n f t h e e x i s t i n g e l i g i o n si'n t h i sb o o k . o r S e es e c t i o n :
  • tt4 Islaam: Its Foundqtions And Concepts 3. lt is a secured place. Allaah protectedit when Abraha (the Abyssinian King) wantedto invadeit. The neighbouring Roman and Persian empires also were unable to conquer it. Even its commercewas securedin the north and south.That was a herald for the advent of this Noble Prophet.Allaah has reminded the inhabitants thiscityof thisgreatfavour of when He says, a..e$ L; il ;'+ t-v e| ;i Si tii > "HaveWe nof esfab/lshed thema secure for sanctuary @akkah), to whicharebrought fruits allkinds.'l of It is a desert environment that has preservedmany of her good and commendable traits like generosity, good neighbourliness, earnestconcernfor honouramongotherqualities that qualifiedher for beingthe best suitableplacefor the clan of euraysh which was well known for eloquence, oratoryand honourable traits and held the positionsof honourand leadership. Allaah chose His prophet Muhammad, blessings and peacebe upon him, to make him the lastof all Prophets and Messengers. was bornin Makkahin the He 6'" centuryA.D. approximately the year 570. He grew up an in orphan,for his father died while he was still in the womb. His motherand paternalgrandfather laterdied while he was six years old. So, his uncle took care of him and he grew up an orphan. Signsof extraordinary brilliancemanifested him;and his habits, on manners and traits were differentfrom those of his people. He never lied in his speech and never hurt anyone. He became popularwith truthfulness, chastityand sincerityso much so that manyof his people wouldentrust him withtheirvaluable properties and he would keep them as he would preservehis own life and wealth. This made them confer on him the tifle "At-Ameen', (the trustworthy). I Al-Qasas 8:57 2
  • Islasm: Its Foundations And Concepts ll5 He was modestand shy and nevershowedhimself nakedin front of anyone sincehe came of age. He was innocent and piousand felt hurtwhen he saw his people idols, worshipping drinkingalcohol and shedding innocent blood.He relatedwith them only in those deeds of theirs which he loved and was pleasedwith and kept away from them when they indulged their shameless in acts and sins. He would help the orphansand the widows and feed the hungry. When he was close to forty years of age, he became seriously constrained and inconvenienced the corruption by that was around him and started going for seclusionto worship his Lord and he wouldask Him guidance the Straight to Path.Whilehe was on this condition, of the angelsdescended one upon him with a revelation from his Lord and he commanded him to convey this religionto mankind; call them to the worshipof Allaahaloneand to shun to the worshipof othersbesideshim. Then Revelation ordainments of and rules continued day after day and year after year untilAllaah perfectedthis religionfor mankind and completedHis favour on them with this perfection.After the Messenger Allaah,blessings of and peacebe uponhim,had fulfllled duty,Allaahcausedhim to his die. He lived for sixty-threeyears; forty before prophethood and twenty-three a Prophetand as Messenger. Whoeverpondersover the conditions the Prophetsand studies of that therewas no way in which their historywill know with certainty the Prophethood any Prophetwas established of exceptthat the Prophethood Muhammad, of blessings and peace be upon him, was established that way the more. lf you reflecton how the in 'Eesaawas transmitted, will know you Prophethood Moosa and of that it was transmitted succession. in But the succession which in the Prophethood Muhammad, of blessings and peace be upon him, was transmittedwas greater, stronger and more recent Likewise, the succession which their miraclesare transmitted in were similar but that with which the miraclesof Muhammad, blessings and peacebe upon him, were transmitted greater, is for his miraclesare many and the greatestof that is the Glorious
  • Islaam: Its Foundotions And Con Qur'aan whichis continued be transmitted to successively voice in and in letter.l Whoever makes a comparisonbetweenwhat prophets Moosaa and 'Eesaabroughtand what was broughtby prophetMuhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, of sound belief, wise ordainments usefulknowledge, knowwith certainty and will that all of them emanated from a singlelamp:the lamp of prophethood. Whoevercomparesbetweenthe conditions the followers the of of Prophetsand followersof Muhammad,blessingsand peace be upon him, will knowwith certainty that the followers Muhammad, of blessingsand peacebe upon him,were the bestof all peopleano the most of the Prophets'followers impacton those who came in after them. They have spread the lslaamic Monotheism. propagated justiceand were merciful the weak and destitute.2 to lf you want additional evidences Muhammad's of prophethood, I will quote to you the proofsand signsthat were found by ,Aleebin Rabbanat-Tabaree when he was a Christian. later embraced He lslaambecause thosesigns. of Theyare: 1. The Messenger called to the worshipof Allaah alone and shunning worship othersbesideHim. In this,he agreedwith the of all otherProohets. 2. He showed clear signs which only prophetsof Allaah can snow. 3. He predictedthe future eventsand they came to pass as he had predicted. 4. He predicted the occurrence many eventsof the world ano of its countries and theseeventscame to passas he had predicted. ' S e es p e c i as e c t i o n b o u t h eQ u r ' a a n n t h i sb o o k . p . l a i - 1., M a l n o o ' a l - l - a t a a w a V o l . 4 p . 2 0 1 . 2 l l ; a n d I f h a a r n u l a h o o db y a y S a m a w ' aA l - M a g r i b ip . 5 8 - 5 9 . l
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts tl7 That the Book broughtby Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, - the Qur'aan- is a sign of Prophethood it is the for most eloquentBook, sent down unto an illiterate man who could neitherread nor write, but yet challenged the oratorsto produce the like thereofor the likeof a Soorah"in it, and because the fact of that Allaahguarantees preservation, its preserved correctbelief the with it, guaranteed it as the perfect divine ordainment and established it the bestcommunitv. with 5. That he is the seal of all Prophetsand that had he not been sent, prophecies the past Prophets of who gave glad tiding of his adventwouldhaveturnedfalse. 6. That all Prophetshad prophesiedabout him beforehis advent sincea longtime. They had described mission, countryand his his submission othernations of and kingsto him and his nation. They alsomentioned spread his religion. the of 7. His victoryover nationsthat waged war againsthim as a sign of his Prophethood; it would be impossiblefor a man who for falselyclaimsto be a Messenger Allaahand yet be strengthened of prevalence by Allaahwith victory,authority, over enemies,spread of his messageand abundance his followers; all this cannot of for happenexceptin the hand of a truthfulProphet. 8. His religious rites and acts of worship, his decency, truthfulness, commendable character,manners All and ordinances. thrscannotbe foundtogetherexceptin a Prophet. After mentioning theseproofs,this guidedman then said,"These traits and sufficientproofs.Whoever is endowed are illuminating with them must be a Prophet; such a personhas hit the targetand prospered;and the belief in him is mandatory. Whoever rejects 'Soorah literarymeans degree. Islamically, is a section the glorious it of Qur'aan that contains group of verses a that may or may not be relatedin meanings. Some translators translateit as a chapterwhich is quite do i n a c c u r a t b e c a u s e c h a p t e ri s a c o m b i n a t i o n f p a r a g r a p his w h i c h e a o n r e l a t e ds s u e a r ed i s c u s s e d .A i s A
  • ll8 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts these proofsand deniesthem has incurredloss in his effortsand losthis worldly and Hereafter."l life At the end of this section,I will narrateto you two testimonies: that of the former roman King who was a contemporary Prophet of Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, and that of our contemporary ChristianEvangelist JohnSaint. The First Testimony: That of Heraclius: Al-Bukhaaree reportedthe storyof Abu Sufyaanwhen the Roman Kingcalledhim.Abu Sufyaan saidthat Heraclius sentto him in the company of some Qurayshee riders who went to Syria for commerce,at a time that the Messenger Allaah,blessings of and peace be upon him, was in a trucewith Abu Sufyaanand euraysh pagans. They cameto Heraclius whiletheywere at llya.' Heraclius invitedhim to his court and with him were great men of Rome. He calledthem and his interpreter. He then askedAbu Sufyaan and his company:"Whichone of you is closestto this man who claimsto be a Prophet?" said,"l am the closest him in blood." Abu Sufyaan to Heraclius "Bringhim closeto me and let his then told his retinue, companions stand behindhim."He then told his interpreter, "Tell them.I will ask this(AbuSufyaan)aboutthe man who claimsto be a Prophet, if he liesto me, you shouldrefutethat." so, Abu Sufyaansaid, "By Allaahl lf not becauseof the shame of havinga lie being recordedagainstme, I would have lied about him. The first question asked me about him was: How is his he ' Ad-deenwad-dawlafee ithbaatinubuwwatiMuhammad,by ,Alee bin R a b b a n t - T a b a r a n ep . 4 7 . A l s o s e e : l - l s l a a m y A l - Q u r t u b e e . 3 6 2 . A e A b p 'A townin Syria.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts ll9 "He is of noble lineageamongstyou?" Abu Sufyaananswered, amongus." lineage He then asked,"Has anybodyamong you ever utteredthis word beforehim?" I said, No." " beena king?" He said,"Hadanyoneamonghis forefathers I s a i d , N o" " He said,"Are his followersnoblemen or weak people?" I said,"Weakpeople." He said,"Do they increase decrease?" or I said,"Theyincrease." his in after He said,"Did any of them renounce religion annoyance havingembraced it?" I said,"No" He said,"Doeshe betray?" I said "No. But we are now in a trucewith him and we do not know what he is goingto do " Abu Sufyaan "Thrsis the onlystatement added, lcould say against him." further Heraclius "Drdyou go to war withhim?" asked, I s a i d ," Y e s l "
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Conce He said,"Howwas yourwar withhim?" I said,"lt was an alternate victory.He won sometimesand we won sometimes." He said,"Whatdoeshe command vou to do?" I said,"He sard,'Worship God aloneand do not associate anything in worshipwith him and shun what your fatherssay.' He enjoined on us prayer,truthfulness, probity and kindness the kithand kin." to Heraclius "Tell thentold his interpreter, him. I askedyou of his lineageand you saidthathe has a noblelineage among you. That is the case with the Messengers. They were sent fromthe noblelineage amongtheirpeople. I askedyou: Had anybody amongyou claimed what he claimsand you said, No. And I say: lf anyonehad said beforehim what he says now, I would have said that, he was repeatingwhat others have said beforehim. I askedyou: Had any of his ancestors beena king?And you said, No. lf any of his forefathers had been a king,I would have sardthat he is asking the Kingdom hisfather. for of I asked you: Have you ever suspected him of tellinglies beforehe said what he said and you answered, I then knowthat h could No. not haveshunned lyingto peopleand tell lie against God. I asked you whetherthose who followhim are noble men or weak people,and you answered that his followers weak people yes, are thoseare the followers the Messenqers. of I askedyou if they increase decrease numberand you said or in that they increase.That is how faith does until it becomes completed.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts l2l l a s k e d y o u , i f a n y o f h i s f o l l o w e r sr e n o u n c e d i s f a i t h i n h annoyance afterhaving embraced and you said,No. Yes' that is it how faithdoes afterhavingpenetrated hearts. the I askedyou if he betrayand you said,No. That is how Messengers do. Theydo not betraY. And I asked you about what he commandedyou to do and you saidthat,he enjoined that you worshipAllaahaloneand associate nothingwith Him in worship,that he enjoinedon you prayers, truthfulness, that he forbidsyou from worshipping chastity; idols.lf all that you told me is true, he shallcontrolwhere I am standing now.I knowthat sucha Prophet emergebut I did not thinkthat will he would be from amongstyou. Had I known that I would meet him, I would have sufferedhardshipto meet him. And had I been with him,I wouldhavewashedhis feet." He then calledfor the letterof the Messenger Allaah, of blessings and peacebe upon him, which he sent with Dihyato the rulerof Basra. He presented the letter to Heracliusand he read it. There was in the letter; ln the Name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.From Muhammad, the Messenger Allaah,to Heraclius, ruler of of the Rome. Peacebe upon him who followsthe guidance. am inviting I you with the invitation lslaam.Acceptlslaam,you will be safe of and Allaah will give you your rewardtwice.But if you turn away, you will bearthe sinsof Yarisin. Come to a word that is just betweenus "O peopleof the Scripture! and you, that we worshipnone but Allaah (atone)and that we associateno partnerwith Him, and that none of us shall take othersas lordsbesides Allaah.Then, if they turn away,say: Bear witnessthatwe are Muslims."' ' A l - B u k h a a r e eh eb o o ko f b e g i n n i n g f r e v e l a t i o n . t, o
  • 122 Islaam: Its Foundstions And Concepts The Second Testimony: Thatof the contemporaryChristian Evangelist John Centwho said, "Aftercontinuousreadingabout lslaamand its principlesthat serve individualsand society,and its justice in establishing society a based on foundations equalityand monotheism, found myself of I embracinglslaam with all my sense an spirit and I pledgedto - Allaah,may He be glorified that I would be a propagator of lslaam,and an evangelist its guidance all partsof the world." to in This man has arrived at this certainty after having studied Christianity and beecamewell-versed it. He found that it could in not provide answers to many questionsof human life. So he starteddoubtingit. Later, he studiedcommunismand Buddhism but yet could not find what he wanted there, he finallv studied lslaamdeeply, then believed it and calleduntoit.1 in ' Ad-Deen Al-Fitree Al-Abadee by Al-Mubashshir At-Taraazee Al- Husaynee p.319. 2
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 123 The Seal of Prophethood It is clearto you from what he has been previously discussed,the realityof Prophethood, signs and proofs and the signs of its Prophethood Muhammad. of Beforewe start discussing the on seal of Prophethood, you must knowthat,Allaahdoes not send a Messenger except one of thesefollowing for reasons: 1 That the messageof the Prophetis specificallymeantfor a Messenger not obliged peoplein whichthe concerned particular is to conveyhis message the neighbouring to and thatAllaah nations, sendsanother message another witha special Prophet to nation. 2. That the message the previous of has become Prophet extinct, in which case Allaahsends anotherProphetwho will reformfor peopletheirreligion. 3. That the Law of the previous Prophet validonly for its time is and no longersuitable subsequent for periods,then Allaahsends anotherMessenger with another Law that will be suitablefor the anotherparticular time and place.The Wisdomof Allaahhowever, has necessitated He sendsMuhammad, that blessings and peace be upon him,to all mankind with a Message that is suitable all for timesand placesand to protect against it alteringand interpolating hands,so that it can remainHis LivingMessage which people by will live and that will be pure and free from stainsof interpolations and alterations. was for this reasonthat Allaahmade it the seal lt of all Messages.l Among things with which Allaah distinguished Muhammad, and peacebe upon him, is that He made him the sealof blessings all Prophetsafter whom there would be no Prophet.This is because,Allaahcompletedwith him all Messages,endedwith him r A l - A q e e d a A t - T a h a a w i . vp a1 5 6 ;l - a w a a r n i ' a n w a a r 2 p . 2 6 9 , 2 1 1 h y ul , , a n dM a b a a d i ' u l - l s l a a m6 4 . P.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And C, all Laws, perfectedwith him the structureand actualisedin his Prophethood Prophecy JesusChrist the of when he said,,,"1 The Reverend lbrahimKhaleel- who has become a Muslim_ regarded text as an equivalent the sayingof the Messenger this of of Allaah, blessingsand peacebe upon him,,,lndeed, example the of me and that of the Prophets beforeme is like that of a man who has perfectlybuilt a house and adornedit except the place of a brick in a corner which he left unfilled.people went round it and admiredit and said:Why not fix up this brick?He said,,l am the brickand I am the sealof the Proohets.' "2 It is for this reason that Allaah made the Book brought by Muhammad, blessingsand peacebe upon him, as a witnesl over all previous Booksand an abolisher them all. Just as He made for the Law of Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, the abolisherof precedingLaws. Allaah guarantees the protectionof his Message,hence,it was transmitted successfully.The eur'aan was transmitted succession. in The practical implementation the of teachings this religion of and its acts of worship, sunnahand rules were also transmitted succession. in Whoever readsthe biography the prophet, of blessingsand peace be upon him, and his Sunnahwill know that the companions had preservedfor humanity all situations, sayings and deeds of Muhammad. They transmitted acts of worshipfor his Lord,his his strifein His cause,his remembrance Him and his seeking His of for forgiveness. They transmitted his generosity, courage, his relationship with his companions and those visitinghim. They transmittedhis joy, sorrow, journeys, sojourn, manners of his eating,drinking and clothingand how he kept awake and slept. When you know all this, you will know with certaintythat this religion guaranteed Allaah's is by protection you willthenknow and I Matthew2l:42. : S e e ," M u h a m m a d in the Torah,Gospeland the Qur'aan" by Ibraheem K h a l e e lA h m a d , p . 73. The hadeethis reporled by Al-Bukhaareeand Muslirn.
  • Islsctm: Its FoundutionsAnd Concepts 125 that he is the last of all Prophetsand Messengers; Allaah has for toldus thatthisMessenger the lastof all Prophets. says, is He i .. . ., '; . . i.:.a, t.t a7., zi, -.!-,,..- ;t,. { J,ifJi;rit *t Jt-|,f,i"E|i,tt t-r Lr J3 or u } "Muhammad(peace be upon him) is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messengerof AIl6h and the last (end) of the , ,,1 Proones. Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, also said about "l himself, ,amsent to all mankindand I was made the seal of all Prophets"' pillars sources, Now let us definelslaamand explainits essence, and degrees. I Al-Ahzaab 3:40. 3 I A h m a da n dM u s l i m .
  • 126 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Meaningof the Word: lsfaam When you consultthe dictionaries, you will find that the word lslaam means submission, obedience, surrender and compliance with the command and prohibition the commanderwithout of objections. Allaahhas namedthe true religion, 'lslaam' for it is an obedienceto him, submission His Commandswithout any to purifying resistance, acts of worshipfor Him, believing His words in and havingfaithin Him. lslaamthen becamea propername for the religion brought Muhammad. by Definitionof lslaam Why this religionwas named 'lslaam'?Adherentsof various religions over the world have namedtheirreligions, all eitherwith the name of a man or a particular race likeChristianity, whichwas named after JesusChrist;and Buddhism namedafter its founder Buddha; and Zaradashtismnamed after its founder and flag banner, Zaradasht. Judaism also emergedamong the tribe of Judah and so on. lt is only lslaam that is not attributed any to particular man or nation. nameindicates special lts a characteristic that the meaning lslaamdenotes. is evidentin this name that of lt no man has any rolein bringing religion existence this into and that it is not peculiar with any nationto the exclusion others. only of lts goal is to make all people of the earth have characteristics of lslaam So, whoeveris characterised the qualities lslaam with of among ancrent peopleand contemporary peopleis a Muslim, just as he shallbe calleda Muslim, anyone who possesses qualities its amongthe coming generations The realityof lslaam It rs knownthat everything thisworldsubjects a particular in to rule and established norm.The sun,the moon.the starsand the earth are all subjected a general to rulewhichtheycannotmarchagainst or deviate from even for a hair's breadth Even man, when you ponderover him verywell,rt will be clearto you that he absolutely
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 127 submitsto the Laws of Allaah.He cannotbreathor feel a need for water, food, nourishment,light and heat except accordingto the DivineDecreethat regulates his life; and all parts of his body submit to this Decree, The functionsthat these parts perform cannot be carried out except accordingto what Allaah has prescribed him. for This comorehensive DivineOrdainment which man surrenders to and from which none in this universe -right from the planetin the heavento the smallest seed in the sand of the earth- can escape from obeyingis the Divine Ordainment the Magnificent, of the Sovereign and the All-Powerful Lord. lf all that is in the heavens and the earth and all that is in betweenboth surrendersto this DivineOrdainment, that means the whole world submitsto and obeysthat All-Powerful Sovereign Who createdit. In this aspect,it is then clear that lslaam is the religionof the whole universe.For lslaammeans,submission and obedience the commandof the to Commander and His Prohibitions withoutobjection it has been as previously asserted. The sun, the moon and the earthall surrender to Him. Air, water,light,darkness and heat,all surrender Him;to the tree, the stone and the animalsall surrender. Even the man who does not knowhis Lordand deniesHis existence signsor and worshipsothers besides Him, or associatesothers with Him in worship surrenders nature Him. by to lf you haveknownall that,let us now havea lookat man,you will find that two factorsare struggling wtn his attention. to One: His naturalinclination; submission Allaah,lovingto like to worshrp Him, seekingnearness Him, lovingwhat He loves of to truth, good and honesty;hatingwhat He hates of falsehood, evil, injusticeand wrong;and other naturalfactorslike:love for money, family and childrenand desire for food, drink and sex and necessary functions follow physical that that. Two: Man'sfree will and choice.Allaahhas sent Messengers to hrmand revealedBooksso that he mightdistinguish between truth guidance and falsehood, and error;good and evil. He gave him
  • t28 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts mental power and understanding that he can make his choice so with sure knowledge. he so wills, he takes to the good path that lf leadshim to truthand guidance; and if he so wills,he takesto the evil paththat leadshim to evilandperdition. lf you therefore, look at man in the perspective the first factor, of you will find that he is createdto submit to Allaah,conditionedto adhere to that submission without making any deviation just whatsoever, likeany othercreature. But if you look at him in the perspective the secondfactor,you of will find him as a free creature,who chooseswhat he wants. He may choose to become a Muslim or to become an infide,... "Whetherhe be gratefulor ungrateful."l Hence,you find peopledividedintotwo categories: A man who knowshis Creator, and believes Him as his Lord and in God whom he worships alone and follows his Law in his life voluntarily. is also conditioned submitto his Lord,from Who He to he cannotdeviateand Whose ordainments follows-such a man he is the complete Muslim whose lslaam is perfect and whose knowledgeis sound; for he knows Allaah, his Creator and Fashioner, Who sent Messengers him and endowedhim with to the powerof knowledge and learning. Suchhas had soundreason and correct opinion; he has made use of his thoughtand then for decided not to worshrp but Allaah Who blessed him with understanding soundopinions matters. and in His tonguespeaks onlythe truth;for now,he only believes One LordWho is Allaah, in the Exalted, Who gave him powerto speak. lt now becomesas if nothing remains in his life but the truth; for he follows and surrenders the Law of Allaahin that whichhe has free will;and to there existsbetweenhim and othercreatures the universebond in of familiarity friendliness, he worships and for, nonebut Allaah,the All-Wise,All-Knowledgeable, Whom all creaturesworship,and unto Whose Commandments Ordainments surrender and all ano ' A l - l n s a a7 6 : 3 . n
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 129 submit.And Allaah has subjected these creatures you, O all to man!
  • 130 Isloam: Its Foundations And Concepts Realityof disbelief On the contrary anotherman, who was born in submission is to Allaahand livedall his life in submission Allaahbut neverfelt to this submission had any idea of it. He knew not his Lord,nor or believedin His Law or followedHis Messengers. did not use He the knowledge that Allaahgave him to recognize and intellect his Creator Who carvedfor him his ears and eyes. He ratherdenied His existence, disdained worshipand refused submitto he His to His Laws in mattersof his life in which he is given the right of dispositionand choice. Or he associatedothers with Him in worship and refused to believe in His signs that indicate His Oneness.Such a man is a Kaafir,For the meaningof 'Kufl in the language, is'to coverand conceal'. this man is calleda'Kaafil So for he conceals his nature and covers it with ignoranceand insolence;and the natureof the world and that of his own self are hiddenfrom him. You therefore, him usinghis intellectual see and logicalpoweronly in that which contradicts nature.He would his not see anything that whichcouldcorrupthis nature. is now but lt left to you to estimate the extent of deep error.and clear transgression whichthe disbeliever degenerated.' to has This lslaam which you are requiredto practiceis not a difficult matter,but very easyfor whomsoever Allaahmakes it easy. lslaam is the reliqion whichthisentireuniverse follows. 4.t^"h'rGra;,'r{6.-''e^ii 4ti ;ai b "And to Him submittedall creaturesin the heavens and the eafth, wittngly or unwittngty'2 i i Allaahsays, ' M a b a a d i uIls l a a r n , 4 3 2 A a l ' l r n r a a3 : 8 3 . n
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts l3l '''t (;.t;ii ;'i :-:",'ti'blY 'Truty, thereligionwith Attah tstAm."1 is It is man's total submission Allaah as He, Great is His praise to asserts, ,!+L byy , t -. L t/ (J{>Jc-J-l Jlor "So if they disputewith you (Muhammad(peacebe upon him)) say: "l have submittedmyself to All6h (in lsl6m), and (so have) those who follow me.'' The Messenger Allaah,blessings of and peacebe upon him, also explained meaning lslaamwhen he said,"lt is to submit the of your heartto Allaah, direct to and to give yourfaceto Allaah(in worship) the obligatoryZakaah"' and peace be A man asked the Messenger Allaah,blessings of 'Whatis lslaam?' uponhim.: The Messengerof Allaah, blessingsand peace be upon him, 'lt and that Muslims yourheartto Allaah; answered, is to surrender should safefromthe harmof yourtongue be and hand.' The man said.'Whichlslaamis best?' 'TheFaith(Eemaan)' He answered: 'Whatis Faith?' He asked. I A a l ' l r n r a a3 : 1 9 . n 2 'lmraan Aal 3:20. I A h r n a d n dI b n H i b b a a n a
  • L32 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 'To He answered: believe Allaah, angels, Books, in His His His Messengersand to believein Resurrection afterdeath.'' The Messenger Allaah,blessings of and peacebe upon him, also said, "lslaam is to testifythat there is no deity worthy of worship exceptAllaahand that Muhammad, blessings and peacebe upon him, is the Messenger Allaah,to observethe prayers, give the of to Zakaah, to fast in the month of Ramadaan and to perform pilgrimage the Houseif you are able to."2 to He also said,"The Muslimis the one from the evil of whosehano and tongueall Muslims safe."3 are - This religion the religion lslaam- is the one besides of which Allaah accepts no other religion,not from former generations or later generations.For all Prophetswere Muslims.Allaah says aboutProphet Noah, , .1.:. t'-i 2",. a -'z . GA.J') d:ti- _;.=lcF ob o| :>"+ -yrd. Jl" t) t+ f-rJr Jtj o ) f_, qJi;i ;,i J* ini;;6 "And recite to them the news of N?h (Noah). When he sald to hrs people: "O my people, if my stay (with you), and my reminding (you) of the AyAt (proofs, evidences, yerses, /essons, signs, revelations,etc.) of Allah is hard on you, then I put my trust in AtEh." Till He says, I A h m a d .S e e :F a d l u lI s l a a m y I m a a mM u h a r n m a d i n A b d u l - W a h h a a b b b o. 8. l Muslim. t A l - B u k h a a r ea n d M u s l i m . e
  • Isloam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 133 ,.'i-i z '2.:,.1. I At 2)4tJ t ._- en_rt-*--l , _j-r" Jt 4 "...and I have been commanded be of the Muslims(i.e.those to who submit Al16h's to Will)."' The Almighty alsosaysaboutAbraham, t :' ;j;'i'-l'l -*ri Jd iri -'L) lv) t '4 "When his Lord saidto him, "Submit (i.e.be a Muslim)!" said,"l He have submitted myself (as a Musltm) to the Lord of the 'Alamin jinn and all that exlsts). (mankind, "'" He saysaboutMoses, ' . t 1 2 . , ' , . i 2 . - ' , : . 1 , . 1' , . : 2 : t .f. Ja.J-J,i ol t>Sr.=l'r +t-.'a-'; .5.tl ,.S f'.a-2.r*r, Jt3: ! "And M1sa (Moses) said: "O my people! lf you have believed in Allah, then put your trust in Him if you are Muslims (those who '' submit to All6h'sWill) He has the following say aboutJesusChrist, to :'!t', L-1, ItLe J;-fi L,L -r-":-19 - t ti:I, Sl O.i;tr>)l Jl {---Jl i5 f .tJ + sl r )L.ad ' Yoonus 1-12l0:7 2 A l - B a q a r a h3 l 2 :l r Yoonul0:84.s
  • t34 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts "And when I (NEh) revealed to Al-Hawdrieen (the disciples)(of 'lsi (Jesus)) to believe in Me and My Messenger, they said. "We believe.And bear wifnessthatwe are Muslims."' - This religion lslaam- derives its laws,beliefs all and rulesfrom the DivineRevelation. Qur'aanand Sunnah.I will give you a the briefinformationaboutthem. ' A l - M a a i d a5 : l I l . h
  • Islaom: Its Foundations And Concepts 135 Sources of lslaam It has been a habitfor adherents abrogated of religionsand man- made creeds to hallow their inheritedbooks, which were written sinceancienttimes and whose authorsor translators the time of or their writing may not really be known. They were just written by some people who used to suffer from what other human beings suffer from like weakness. defect. whimsical desires and forgetfulness. As for the Qur'aan,it is differentfrom all other books in that, it dependson the true sourcewhich is the DivineRevelation. the Qur'aan and Sunnah. Followino the briefintroduction both: is of A. The GloriousQur'aan: You have known previously that lslaam is the religionof Allaah, that was why Allaah revealed the Qur'aan to His Messenger, Muhammad, blessings and peacebe upon him, as a guidance for the pious,a Law for the Muslims, healing the disease a for that is in the heartsof those whom Allaahwants to heal and a lightfor those whom Allaah wants to give success. lt .contains the fundamentals whichAllaahsentthe Messengers.' Qur'aan for The was not the first Book to be revealed nor was Muhammad, blessingsand peace be upon him, the first Messenger be sent. to Allaah has revealedthe Scriptures Abraham;Torah to Moses to and the Gospel to Jesus. All these Books were revelations from Allaahto His Prophets and Messengers. the contents most But of of these Books have been lost and have becomeextinct,and interpolation alterations and have enteredthem. Allaah Himselfguarantees protection As for the Qur'aan, its and makesit the witnessand abolisher earlier of Books.He sayswhile addressing Prophet, the blessings peacebe uponhim, and ' A s - s u n n a hw a r n a k a a n a t u h aia - t a s h r e e ' iIls l a a m i b v M u s t a f a A s - f t S i b a a ' ep . 3 7 6 . e
  • 136 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts , . r- s* "And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) the Book (this Qufdn) in truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and Muhaymin.(trustworlhy in highness and a witness)over it (old Scriptures)."' He describes Qur'aan an explanation everything, the as of a.'.,y t64J.i<i u,ii us;iy "And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qufan) as an exposition everyth of ing.'2 He callsit guidance and mercy, a '4^>)i . - , t - . t. . 'gttj'"4'),y :1;V r-ai f ? "So now has come unto you a clear proof (the Qufan) from your Lord, and a guidanceand a mercy.'u He describes as thatwhichguides uprightness it to when He says, . ,.1i - ',, ., . ... ,..:ii,1 t CiirIe C. s*,rt''Pt ri; rl ) 'Verily, this Qulan guides to that which is most just and right."l I A l - M a a i d a5 : 4 8 . h t An-Nahl 6:89. I Al-An'aam :157. 6
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 137 The Qur'aanguides mankindto the most righteouspath in all asoectsof theirlife. Whoeverreflects how the Qur'aan on was revealedand how tt was preserved will give the book its due estimationand purify his intention Allaahalone. for Allaah, Exalted the says, , . t., . , ",: ,.,. - t i-:7 t t,-i .. .'i.l t. .i tl J4-1, or o:5.::. J" i! gsYl C:)t i J-r :D ut{:nt o) J'-l'l ,r): y F r. ,P)--:-AJ| "And truly, this (the Qur'6n) is a revelation from the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exisfs), Which the trustworthy R?h (Jibril (Gabriel)) has brought down Upon your heart (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) that you may be (one) of the warners,'* So the One Who revealed the Qur'aanis Allaah,Lord of all the worlds;and the one who brought is the trustworthy it spiritGabriel; and the one in whose heart it was revealed is the Prophet, blessings peacebe uponhim. and The Qur'aanis an everlasting miraclefor Muhammad. contains lt signsthat shall abidetill the Day of Resurrection The signs and miracles previousProphets of usedto end at the termination the of Prophets'lives,but Allaahhas made the Qur'aan the everlastinq proof. lt is the extensiveproof and dazzling sign. Allaahchallenges the mankind produce likethereof ten soorahs to the or likeit or even a singlesoorahthat resembles and they are unableto do that in it, spite of the fact that it is composedof lettersand words and the ' A l - l s r a a7 : 9 . l t A s h - S h u a r a 2I6 .2 -l g 4 . 9
  • 138 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts people on whom it was first revealedwere people of eloquence and rhetoric. Allaahsavs, 'Llti 61 yi ; ;tr:i $i n e;ii -& i:r:;U A ilsj;7i y 4.8>tu* { "Or do they say: "He (Muhammad(peacebe upon him)) has forged it?" Say: "Bring then a S?rah (chapte) like unto it, and call upon whomsoever you can besrdes Altdh, you are truthfu!!."1 if Among the things that testify to the fact that the Qur'aan is a from Allaahis that it containsstoriesof the past nations, revelation prophesied futureeventsthat came to happenas it has prophesied and the fact that it mentionsmany scientificfacts that have not been discovered untilrecently. Anotherproofof its beinga Divinely revealed Book is that the Propheton whom it was revealedwas unknownwith anythingsimilarto that or reportedto have known anythingsimilar the Qur'aan. to Allaahsays, .,/tt - .), i.no'f4 c-i.J i-aj -t fii)l 5"ra* ,o;'y' U 4!l ;L: ,J ,I, F { :!r:-a-F y-l -rtr t _. ,.,- "Say (O Muhammad(peace be upon him)) "lf All6h had so willed,I should not have recitedit to you nor would He have made it known to you. Verily, I have stayed amongst you a life time before this. Haveyou then no sense?'" who neitherread nor wrote. He did not He was ratheran illiterate also,visitany Shaykh or men to producethe like of the Qur'aan. Allaahsavs. I Y o o n u sl 0 : 3 8 r Y o o n u sI 0 : | 6
  • Islaam: Its Foundotions And Concepts 139 z o . -a . tta j,S -.'tjr! lil -4.* ':,EA J ;S- ;, -* crt rt" w_t I I ... / it -'ii .:, .--JJff'' "Neither did you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) read any book before it (this Qu/6n), nor did you write any book (whatsoever) with your right hand. ln that case, indeed, the followers falsehoodmight have doubted."l of This unletteredman who has beendescribed the Torahand the in Gospelthat he would not read nor write,was visitedby Jewishad Christianmonks- who had some remnants the Torah and the of Gospel- and asked about issuesby which they differed, and they would request for his arbitration in matters in which they contended. Allaahsays,explaining description Muhammad, the of blessingsand peacebe uponhim,in the Torahand the Gospel, u;* t. tt7Jf t '^ (j)r .'i 'Ji 'ati t;li J ?t* ;--$i A J-- hAi ," ;<-+::q:AL er ,l-c'li; *ryLi 'i' '-' / : .".i'i t { e-;-*lt -<* C'f: Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write (i.e. Muhammad (peace be upon him)) whom they find written with them in the Taurat(Torah)(Deut,xviii, 15) and the tnjeel (Gospel) (John xiv, 16), - he commands them for Al-Ma'rlf (i.e. lslamic Monotheismand all that lslam has ordained);and forbids them from Al-Munkar (ie disbelief,polytheismof all kinds, and att that lslam has forbidden);he allows them as lawful At- Taiyibdt((i.e. all good and lawful) as regardsthings,deeds, beliefs, ' A l - ' A n k a b o t 2 9. 4 8
  • 140 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts persons, foods), and prohibitsthem as unlawfulAl-Khab6'ith(i.e. all evil and unlawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs,persons, foods)."1 aboutthe question Jews and Allaahalso says,whilespeaking the the Christians asked the Prophet, blessingsand peace be upon him, . 'l ; i -' r/.'-<Jt-'t:! .i - ' < i 1' r - i - r t 1 : - ' t .L^Jl ,r L.i fdo U Ul--6Jl J'^l -t-.ll:^.^.r- F "The People of the Scripture ask you to cause a book to descend upon them from heaven.'" 4 rii, p Z:,iu;:y tt'2t v 2 "And they ask you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) concerningthe R?h (the Spirit).'" 4 cfr';ti f zEru;ty 6> "Andthey askyou about Dhut-Qarnain.'A .-. ,7;r"rs +e? s, ;-+i "krn") .F ,ha or;ii ri; it l' .r. I A l - A ' r a a7 :1 5 7 f 2 An-Nisa4:153 a I A l - l s r a a7 : 8 5 . l t Al-Kahf I 8:83.
  • Islaom: Its Foundations And Concepts t4l "Verily, this Qur'6n narrates to the Children of lsrael most of that in which they differ."' Reverend Abraham Philips, has had a failed attempt, in his doctoratethesis to underminethe Qur'aan.The Qur'aan rather overuvhelmed with its proofs,evidencesand signs. The man him proclaimedhis own weakness,surrendered his Creator and to embracedlslaam.' When one of the Muslims presenteda translatedcopy of the meaningof the Noble Qur'aanas a gift to the Americandoctor, Jeffrey Lang, he found that this Qur'aan was addressinghim, answering questions his and removing barrierbetweenhim and the His own soul. He said,"lt seemsthat^HeWho revealed Qur'aan the knowsme morethan I knowmvself."" Yes, the One Who revealed Qur'aanis the Creatorof man, and the He may He be Glorified. says, He is Allaah, . - , .?a r ,1,. t .'.. -. t.,.. <a { ,:i.r;+t. ;.l-Ul,tJ &r J" d4 )l } "Shouldnot He Who has createdknow? And He is the Most Kind and Courteous(to Hiss/aves)Alt-Aware(of everything).'A So, the man's readingof the translation the meaning of the of NobleQur'aanled him to lslaamand to the writingof his bookfrom whichI am quoting. I An-Naml27:76. fil-'aalamil 'arabeewal ' See: Al-Mustashriqoonwal-rnubashshiroon Islaamee, IbrahimKhalil Ahmad. 3 "struggle in the Cause Faith",by Dr. Jeflley Lang; Arabic translation of b y M u n d h i rA l - ' A b s e ep 3 4 . " A l - M u l k6 7 : 1 4 .
  • 142 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts The Qur'aanis comprehensive all that man needs.lt contains to all fundamentals of faith, legislations, human interactions and manners.Allaahsays, L 4.',Jrot r;<i c ufi C Y "We have negtectednothingin the Book."l In the Qur'aan, thereis call to beliefin the Oneness Allaah, of and mention His Names, of Attributes deeds.lt callsto belief the and in authenticity what the Prophets and Messengersbrought. lt of affirms the Resurrection, reward and reckoningand establishes evidences and proofs for that. lt narrates the stories of past nations, the punishment metedout to them in this world as well as the torment and exemplarypunishment that awaits them in the Hereafter. It also containsmany proofs and signs that dazzle the scientists and that is suitablefor all generationsand ages; and in which many scholarsand researchers find what they look for. I will give only threeexamples that revealsome of thesefacts. 1. Hissaying, Ls{t r^i Q > t ..)s t/ "7 ,) > ) - ,4 :.' ,!)')t> ' t' @)J "And it is He Who has let free the seasi one palatable and sweet and the other salty and bitter; and He has sef a barrier and a completepartitionbetwee them."1 n ' Al-An'aam:38. 6
  • Islaam: Its FoundutionsAnd Concepts 143 He alsosaYs, . ' tt ( - u,. - t.. t ..i .,',' '; Jr *lr.b {s -ep J L, -**- : o: ir ;'t4 I f d -s;1Lf rr } - '.?' '-',' t:" " " .1 .t t ti ta1 t"'^ -'t 6 tii '"J 'ht j'e ) vj t+,r ,5" -/i '04 e)-t D)oe4 oP "ur^'. " "' "-: t d':),;.u,li ,-t v. /J "or (the stateof a disbeliever) like the darkness a vast deep is in sea, ovenrvhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by dark clouds,(layersof) darknessupon darkness: a man stretches if out his hand,ie can hardlysee it! And he for whom Alldh has not '' appointed light,for him thereis no ligh. It is well-knownthat Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, nevertravelled sea on a sea neither by was therein his time the materialinstrumentsthat could have helped to discoverthe deoths of the sea. who else could have providedMuhammad, blessings and peacebe upon him,with this data if not Allaah? 2. AllaahsaYs, t -.i t' z4 .' ,.t '.i.. ti '.!', , r' "'i tj-il; rlr "" ) .= *s- /l C'"*f"'^-L; i; * r: .J- irr Jr-')l 6';K 6b''{A-Ii uAt'{A ';tii uAt t ",rrli vL:.t'^1k "And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water andearlh). Thereafterwe made him (the offspringof Adam) 'as a Nutfah(mixeddrops of the male and female sexualdischarge I Al-Furqaan5:53. 2 r A n - N o o r2 4 : 4 0 .
  • 144 Islaam: Its Foundotions And Concepts and lodged it) in a safe lodging (womb of the woman). Then We made the Nutfah into a crot (a piece of thick coagutated btood), then we made the clot into a titile tump of flesh,the-nwe made out of that little lump of ftesh bones,then we ctothed the boneswith flesh,and then we broughtit lorth as anothercreation.So g/essed is Allah, the Bestof creators.',1 The scientistsdid not discover these subile details about the stagesof embryonicdevelopment untilrecenflv. 3. Allaahalsosays, ' < t'i ;4tt. . 4/t J t'.0 .'ii 1 u )L-: * jt ii"q 't ir-, ,1",o,o y -i:1 ,t.t "Jir 1 t . . 'ui ..1' r. ri- r.-.i. .9 :l,.r:q iJ >-bi U,_;l)l . jt. t c-:.lL C t"- r (-iJ,'.2 *js u t t . :.s . --- ! 'z t '-'' cn:'!-'"r,) "And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (ail that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whateverthere is in t'he tand and in the sea;not a reaf farts, he knows it. Thereis nota grain but in the darknessof fhe eafth nor anything freshor dry, but is iritten in a Ctear Record.'2 Mankinddid not have this all-encompassing knowledge and hao neverthought aboutthesethingstet aloneh-aving loitity to oo tne it. lf a groupof scientists observea plantor insectand they record their findingsand discoveries we all become dazzledwith that, though we know that what is hiddenfrom these scientists thrs in plantor insectis morethan what they observein it. The French schorarMaurice Bucairehas maoe a comparison betweenTorah,the Gospeland the eur'aanand betweenmodern ' A l - M u ' m i no n 2 3 : 1 2 - 1 4 o 2A l - A n ' a a m 6:59.
  • Isloam: Its Foundations And Concepts 145 scientrfic discoveries concerning the creationof the heavens,the earthand man and foundout that these moderndiscoveries agree with what is in the Qur'aan. the otherhand,he foundout that On the Torah and the Gospel that are in circulation today contain many erroneous information aboutthe creation the heavens, of the e a r t h m a n a n da n i m a l s . ' , B. The PropheticSunnah: Allaahrevealed Qur'aanto the Messenger the and revealed him to like thereof which is the Propheticsunnah that explainsthe Qur'aan.The Messenger Allaah,blessings of and peace be upon "2 him, said, "lndeed,t im given the Qu/aai and iis like with it Allaah has permittedhim to explain the general and particular versesof the Qur'aan. AllaahsaYs, ,2:.'- ,'r'i.. -ir'14 r' ttn "'t-r'z' t,ti',ii . / x .!, 3-::f';c'- $ t e) oJ u .f*- +3- -+/t ':-Ul iulltj. . i t) i', "And We have also sentdown unto you (O Muhammad(peace be upon him)) the Dhikr (reminder and the advice (i.e' the Qu/6n)) thatyou iay exptaincleartyto men what rs sent down to them, and that theymay give thought.'' The sunnah is the second source of the religionof lslaam. lt means all that is reportedfrom the Prophet,blessingsand peace be upon him, - with well-connected and authenticchain of transmitters of his sayings,deeds,confirmations qualities- - and lt is also a revelation from Allaah to His Messenger Muhammad, blessings and peacebe upon him, for the Prophet, blessingsand peacebe uponhim,did not speakof his own desire' Allaahsays' I See: "The Torah, the Bible and the Qur'aanin the light of modern " B 3 revert. s c i e n c eb y M a u r i c e u c a i l ep . 1 3 3 - 2 8 . He was a Christian r Ahmad and Aboo Dawood. t A n - N a h ll 6 : 4 4 .
  • 146 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 'Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. tt is onty a Reveration revealed.He has been taught (this eufan) by one mighty in power (Jibril (Gabriel))"1 The Prophet,blessingsand peace be upon him, only conveysto peoplewhathe is commanded convey. to Allaahsaysabouthim, { ,.,) }-* 1l t:ic't 'X1 tt il Ei ol I i+r b;. "l only follow that which is revealed to me, and I am but a plarn warner.'n The pure sunnah is the practicalimprementation the rules, of beliefs,acts of worship, kinds of relationship and manners that lslaamenjoins.The Messenger Ailaah,bressings of and peace be upon him, exemplified what he was commanded, explained to the it people and commanded them to do like he did. He says, for instance,"Prayas you see me praying."3 The All-MightyAllaah has commandedthe believersto emulate him in all his deedsand sayingsin orderthat theirfaith mightbe complete. says, He . 2 1 . . . . s ; 1. . . i 1 . . 1 . 1 , , - . . . r - . .i,!- .:..i i: , . _ i , . - . . i j; ), -t )r ltr3 a)t tf J Jb JJ- 4:* 6j;l *l )-, J p ,16- ; . /€ ,Z- ;i | t^:) ./", 4lJt ' An-Najm 53:3-5. - Al-Ahqaaf 46:9. 'Al-Bukhaaree.
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Conc "tndeed in the Messengerof Allah (Muhammad(peace be upon him)) you have a good exampte to fottow for him who hopes for (the Meeting with) Atlahand the Last Day, and remembersAllah much."t The Proohet'snoble companions transmittedhis sayings and deeds to those who came after them, and these also transmitted them to those who came after them. lt was then recordedin the books of sunnah. The sunnah transmitters had been strict with those from whom they transmitted and would make a condition it that they be contemporaries those from whom they themselves of reoortedthat Sunnah,till the chain of transmission would be connected right from the narrator to the Messengerof Allaah, blessings and peacebe upon him.2 They also made it a condition that all-the men involvedin the transmissionmust be trustworthy, just,sincere and people integrity. of The sunnah,as it is regarded the practical as implementation of lslaam.it also explains makescomments it, and the Qur'aan, on explainsversesthat have generalmeaningsThe Messenger of Allaah,blessings and peace be upon him, used to do all this, sometimes with his words, sometimes with his deeds and sometimeswith both. The Sunnah may' in some cases, glve independent of that are explanations some rules and legislations not in the Qur'aan. one must havebeliefin the Qur'aan and Sunnahthat they are the primarysources the religion of of lslaamthat mustbe followed and iurnedto. The command of bothmustbe obeyed, theirprohibitions must be abstained from and theircontents must be believedone must also believein what both containof the Names, Attributes ' Al-Ahzaab3:21 3 . 2 As a result of this unique acade*ic 'rethodologyand accuracyand p r e c i s i o nn t r a n s m i t t i ntg e S u n n a ha s c i e n c e a s i n t r o'dlu c e a m o n gt h e i h , w d ' i l m u l - j a r h a t - t a ' d e ea 'n d i m m u s t a l a h u l - w l M u s l i r n s t h a t a r e k n o w na s . h a d e e t h 'T h e t w o s c i e n c e s r e a m o n g t h e e x c l u s i v eq u a l i t i e so f t h e . a M u s l i r n sw h i c h n o n ep o s s e s s e d f o r e h e n l . be t
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And C, and Works of Allaah; what He has providedfor His believinq friends and that with which He threatenedHis disbelievini enemies. savs. He al- 'l ci:4 f' '-&r* 4ti >s y -a,.- .: ..+. r/,-ii'i't- L-ir-J " t)o.J-JJrJ.z,at 'g1't:ta t .:. l.a V7 "But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith,until they make you (o Muhammad(peacebe upon him))iudge in att dispu{es between them, and find in themselvesno resistanceagainstyour decisions, and accept(them)with full submission."l He alsosays, '6+ yrLr.s-t 4irprv';L J;-|i $l[ c5 y "And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad (peace be upon h.tm))gives you, take it; and whatsoeverhe farb'idsyou, abstain (from it).'" Aftergivingan introduction aboutthe sources this religion, rs of it appropriate us to discussabout its degreeswhich are: lslaam, for Eemaanand lhsaan.we are also going to talk on the pillarsof thesedegreesin brief. ' An-Nisaa :65.4 2 A l - H a s h5 9 : 7 . r
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts t49 The First Degreel that there is no deity lslaam:lts pillarsare five,they are: Testifying worthy of worshipbut Allaah and that Muhammad,blessings and peacebe upon him, is His Messenger; performing prayer,paying Zakaah, fastingtn the monthof Ramadaan and Pilgrimage. One: Testifyingthat there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, is His Messenger. The first part of the testrmony meansthat,there is no rightful deity in the earthor in the heavens beside Him alone.He is the onlytrue God and all deities besides Him are false ones.' lt also means, purifyingall acts of worship for Allaah alone and keepingthem away from othersbesideHim. The uttererof this statement cannot benefit from it untilhe has two things: and lovefor it. conviction 1. To say it out of belief,knowledge, 2. To disbelieve all that is worshipped in besides Whoever Allaah. says this statement and does not disbetieve in all that is worshippedbesides Allaah, him ' thisstatement not benefit will ' "Al-Usooluth-Thalaathah", For more detailssee, "Kitaabut-Tawheed", "Aadaabul-mashyi ilas-Salaah"by Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdul- Wahhab. See also: "Deenul-Haqq" Abdur-Rahmaan by Al-Umar; "Maalaabudda 'Alee al-Arfaj; "Arkaanul min ma'rifatihianil lslaam" by Muhammadbin lslaam"by AbdullahAl-Jaarallaah; "SharharkaanilIslaamwal Eemaan" by a groupof students reviewed ShaykhAbdullaah and by Al-Jibreen. 2 D e e n u l - H a qp . 3 8 . q - Q u r r a t u ' u y o o n u l u w a h h i d e e n ,. 6 0 . m p
  • 150 Islaam: Its Foundations Ancl Concepts Testifying that Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, is the Messengerof Allaah means, to follow him in all that he commands, believein all that he informs,to abstainfrom all that to he prohibitsand warns against and to worship Allaah with only what he legislates. one must also know and bear it in mind that Muhammad,blessingsand peace be upon him, is Allaah's Messenger all people,that he is only a slave of Allaah and to should thereforenot be worshipped,but rather be obeyed and followed,that whoever follows him enters paradiseand whoever disobeyshim entersFire. one must also know and bear it in mind that, lslaamicinjunctions mattersof belief,acts of worshipwhich in are commanded Allaah,systemof law and mattersof leqislation by and moralsin area of building family,or in area of alldwing a or forbiddingthings cannot be receivedexcept through this noble Prophet, blessingsand peace be upon him, for he is the Messenger Allaah, of who conveys Law to mankind.l His Two: Prayer.2 Prayer the secondpillarof lslaam. is rather pillar lslaam, rs lt the of for it is the link betweenman and his Lord.He repeatsit five times in a day with which he renewshis faith,purifieshimselffrom stains of sins and which stands betweenhim and obscenethings and sins.When he wakesup from sleepin the morning, appears he in front of his Lord pure and clean before he starts engaging in mattersof this world. He magnifieshis Lord, affirmsHis absolure rightto be worshipped prostrating, by standingand bowingfor Him five timeseach day. Before he starts performing this prayer,he must purifyhis heart, body, clothesand place of his prayer.The Muslim must perform this prayer - congregationally his fellowMuslims if that is easy with for him - whilethey all face their Lordwith their heartsand face the honoured Ka'abah, Houseof Allaah the withtheirfaces.praverhas ' F o r r n o r ed e t a i l s , e a d , " K a y f i y y a t u lS a l a a t i n - N a b i y y "y S h a y k hb i n r b Baaz. 2 Deenul-Haqq5l-52. p.
  • Islaam: Its FoundotionsAnd Concepts l5l been prescribed the best form in which the CreatorrequiresHis in creationto worship Him; for it contains His glorification with all parts of the body; from word of the tongue,deeds of the hands, legs,head,sensesand all otherpartsof his body,each parttaking his shareof this greatact of worship. The sensesand limbs take their portionfrom it and the heartalso takes its share. Prayercomprisesof exaltation Allaah,praising of Him, glorifyingHim, extollingHim. lt also containsgiving the testimony the truth,recitatton the Qur'aan,standingin front of of of the Lord Who controlshim, then humiliating oneselffor Him in this positionby beggingHim with devotion and seekingHis nearness. He then goes to bowingposition, prostration then sits down,all and in submission,humility and showing helplessnessfor His greatnessand His Might.The heartof this slave becomesbroken, his body becomes humble and all his limbs surrenderswith humility to his Lord. He then concludeshis prayer with giving thanks to Allaah and praisingHim, and invokingpeace and blessings His Prophet,Muhammad, on blessings and peace be upon him, and finallyasks his Lord of the good thingsof this world and the Hereafter.' Three: Zakaahz Zakaah - obligatorycharity - is the third pillar of lslaam. lt is compulsory the rich Muslimsto pay Zakaahfrom his wealth.lt is on a very littlepart of his wealththat he gives to the poor and needy and othersamongthosewho are entitled it. to Muslimsmust pay Zakaahto its due recipients willingly'He should neitherremindthe recipient that nor harm him in whateverway of on accountof it. He must pay it seekingfor the pleasureof Allaah; not desiring by that any recompenseor thanks from men' He ' For more, read "Risaalalaanifiz-zakaatiwas-siyaam" by Shaykh lbn Baz. 2 2:384. Miftaahdaaras-sa'aadah
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd shouldratherpay it for the sakeof Allaahnot for showing or for off any fame. Paying Zakaah brings blessingsand gladdensthe hearts of the poor, the destituteand the needy.lt preventsthem from begging and it is a compassion them and protection on againstnegligence and povertythat could have afflictedthem if they are left by the wealthy.Paying Zakaahwhen it is due is a qualityof generosity, magnanimity, altruism, philanthropy and compassion.lt also means freeing one self from traits of stingy, avaricious and valueless people. lt is by Zakaah that Muslims support one another,that the wealthyshows mercy on the poor, so that there will not remain in the community - if this rite is properly - implemented a poor destitute,a subdueddebtor or a traveller who has no moreprovisions him. with Four: Fasting It is to fast in the monthof Ramadaan from the dawnto the sunser. The fastingMuslimabandons food, drink,sexualintercourseand similarthingsas an act of worshipfor Allaahand curbs his own soul from fulfillingits desires.Allaah has relievedthe sick, the traveller, pregnant the woman,the nursingmotherand a woman who hasjust delivered babyfromfasting. ordained eachof a He for them rulesthatsuithim or her. In thismonth, Muslimcurbshis own selffrom his desires a and thrs act of worship will bringhis soul out of the animal-like worldto the worldsimilar that of angelswho are nearto Allaah. to The situation of a fastingMuslimmay reacha stagethat he thinkslikesomeone who has no need in thisworldmorethanto achieve oleasure the of Allaah. Fasting enlivens the heart, makes one renounce the world, encourages one to seek what is with Allaah,and remindsthe wealthyof the poor ones and theirconditions that their heans so may have sympathy them and know that they are livingin the for favour Allaahand therefore of shouldincrease qratitude him. in to
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 153 Fasting purifiesthe soul and creates in it the fear of Allaah. lt makes individuals and the socretyfeel the control of Allaah on them in bliss and hardship and in publicand secret;where the societyspends a whole month observingthis act of worship and being conscious its Lord; while being spurredby the fear of of Allaah,the Exalted,by a belief that Allaah knows what is hidden and secret,thatman willinevitably standbeforeHima day in which He willask him aboutall his deeds:minorand major.' Five: Hajj2 Pilgrimage the Houseof Allaahin Makkahis obligatory every to on Muslim who is adult, sane and capable;who possessesor can afford to hire means of transportationto Makkah and also possesseswhat is sufficientfor him to live on throughouthis journeywith a condition that his provisionshould be an excess of the provision thosewho are his dependants. shouldalso be of He sure that the road is safe and must ensure security of his dependantswhile he is away. Hajj is compulsoryonce in the lifetimefor whoeveris able to performit. Onewho intends do Hajjshould to repent Allaahin orderthat his to soul can be free from filth of sins. When he reachesMakkahand otherholy sites,he carriesout the ritesof hajj as an act of worship and glorification Allaah. mustknowthat the Ka'abah well for He as as other sites should not be worshipped besideAllaah,for they neitherbenefit nor harm.He shouldalso know that had Allaahnot commanded Muslims embarkon pilgrimage that House,it the to to wouldnot havebeenproper any Muslim do that. for to In pilgrimage, pilgrim the wearstwo white garments. The Muslims gather from all parts of the world at one place, wearing one garmentand worshipping betweenthe One God;with no difference ' See"Miftaahdaaras-sa'aadah" p. 384. 2, 2 d e t a i l e d e a d i n gs e e :" D a l e e l u l - H a jw a l m u ' t a m i r "b y a g r o u p o f r j For s c h o l a r a n d " E x p l a n a t i o ni s m a n y i s s u e s e r l a i n i n go l l a j j a n d U m r a h " s n p t by Shaykhbn Baz. l
  • 154 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts leaderand the led; the rich and the poor;the white and the black. All are creaturesof Allaah and his slaves.There is no superiority for a MuslimoveranotherMuslim exceptby pietyand gooddeeds. By Hajj,Muslims achieve cooperation mutualrecognition, and they remember the Day that Allaahwill raiseall of them up ad gather them at a singleplacefor reckoning, they therebypreparefor what is afterdeaththroughacts of obedience Allaah. to Worship in lslaam:1 It is to worshipAllaahin meaning and reality. Allaahis the Creator and you are the creature; you are the slaveand He is the One that you worship.lf that is the case, man must then followthe Straight Path of Allaah in this life and follow His Law and the Path of his Messengers. Allaah has ordainedgreat laws for His slaves like belief in His Oneness, performing prayers, paying Zakaah, observing fastingand performing Hajj. However, the above mentioned are not the only acts of worshipin lslaam.Worshipin lslaam is more comprehensive. is all that lt Allaahlovesand is pleased withof deedsand sayings, apparent or hidden.So, every work or sayingthat you do or say that Allaah loves and He is pleasedwith is worship.Even, every good habit that you do with an intention please to Allaahis worship. Yourgood relationshipwith your father, family, spouse, children and neighbours you seek by that the pleasure Allaahis worship. if of Your good conduct home,in the marketand office, at done for the sakeof Allaahis worship Fulfilling trust,beingtruthful the and just, abstention from harmingothers,giving assistance the weak, to earning from lawful means, spendingfor family and children, consoling poor,visiting sick,feeding hungryand aiding the the the the wrongedare all acts of worshipif done for the sake of Allaah. So, all deedsthat you do eitherfor yourself, familyor the society or your countryin whichyou intendto win the pleasure Allaahare of actsof worshio. ' S e e" A l - u b o o d i y y a hb y S h a y k h uIl s l a a r nb n l ' a y r n i y y a h " I
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 155 Evento fulfilyour personal passionin a lawfulway is worshipif you do that with a good intention. The Messenger Allaah,blessings of and peacebe upon him, said,"Evenif anyoneof you satiates his sexualdesires, that is an act of charity." The companions said, "O Messenger Allaah!Would any of us of satiatehis own lust and stillget a reward?" He answered, "Tell me if he had done that in an unlaMulway would not he have sinned?Likewise, he does it in a lawfulway, if he wouldget a reward."' The Prophet, blessingsand peacebe upon him, also said,"Every Muslimmustpay charity.' "How if he doesnot findwhatto paycharity He was asked, with?" He said,"He works with his two handsbenefitshimselfby that and then pay charity." "Buthow if he is not able?" He was askedagain, He said,"He shouldassist needywho is wronged." the "Buthow if he is not able?" He was againasked, He answered, enjoins thatis good." "He all And he was asked once more, "But how, if he is not able to do that?" He answered, "He refrains from doingevil,for that also is for him, an act of charity."l ' Muslim
  • 156 Islaam: Its Foundations Ancl Concepts The Second Degree2 Faithand its six pillars: Beliefin Allaah, angels, His His Books,His Messengers, beliefin the Last Day and beliefin pre-decree. First: Beliefin Allaah. You must believein His Lordship; that He is the Lord,the Creator, the Possessorand the Controllerof all things. you must also believe in His right to be worshipped, that He is the only True Deity,that all deitiesbesides Him are false. You must believein His Names and Attributes,that He has Beautiful Names and perfectSublimeAttributes. You must also believein His Onenessin all that.you must believe that He has no partnerin His Lordship, nor in His right to be worshipped in His Namesand Attributes. says, or He 'J t,ir'1-l-ti' t1'.'/ /a. '4 ;)'i -nJ4.t . i ' i tb-ctt .-',' t"i+.l Uj . - 1 . ; ' i - e.j^-Nl o-r-^pLi ,-.<ti ta et".s ;jlj t' 1 ..-! I - .:, ** "Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, so worship Him (Alone) and be constant and patient in His worship. Do you know of any who is similar to Him? (of course none is similar or co-equal or comparable to Him, and He has none as ' Bukhaaree Muslim. and t For more, read,"Sharhusool al-eeman" Ibn 'Uthaymeen; by "Kitaabul eernaan" Ibn Taymiyyah;"Aqeedatul by ahlissunnah waljamaa'ah,' Ibn by 'Uthayrneen.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 157 pariner with Him). (Thgre is nothing like unto Him and He is the AII- Hearer,the Att-Seer)."1 You must also believethat neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him; that He knowsall that is hiddenand evident;and that to him belongsthe sovereignty the heavens of and the earth.He says, CS) f!'1i,./t'li.ri'lt +,:"tLC*; lt +l* {t yrt o tii + :;: ,'*J.;K .-1, y-; / - "And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea:not a teaf falls,but he knows it. Thereis not a grain in the darknessof the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Ctear Record.'2 You must also believethat He - may He be exalted- rose high over His Throne above His creation,and that He is with them by His knowledgeand He knows their conditions,hears their utterances, sees their placesand controlstheiraffairs.He provides for the poor, gives rellefto the dejected,gives authorityto whom He wills,withdraws from whom He wills and that He is Able to do it a l lt h i n g s . " Amongthe benefits beliefin Allaahare the following: of 1. lt lets man love Allaahand glorifyHim and as such carry out His commandments and abstainfrom all that He forbids.lf man I M a r y a ml 9 : 6 5 . 2 Al-An'aam :59. 6 3 ' A q e e d a t ua h l i s s u n n a ha l j a m a a ' a" p . 7 ' I I l w h S e e :"
  • 158 Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts does that, he attains perfect happinessin this world and the Hereafter. 2. Beliefin Allaahcreatesin the mind self-esteem and dignity, for through it, man will know that it is only Allaah who is the True Possessor all that is in this universe, of that thereis no bringer of harmor benefit exceptHim.This knowledge makeshim dispenses of all that is besidesAllaahand removesfrom his heartthe fear of others besidesAllaah and he will not hope exceptfor Allaah and willnot fearexceptHim alone. 3. Beliefin Allaahcreateshumbleness the heart;for man will in know that whateverfavourhe has is from Allaah.Satanwill not be able to deceivehim, nor will he becomeoverbearingand arrogant or boastwith his poweror wealth. 4. The believerin Allaahwill have certainknowledge that there is no way to successand salvation exceptthroughgood deeds that pleaseAllah. Some people,howeverhave false beliefthat Allaah commanded that His son be crucified an atonement the sins as for of mankind; some have a beliefin false deitiesbelieving that these will do for them what they want while actuallythey can neither benefitnor harm; while some are atheists, who do not believein the existenceof Creatorat all. All these beliefsare mere wishful thoughts; whenthosewho holdthesebeliefs for meetAllaahon the Day of Resurrection and they see the reality, they will realisethat they have been in clearerror. 5. Belief in Allaah createsin man great power of determination, courage,perseverance, steadfastness trust in Allaahwhen he and strugglesin lofty mattersin this world to achievethe pleasureof Allaah.He will be on perfectcertaintythat he is puttinghis trust in the Possessor the heavensand the earth and that He will help of him and guide him. He will then be firm like mountains his in steadfastness in histrustin Allaah.l oatience. and ' S e e :' A q e e d a t u l h l i s s u n n aw a l j a m a a ' a hp . 4 4 a n dM a b a d i u I s l a a m . a h l p 8 0 .8 4 .
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 159 Two: Beliefin the angels: A Muslimmust believe the angels, in that,it is AllaahWho created them and describes themas, i 3&- -:ru, )ii'n+r5.'i g -al *"'A y' et lr et ;e'i 4 1 i;ia.'ti "ri* L;'r,r*i,;; , ., {:'!i e+ij' 'They (whom they call children of All6h i.e. the angels, 'lesa (Jesus/ son of Maryam (Mary), 'Uzair (Ezra)) are but honored s/aves. They speak not until He has spoken,and they act on His Command. He knows what is before them, and what is behind them, and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they standin awe for fear of Him."I description the Angels, In another of Allaahsays, { .:i 'They (i.e. the angels) are not too proud to worship Him, nor are they weary @f His worship).They (i.e. the angels) glorify His Pralsesnight and day, (and) they never slacken(to do so).'' Allaahconcealsthem from our eyes,so that we do not see them. But Allaah sometimesshows some of them to some of His Prophetsand Messengers. ' Al-Anbiyaa l:26-28 2 t Al-Anbiyaal:19-20 2
  • 160 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Angels have functionsassignedto them. Jibreel is assigned to Revelations which he bringsfrom Allaahto whosoeverHe wishes of His Messengers. Among them is also an angel assignedto takingthe souls,amongthem are thoseassigned the foetusesin to the wombs, among them are those assignedto the protection of mankindand among them are those assigned recording their to of deeds. Every person has two angels "one sittingon the right and one on the left (to note his or her actions)not a word does he (or she) utter but there is a watcher by him (or her) ready (to record it)"' Benefits of belief in angels 1. lt purifies beliefof the Muslim the from stains polytheism, of for when a Muslim believesin the existenceof angels whom Allaah assignswith thesegreatfunctions, will be free from beliefin the he existenceof imaginarycreaturesthat some people claim have a sharein the runningof the affairsof the universe. 2. lt lets the Muslimsknow that, the angelsneitherbenefitnor harm, but that they are honouredslaves,who disobeynot Allaah when He commands them but rather do what they are commanded.He will not worship them, nor direct his affairs to themor depend them. on Three:Beliefin the Books To believe that Allaah revealed Books to his Prophets and Messengers, orderto explainthe truthand call to it. Allaahsays, in 'u6i ,,:' :- , - Li i , . . , ' , . 1 - ( - ' - i , . , - i*::. !-tre,lii -,Si )i; U J ! l t ( ' ' . -.'.J L J ur*J : L-l.a_lr IaJ f 4 L7ilL rQaaf50:17-18.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 16l "lndeed, We have sent Our Messengers with ctear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance (justice), that mankindmay keep up justice."' These Booksare many.Among them are the Scripture prophet of lbraaheem,the Torah of ProphetMoosaa,the psalms given to ProphetDavid and the Gospel which was broughtby prophet JesusChrist,rnaypeacebe upon all of them. Beliefin the PreviousBookslies in betievingthat it is AllaahWho revealed them to His Messengers and that they contained Law the that Allaahwantedto be conveyed peopleat that time. to All these Books,which Allaahinformsus about have all become extinct.The scripture Abrahamdoes no longerexist.As for the of Torah,the Gospeland the Psalms, even thoughthey do exist by name in the hands of Jews and Christians, they have become altered, interpolatedand adulteratedand many of their original contentsare missing.That which are not part of them have been includedin them, and they are attributed thosewho are not their to authors. The Old Testamentfor instance,has more than forty books,and only five of them were attributed Moses.As for the to existinggospelsof today, nothingof them is attributed Jesus. to The last Book revealed by Allaah is the Qur'aan which was revealedto ProphetMuhammad, blessingsand peace be upon him. lt has always been and still is protectedand preservedby Allaah. No change or alterationhas crept into any of its letters, words,vowelsor meaninqs. The Qur'aanis different from all previousBooksin manyways: 1. The past Books have been lost; changes and interpolations have crept into them, they have been attributed those who are to not their rightfulowners;many commentaries and exegesishave been addedto them and they containmany thingsthat contradict DivineRevelation, reasonand nature. for the eur'aan it rs the As I A l - H a d e e5 7 : 2 5 . d
  • 162 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts still being protected Allaah,with its lettersand words in which by Allaahrevealed themto Muhammad. Neither nor alteration addition has crept into it; for Muslimshave been eagerto let the Qur'aan remainfree from all defects.They do not mix it with anythingfrom the Prophet'slife history,or the historyof his companions or commentaries the Qur'aan of or rulespertaining acts of worship to and humanrelations. 2. Today, there is no known historical authorityfor the ancient books. Even, nothingwas known about those on whom some of them were revealedor in which languagethey were revealed. Some of them are even attributedto others beside those who actually brought them. As for the Qur'aan, Muslimshavetransmitted from Muhammad, it blessingsand peace be upon him, in a successivemanner, verballyand in writtenform. And at every age and country,there are thousands Muslims of who know this Book by heartas there are thousandsof its copiesas well. lf the oral copiesdo not agree with writtencopies,the divergent for copieswill not be recognised, what is in the memories of peopleshouldalwaysbe in agreement with what is in the writtencoPies. Aboveall, the Qur'aan was transmitted orallyin a way that nothing of the booksof thisworldhad enjoyed. Eventhis particular method of transmission cannotbe foundexceptamongMuslims alone.The methodology preserving Qur'aan of the goesthisway: The student learnsthe Qur'aan by heartat the handof his teacher; who had in turn learntit by heart at the hand of his own teacher.The teacher also gives the student a certificatecalled"ljaazah"in whtch the teachertestifiesthat he taughtthe studentwhat he himselflearnt from his own teachersone after another,each and everyoneof these teachers will name his teacher from whom he learnt the Qur'aan in successiontill the chain reaches the Messengerof Allaah himself.This is how the chain of teachersgo in oral succession it reachesthe Messenger Allaah,blessings till of and peacebe uponhim.
  • Isluam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 163 There exist many strong evidencesand historicalproofs - with - connectedchains of transmitters on the knowledgeof every soorah and every verse of the Qur'aan as regardswhere it was revealedand when it was revealed Muhammad. to 3. The languages in which past Books were revealed had becomeextinctsincea long time. No one in this age speaksthe languages and very few peoplecan now understand them.As for the languagein which the Qur'aanwas revealed, is a living it language spokentoday by tens of millions people.lt is taught of and studiedin every countryof the world. Even the one who does not study it will find everywherethose who can teach him the meaning the Qur'aan. of 4. Each of the previousBooks was meant for a particular time and sent to a particularnation;that was why it containedrulesthat were peculiarto that nationand that time. Whateverbook that has thesecharacteristicsnot suitable all mankind. is for As for the Great Qur'aan, is a Book meantfor all times and all it places lt comprises ordainments, of ruleson how humansshould relate with one anotherand manners that are suitablefor every age,for it is addressed mankind general. to in In view of the above, it becomesclear that it is not possiblethat Allaah'sproofagainsthumanity shouldbe in bookswhoseoriginal copiesno longer existand whoselanguages one in the worldof no today speaks,after they have been altered.Allaah'sproof against His creation shouldbe in a Book,protected and safefrom addition, defector alterationlts copiesshouldbe spreadin every placeand writtenwitha livinglanguage that is readby millions people, of who can conveythe Message Allaahto all mankind. of This Bookis the MagnificentQur'aan which Allaah revealed to Muhammad, blessings and peacebe upon him, and that is the witnessover all the previous Books and it confirms them - before they were interpolated. is the Bookthat all mankindmust follow,so that, it lt can be for them,light, healing, guidance and niercy.Allaahsays,
  • 164 Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 4,'*r.r#l "5:,1pii$u 3t;J "tsi:-.s ri;; F "And this ls a b/essed Book (the Qufan) which We have sent down, so follow it and fear All6h (i.e. do not disobey His Orders), that you may receive mercy (i.e. be saved from the torment of Hell)."' He alsosays, '- t to ' .ir 7 , 7t t t . it , ,'r7 ,'li: .i {" l.'r1F;4) *t Js-j ul __-rL.rt k-rt! J' } "Say (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) "^Omankindl Verily, I am sentto you alt as the Messengerof Allah.'" Four: Belief in the Messengers To believethat Allaahsent Messengers His creationin order to to give them glad tidings of Paradiseif they believe in Allaah and believein the Messengers, and to warn them of punishment they if disobey.Allaahsays, -l- 4t;$i ]y-i, fii lrJl;i ui -", ;i y J,cr-;.':"Jt "And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship All6h (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from) TdgQ1t(all false deities, etc. i.e. do not worshipTAgh0tbesrdesNEh).'" I Al-An'aam :155. 6 2 p A l - A ' r a a f7 : 1 5 8 .F o r a l l t h e a b o v e s e e :A l - A q e e d a t u - s - s a h e e h a h , A q e e d a t u h l i s - s u n n a ha l j a m a a ' a h . 2 2 ; M a b a a d i uIls l a a mp . 8 9 . a w p r An-Nahl 6:36.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 165 He alsosays, -.t /.rl ,t4r7'-.t!'t J+ 4"* 9l ' ,Je .rU-, , . o-f". , .tf. q*: i1 ,. i. ,. U47* l:iy " J*_ll 'Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea againstNEh after the (comingof) Messengers."' These Messengers many.The first of them was Noah and the are last of them is Muhammad.There are many among them, those whom Allaah told us storiesabout like Abraham,Moses, Jesus, David, John, Zakariahand Saleh. There are also some about whomAllaahtellsus nothing. Allaahsays, fri {t " u 6 "r?:.-X, I l-:i & u -1)L "&;28 u y-:i y t:"=14J.; 4 :-y) "And Messengers We have mentioned ^to you before and MessengersWe have not mentionedto you.'" All these Messengers were humans created by Allaah. They possessed nothing of the qualitiesof Lordship or Godship. Therefore,no act of worshipshould be directedto them; for they could avail themselves any harm or benefit.Allaah says about of Prophet Noahthat he said. '1;i 'Js 4.", (t:. Jli 'li i-li j) ,i: ;ri bi,- ,.s E 3roi h )+ I An-Nisaa:165. 4 2 An-Nisaa :164. 4
  • 166 Islanm: Its Foundations And Concepts "And I do not say fo you that with me are the Ireasures of All.ah, northat I know the Ghaib (unseen),nor do I say I am an angel."' Allaah also commandedMuhammad,blessingsand peace be uponhim,to say, -i j)3 3ji7i;3i '&i7i 4,i k. 4-'3iL JJ? Ls).t l,r;f U I K 'l "Say (O Muhammad(peace be upon him)) don't tell you that with me are the treasuresof AIl6h, nor (that) | know the Unseen;nor I tellyou that I am an angel.'" And to say, 'ti 4i,i ;G c 7162 fr ;o.jr-J-.JU I Say (O Muhammad(peace be upon him)) "lpossess no power of benefitor huft to myselfexcepf as All6h wills'" The Prophetsare thereforehonouredslaves,whom Allaah chose and honouredwith the Message and describedas His slaves. Theirreligion lslaamand Allaah is any otherreligion will not accept besides Allaahsays, it. "Truty,the retigionwith Altdhis ls!6m.'a I H o o dI l : 3 l . 2 Al-An'aarn :50. 6 I Al-A'raaf :188. 7 4 Aal 'lmraan :19. 3
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 167 The basic messagesof the Prophetswere one but their Laws differ.Allaahsavs. {Aq"'ti;;"S, ct;; St Y "To each amongyou We have prescribed Law and a clear way."1 a The final of all these Laws is that of Muhammad.lt abrogatesall otherprevious laws.His Messageis the lastof all DivineMessages and he is the last of all Messengers.Whoever believes in a Prophetamong them should believein all of them and whoever deniesanyoneof them has deniedall of them;for all Prophets and Messengers to the beliefin Allaah,His angels,His Books,His call Messengers and the Last Day and becausetheir religionis one. So, he who disbelieves othershas disbelieved all of them; for in in everyone of them calledto beliefin all Prophetsand Messengers.t Allaahsays, 'r.ll' tt ,.ti .'t- -^5.-*t $L nv .),t - Ot*J' efto f 4 -4:3; ti 3;:t",'i 't -4:li -*5i "The Messenger (Muhammad (peace be upon him)) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers.Each one believesin All6h, His Angels, His Books,and Hls Messengers.They say, "We make no distinctionbetween one anotherof His Messeneers.'u He alsosays, I Al-Maaidah :48. 5 ' See, Al-Aqeedatus-saheehah p 17; Aqeedatu ah lus-sunnah waljarnaa'ah .25. p " Al-Baqarah :285. 2
  • 168 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 'orft -,tt -l:":i ,4,i i;'i A oi J_r:L.j: -l::, 4i l_r.. V 34'tt;i;ri$, oi itr-.; ',;a4 v ,;i oi ij*_i "4. + :l !y' (rn s-;5JJ.6iii)'u-sr';Ki *. ri,=: 'Verily, fhose who disbelieve in All6h and His Messengersand wish to make distinction between All6h and His Messengers (by believing in All6h and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, "We believe in some but reject others," and wish to adopt a way in befuveen. They are in truth disbelievers.And We have preparedfor the disbetievers humiliatinatorment."l a Five: Belief in the Last Day: Sincedeathis, inevitably, end of everybeingin thisworld,what the then is the fate of man after death?What is the end of the unjust people who escaped the punishmentin this world? Will they escape the consequence their injustices? of What about the righteouspeople who missed their share of the reward of this world,are theirrewardsgoingto be wasted? Indeed, mankind shallcontinue die, generation to aftergeneration, untilwhen AllaahgivesHis permission thisworldshould that come to an end and all creatures the face of the earthdie. Allaahwill on thereafterresurrect creatures a day that will be witnessedby all in all; a day in which Allaah will gather all former and later generations. will then call men to accountfor all their deeds He either good or bad which they had earned in the world. The believerswill be led to Paradise and the disbelieverswill be marchedto Fire. ' A n - N i s a4 : 1 5 0 - 1 5 1 . a
  • Islsam: Its Foundstions And Concepts 169 Paradiseis the abode of peace which He has preparedfor His believing friends.Thereare in it all kindsof blisswhichno one can describe. lt has degrees and every degree will have dwellers according the degreeof theirbeliefin Allaahand theirobedience to to Him. The lowestin degree of the dwellersof Paradisein bliss will be equal to tenfoldof the Kingdomof one of the kings of this world. Hell is the abodeof punishment whichAllaahhas prepared him for who disbelieves Him. lt has all kinds of tormentwhose mere in mention is terrifying. Allaah will allow anyone to die in the lf Hereafter dwellers the Firewill certainly at mere sightof the of die it. Allaahknows- by His Pre-Knowledge what every man will do or - say of good or evil, secretly publicly. assignedto every man or He two angels:one recordshis good deedsand the other his evil ones and nothingescapes them.Allaahsays, ( r:l)j.* (*.: i.-t I )i o, L4- Cy "Not a word does he (or she) utter, but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it)."1 All his deedswill be recorded a bookthatwill be oivento man on in the Day of Resurrection.Allaahsays, ,r i:.. .,. .--?' .'i1 -:: ,.2i1 . ,, l-i:-a JL U)1L- 63J9at * t^: U-'h4-- W.7*ll LiF.l"r5Jl ge:i I '" , , L ^,-. 4 1 | . . ,. i. a- . e tt.V iJr.g t- lyqjj yl 6J4r' ja,jte j;tv . . r ,y r:41 t , j k:.e-l . t .,=,_r/,. i i 1!. t 111 q ,r_l r..p | -44) .rJJ,-! ' Q a a f5 0 :l 8
  • 170 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts "And the Book (one's Record) will be placed (in the right hand for a believer in the Oneness of All6h, and in the left hand for a disbeliever in the Oneness of All6h), and you will see the Mujrimln (criminals, polytheists, sinners), fearful of that which is (recorded) therein. They will say: "Woe to us! What sort of Book is this that leaves neithera smallthing nor a big thing,but has recordedit with numbers!" And they will find all that they Qid,placed before them, and your Lord treatsno one with injustice."' The man will then read his record and will not deny anything thereinand whosoeverdenies anythingof his deeds, Allaah will give power of speechto his ears, eyes, hands,legs and skin, so thattheycouldcontradicthim.Allaahsays, - -':ra1 '1'.4' ,& &+lt ;irt t,;l-.,ii;Jti t1J! )^J ,.;,*'"Jt',-tbti 'e'1r Cerp.jsiy ni#"# +.- oi'o;#'* c't:;poi-; lp i, J:ti'6.ilb tt 4t:toitrt:.- w tlii6i'bi ril g#:j+'t3-€'tri 'And they will say to their skins, "Why do you testify against us?" They will say: "Alldh has caused us fo speak - He causes all things to speak: and He created you the first time, and to Him you are made to return. And you have not been hiding yourselves (in the world), lestyour ears, and your eyes,and your skinsshould testify againstyou; but you thought that Alldh knew not much of what you were doing.'" Beliefin the Last Dayt - Day of Resurrection was preached all - by Messengers Prophets. and Allaahsays, ' A l - K a h fl 8 : 4 9 . 2 Fussilat4l:21-22. 'i - l-or moreevidences aboutresurrection, pages see 84-90ofthis book.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts tll '-,-.i7 -';,.,,"(- JlJl .rzJ LaFl " (.5Jl "AndamongHrs Srgns(in this),that you seethe eafth barren;but when We senddownwater(rain)to it,it ls sffred to life and growth (of vegetations)Verily,He Whogivesit life, surely,is Able to give life to the dead(on the Day of Resurrection). lndeedHe is Able to do allthings."l He alsosays, r',. '- z - i 1^ - , . . : i:- -!.i.. . . f i'airl i - q . ir . .. .i.' Jt y+ W e lt.fi'lt't -1-,'*-i;)t.y'-.sr{t gl fler2ljl } { itsr ,f ,tt "Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation, is Able to give life to the dead?'' This is what the Divine Wisdom necessitates: Allaah did not for create His creation in vain or leave them for fun. The weakest personin intelligencecannotcarry out any importantactionwithout having a purposefor it. How can this not be imaginedin case of man and then think that Allaah only created His creationfor fun and that He shall leave them in vain. Far and HighlyExaltedis Allaahaboveall thattheysay.Allaahsays, I F u s s i l a tl : 3 9 . 4 2 A l - A h q a a4 6 : 3 3 . f
  • L72 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts "Do you think that We had created you in play (without any purpose)and that you would not be broughtback to tJs?"l He alsosays, nt..: (', ,'.2 - ..i 2i . 'iy; _hp l3r"e5u,-Jl *,!X-'t ;5. C-, ;tri ;-G-riua, L,t y t'.i' t' (t r:!r:JLJ|;t: its.6 uru. ,z- ,tt7. "And We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them without purpose! That is the assumptionof those who disbelieve! Then woe to those who disbelieve (in lslimic Monotheism) from the Fire.'2 All wise men testifyto the necessity beliefin the Last Day; for of that's what the intelligenceand reason necessitateand what the soundhumannatureagreesto. When man believes the Day of in Resurrection, knows why he should abstainfrom what he is he orderedto leave and do what he is orderedto do, hopingfor what is with Allaah. He will also know that, he who does injusticeto people will inevitablyhave his recompenseand that those he wrongs will take revengeon him on the Day of Resurrection. He will also know that man must havea reward:good rewardfor good deeds and commensurate punishment evil deeds,so that each for soul shall be rewarded what it strivedfor and DivineJusticecan for be established. Allaahsavs, I A l - M u ' n t i n o o n: I 1 5 . 2i 2 Saad 8:27. 3
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 173 "So whoever does an atom weight of good sha// see it; and whoeverdoes an atom weightof evil shall see it."' No one amongmankind knowswhen the Day of Resurrectionwill come.This is a Day that is knownto neither sent Prophet a nor a favouredAngel. Allaah keeps the knowledgeof that to Himself alone.He says, 1 't - it qy-ttq,# i jt -'.+& 6lA-etl a vai os.i q djr;.y L, (i, "They ask you about the Hour (Day of Resurrection): 'When will be its appointed time?' Say: 'The Knowledge thereof is with my Lord. Nonecan reveal its time but He.' 'n He also says, , -.,zirr t. ."al.rlU t 4-eLJl 'cJ+ 4, _, , et "Verily All6h,withHim (Alone) the knowledge the Hour.'r is of Six: Beliefin Pre-decree: You must believethat Allaahknowswhat happens and what shail happen;that He knows the conditions, deeds, life spans and provisions His slaves. says, of He { :n1j; ,3, 5.'Ai'olY 'Az- Zalzalah 99:1-8 2 Al-A'raaf 187. 7: r L u q m a a n: 3 4 . 3l
  • 174 Islaam: Its Foundotions And Concepts "Verily, All3his theAll-Knower everything. of "' Healsosays, L,, t'- .'lt. .'ll ui tura pl J . J J ' . / -- ! 'z t i.Iil+:'!-$- "And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea;not a leaf falls,but he knows it. Thereis not a grain in the darkness of fhe earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.'2 He registers that in a Recordwith Him. He also says, all 'Al-'Ankaboot29.62. t Al-An'aam6:59. Had not therebeenin the Qur'aan only this verse,it but would have beenenoughas a clearevidence and decisiveproofthat it is fiom Allaah; for mankind, in all their ages- even in this age, where knowledge is widespreadand man grows arrogant- have not thought of this comprehensive encompassment, alonehavingthe ability to do any let of that. The highestextentto which their efforts could carry them is to closely observea tree or insectin a particularenvironment, order to in revealto us a part of its mysteries. But what is hiddenfrom them in that tree or insectis greater. for comprehensive As think and encompassment, it is a matterthat mankindhavenot known or havethe abilitv to know.
  • Islaam: Its Foundutions And Concepts t75 "And all things We have recorded with numbers (as a record) in a Book."1 Clear He says, .-u;t'ol"?s A 3!;:''",r) ._r.4":-,. ( .l) -,o*:'- Jt *ur Know you not that All6h knowsall that is in heavenand on the eafth?Verily, is^(all) the Book(Al-Lauh it in Verily Al-Mahf1z). that ls easyfor All6h.'' He alsosays, ( ,:Di,(i,f 'I;ta oi fo' sr'ril;t t^:1 ;L'ri Y 'Verily, His Command, ^when He intends a thing, is only that He 'Be'and it is!'" says fo it, As it is Allaah Who preordained things, it is also He Who all Created allthings. says, He 4.t:'i l*'^At 'Ja S ij1Y "Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments all thingsbeforetheir creation, writtenin the of as "' Book of DecreesAl-LauhAl-Mahf0z). ' Y a as e e n 6 : 1 2 . 3 2 tt-uailzz:lo. 3Yaaseen 6:82. 3
  • 176 Islaom: Its FoundntionsAnd Concepts He alsosays, 'rl. ,r. ,o .', t6- t '..f J-4 6L> urt y "Allahis the Creatorof all thinqs.'2 He createdmen in order to worshipHim and made that clear to them. He commanded them to obey Him, forbidden them from disobeying Him and made that clear to them. He gave them power and will by which they could carry out the Commandments of Allaahand get reward;and by which they could perpetrate acts of disobedience, get punished. and lf man believes the DivinePreordainment, will achievethe in he following: 1. He will dependon Allaah while makinguse of the means;for he knows that the means and its causes are all by Divine pre- decreeof Allaah. 2. Peaceof mind and tranquillity; when he knows that it is for Allaah Who gives that and that the preordaineddetestable thing shallhappenno matterwhat,he will have restof mind and he will be pleased with the decision Allaah.Therewill not be anyone of who will be more pleasedand have more peaceof mind than him Who believes DivinePreordainment. in 3. He wilt not be arrogantwhen he attainswhat he aims; for he will knowthatthe attainment thatblessing fromAllaahthrough of is the means of good and success He has pre-decreed. He will therefore thankAllaahfor that. 4. He will not be sad or distressedwhen the desired goal is missed when the unwanted or happens; because his knowledge of that it happensthroughirresistibleDecreeof Allaah.For no one can resistHis Commandor appealHis judgement. What he has ' A l - Q a r n a5 4 : 4 9 . r 2 Az-Zunar 39:62.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 177 pre-decreed inevitably will happen.He will therefore patientand be get the rewardthereoffrom Allaah.Allaahsays, oi F , -i'+ ,., jl 'S-Li 'li u.t'lt C i=; o: +Vi C y e q ;i.i; Fd (. & ;U iK. r.:i,>"*+. s.t:;:'o1'Gif, ;ri JL '"est; 4,a.E) 96 5lj't t-*' :uit "Nocalamitybefalls the earlhor in yourselves is inscribed on but in the Book of Decrees(Al-Lauh Al-Mahflz), before We bring it into existence.Verily,that is easy for All6h. ln order that you may not grieveat thingsthatyou fail to get, nor reioiceoverthat whichhas beengivento you And Attdh tikesnotpridefulboasters. ."7 5. Completedependence Allaah.For the Muslimknows that, it on is only AllaahWho has the powerto cause benefitor harm. He will then not fear any powerfulperson becauseof his power and will not hesitate do good deedsout of fear of any man. The Prophet, to blessings and peace be upon him, told lbn Abbaas:"Know that if all mankind are unanimous benefiting on you, they cannotbenefit you with anythingexceptwith that which Allaah has pre-decreed for you. lf they are also unanimous harmingyou, they cannot on harmyou exceptwith thatwhichAllaahhas pre-decreed you."2 foi I Al-Hadeed57:22-23. See:Al-Aqeedah p. as-saheehah l9; Aqeedah a h l i s u n n aw a l j a m a a ' a hp . 3 9 a n d D e e n u H a q q p . 1 8 . h l 2 Ahmad and At-Tirmidhee.
  • 178 Islasm: Its Foundations And Concepts The Third Degree The thirddegreeis "/hsaan"(utmostsincerity and perfection acts in of worship). implieswhich meansthat you worshipAllaahas if lt you are seeingHim, and if you do not see Him, He sees you. One must worshiphis Lord with this quality. That is, to bear it in mind that Allaahis closeto him; that he is standingbeforehis Lord.This conditionmakes man have awe, fear and great honourfor Allaah. It makes man sincerein acts of worshipand gives him courageto strivemore towardsits oerfection. The slave is consciousof his Lord while observingact of worship and reminds himself His nearness him as if he is seeingHim. of to lf he cannot do that, let him be consciousof the fact that Allaah sees him and knows his secretand publicaffairs,and that nothing is hiddenfrom Him.1 The slavethat has reached this stageworships Lordsincerely, his not lookingto others besidesHim. He neitherexpectspeople's praisenor fears theirblame;for it is enoughfor him that his Lord is pleased with him and praises him.This is a man whosepublicand privatedeeds are the same. He worshipshis Lord in privateand publicwith certainfaiththat Allaahknowsall that is in his heartand goes on in his mind. The faith has overpowered heart and the his consciousness his Lord is manifeston him; his limbs then of surrender Allaah; he will not use them exceptin what pleases to for Allaahand in thatwhichHe lovesand in submission Him.to Sincehis hearthas beenattached his Lord,he will not seek help to from any creature,for Allaah sufficeshim; he will not complainto any man,for he has approached Allaahwith his needsand enough is He as a Helper. does not feel lonelyin any placenor does he He fear anyone, for he knows that Allaah is with him in all hrs conditions. is enoughfor him and He is the BestHelper. will He He not abandonany order that Allaahcommandshim to carry out and will not perpetrate sin,for he is ashamed any beforeHim and hates I J a a m i u 'lu l o o mw a l - H i k a m o . 1 2 8 .
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts r79 that He findshim wanting what He Commands in him to do or finds him where he forbids him. He will neitheroppress nor wrong anyone or take anyone'sright for he knows that Allaah is seeing him,and that He shallcallhim to account all his deeds. for He will not cause mischiefin the land; for he knows that all good things that are in the earth are propertiesof Allaah which He subjects for His Creation. He will take of these good things according his needs and thank his Lord for facilitating to them for him. All that I havetold you and presented you in this bookletare only to importantmattersand great pillarsin lslaam.Whoeverbelievesin thesefundamentals acts by them has becomea Muslim.lf not, and lslaam- as I have told you - is both religionand worldly; worship a and a way of life. lt is the comprehensive perfectDivineOrder and that encompasses its ordainments that the individual in all and the societyneed in all aspectsof their religious, political,economical, social and security life. Man will find therein principles, fundamentals and rules that regulatepeace and war and binding duties; and preservesthe dignity of man, bird, animals and the environmentthat surrounds him. They also explain to him the realityof man, the life and the death; and the Resurrection after death.He also finds in lslaamthe best methodology relating of with people aroundhim;suchas the saying Allaah, of ,7bt nr:tiii'V "And speakgood to peopte"l And His saying, , ,1,i .,'i1. r t._r-U' iJe etrttJtJ f I Al-Baqarah :83 2
  • 180 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts "And thosewho pardon men."' And His saying, 4.u'jr1x. ; S*i' ; )i *i ln ti',oLr "".::"-ur't, y J:]i "And let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety; and fear All6h.'" After we have discussed the degrees of this religion and the fundamentals each degree, it is appropriate of that we discuss brieflythe beauties lslaam. of I A a l ' l m r a a n :| 3 4 . 3 2A I - M a a i d a h 5:8.
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 181 Some of the Beautiesof lslaaml The beautres lslaam are beyondwhat pens can fully write and of enoughexpressions cannotbe foundto describethe virtuesof this religion; because is the religion Allaah. it of Just as the eye cannot encompassthe perception Allaah and man cannot encompass of His Reality Knowledge, can the pen not encompass Law on so His in description. Al-Qayyimsaid, "lf you reflecton the dazzling lbn wisdom in this Upright Religion,this pure faith and the Law enactedfor mankind,which no expression can perfectly describe, whose description cannot be perfected, the likenessof which the wisdomof the wise cannotpropose- even if all wise men are to be as perfectlywise as the wisest one among them, whose beauty and virtues are perceived and attested to by the perfect and honourable intelligence, the world had not known a law better that and greater than it even if the Messenger Allaah, of blessingsand peace be upon him, had not broughtany proof in supportof it, all that would have been enough an evidencethat it is from Allaah. Every aspect of this religion shows perfect knowledge,perfect wisdom, expansiveness mercy, righteousness of and kindness, absolute inclusionof all that is hidden and manifest and the knowledge aboutthe beginnings and ends.lt also showsthat it is one of the greatest favours that Allaah has bestowed on His slaves,for He bestowsnot on them a favourgreaterthan the fact that He guidedthem to this religion, madethem its adherents and chosen it for them. Hence,He remindsHis slavesof the fact that He ouided themto it. He savs. ' For moredetailon this section, read Ad-Durratulmukhtasarah fee m a h a a s i n i d d e eIn il a a m e e ,y S h a y k h b d u r - R a h m a a ns - S a ' d e ea n d s b A A ; M a h a a s i n u s l a a m b y S h a y k h b d u l A z e e zA s - S a l m a a n . ll , A
  • 182 Isloam: Its Foundations And Concepts 44r,'r;,L l$- 4;i c.eJ:-i'rg c-;il ,*ii JL':'i o. a y "lndeed All6h conferred a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger(Muhammad(peace be upon him)) from among themselves, reciting unto them His Verses (the Qu/6n), and purifying them (from sins by their following him), and instructing them (in) the Book (the Qu/6n) and Al-Hikmah (the wisdom and the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) (i.e. his legal ways, statements,acts of worship)) while before that they had been in manifesterror."' He also says, makingHimselfknownto His slaves,reminding them of His great favour on them, and callingthem to thank Him for makingthem amongits adherents, ( ;a; ,st JjKt i'Ai Y "Thisday, t have perfectedyour retigionfor you.'2 It is thereforepart of showinggratitude Allaahon this religion, to to mentionsome of its beauties: 1. lt is the religion of Allaah which He has chosenfor Himself. sent with His Messengers and by which He allowedHis slavesto worshipHim. His religionis not comparable human statutesand to man-madereligions. Allaah possessesthe qualityof absolute As perfection,so does His religion has an absolute perfectionin providingordainments that reform the worldly and eternal life of mankind; encompasses rightsof the Creatorand obligations the of I Aal 'lmraan :164. 3 2 A l - M a a i d a h : 3 , S e e :M i f t a a h u a a r i s a ' a a d a h . l , p . 3 7 4 - 3 7 5 . 5 d S V
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 183 His slaves towards Him; obligations one towards anotherand of the rightsof each one of them upon another. 2. Comprehensiveness:One of the most prominent beautiesof this religionis that it takes care of every aspectof humanlife.AllaahsaYS, 4.-,. v ?4i ad"j (. > r "We have negtected nothingin the Book."1 This religionencompasses that has to do with the Creatorlike all His Names,Attributesand rights;and all that has to do with the creatureslike laws, obligations, manners and relationship. This religion also encompasses the stories of former and latter generation, stories of angels, Prophetsand Messengers.lt tells aboutthe heaven,the earth,the orbits,the planets, seas,treesand the universe. mentions lt the goal and aim of creationand its end; talks about Paradise and the final abode of the believersand Fire and the finalabodeof disbelievers. 3. lt links man to his Creator:Everyfalsereligion and creedhas the characterof linking man with another man that is prone to death,weakness, incapacityand diseases.Some even link man to a person who has died since hundreds of years ago and had becomemere bones and dust. lslaam,on the other hand, has the quality of linking man to his Creator directly;with no priest nor reverendand no holy secret.lf this directconnection betweenthe Creatorand the created;a connection that links the heart with its Lord and it thereby gets light, guidanceand loftiness;seeks for perfection; and deems itselfhigh above insignificant and debased things. For every heart that has no link with its Lord is more erroneous thananimals. ' Al-An'aam :38. 6
  • 184 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts It is a communication between the Creator and the creatureby which he knowsthe wish of his Creatorand then worshipHim with the knowledge, gets to knowthingsthat pleaseHim and seek and for that, and things that annoys Him and shun them. lt is a communication between the All-Mighty Creatorand the weak and destitutecreature,that enableshim seek for aid, assistance and successfrom Htm,and ask Him for protectron agarnstevil planners and evildeedsof devils. 4. lt caters for the benefits of this world and those of the Hereafter.The lslaamicLaw is basedon protection the benefits of of this world and the Hereafterand on perfection good morals. of As for the explanation the benefitsof the Hereafter, religion of the of lslaamhas explained that and left nothing it untaken all of care of. lt explainsit in detail so that nothingof it may be unknown. lslaam promisesthe bliss in the Hereafterand warns aqainst its torment. Concerning the benefitsof this world, Allaah ordainedin this religion what can protect for man his religion, life, property, posterity,dignity and intelligence. Concerning honourable conducts, lslaamenjoinsthat overtlyand covertlyand forbidsdebasingmanners. Amongthe apparent noble conducts that lslaamenjoinsare cleanliness and purification from all kinds of impuritiesand dirt. lslaam recommendsusing of perfumeand outwardadornment; forbidsfilthy behaviours it like adulteryand fornication, consuming alcohol, eatingdead animals, bloodand pork flesh,and enjoinseatingof lawfulgood things.lt alsoprohibitswastefulness extravaqance. and As for innerpurification, lslaamprohibits undesirable conducts and encouragescommendableones. Among the forbidden manners are: lies,obscenity,anger,jealousy, stinginess, debasingoneself, love of prestige and this world, arrogance,haughtrness and hypocrisy. Amongthe commended behavioursare good conduct, good companionship all peopleand beingkind to them,justice to and fairness, humility, truthfulness,magnanimity,generosity,
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 185 dependence Allaah, on in fear of Allaah, sincerity acts of worship, patience gratltude.' and showing 5. Easiness: Easinessis one of the unique qualitiesof this religion. everyritualis easiness ln and in everyact of worshipis easiness.Allaahsays, c ' ,' '''i ' '2"" i'' 4 Cr ut J.'.lJt C5)' J" t-j ) "' "He has notlaiduponyou in religion any hardship'a The firsteasiness lslaamis that;anyonewho wantsto becomea in Muslimdoes not need a human intermediary a confession or of past sins. He only needs to cleanse himself and utter the statement: testifythat there is no deity worthyof worshipexcept I that Muhammad, Allaahand I testify blessingsand peacebe upon him, is the Messenger Allaah;and to believe the meanings of in of this statementand act by its implications. Further,every worshipin lslaam is characterised easinessand by alleviation. a man travelsor is sick, the rewardof the deed that lf he usedto do when he was at homeor healthy continue be will to recordedto his credit.The whole life of the Muslim is easy and while the life of a disbeliever conversely filled with tranquillity, is filledwith hardship and toil. Also, the death of a Muslimis easy where his soul comes out of his body as a drop of watercomes out of a vessel. Allaahsavs, I by wal-awhaam, minal fasaad See:Al-'l'laambimaafee deenin-nasaaraa Al-Qurtubee . 442-445. p 'l.t-uaiizz:lt
  • 186 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts '&; 'u: j* is ,- ";Ai i j-",i :, *+t<l:ii rr-jiI "*; ,r..=-'. i"l ( ':; tJj'r.g "Those whose lives the angels take while they are pious saying (to them):peace be on you, enter ParadL'se becauseof that (the good) which you used to do (in the world)."1 As for the disbeliever, sternand harshangelswill be presentat the his death beating him with lashes. Allaah says about the disbeliever, a -a, | 2 t.- .... t;;t " 4-*t rlt-U .(jLJt: yiit ?* A 3rr:L,Et ;1 [s; ]: A ;r ;ri J' fj* fs q 6;i,ti .tn Jr-r; 7pi''4;Li ( rOij^<i -*.v ft';-si "And if you could but see when the Zdlimln (polytheists and wrong-doers) are in the agonies of death, while the angels are stretching forth their hands (saying): "Deliver your souls! This day you shall be recompensed with the torment of degradation because of what you used to utter against Alldh other than the truth. And you used to reject His Aydt (proofs, evidences, yerses, /essons, signs, revelations,etc.) with disrespect!'' He also says, ' A n - N a h lI 6 : 3 2 . 2 Al-An'aam :93. 6
  • Islsam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 187 .-(- . ,. t , ' - . . t - r -- ' , - i ' i ' ' , , : i 6- .' "/S+tJl trj-4 U-lt S* t! [S; rt Y r^t>ts f<n:.j J--,y-rtn- , -, ,, t { :i.t;p"y.lt l't.t-o tg:i "And if you could see when the angels take away the sou/s of those who disbelieve (at death); they smite their faces and their backs (saying):Tastethe punishmentof the btazingFire."1 6. Justice:The one who ordains the lslaamic is injunctions Allah alone.He is the Creator all people:blackand white,male and of female. Men are equal before His judgement, justice and mercy. He ordainsrules that suits each of the male and female. lt then becomesimpossible that the Law of lslaam favours male at the expenseof femaleor gives female preference and do injusticeto male. lslaamalso does not endow white man with qualities and deny that to the blackman.All are equalbeforethe Laws of Allaah and no differencebetweenthem except by piety. 7. Enjoining all that is good and forbidding all that is evil: The religion lslaamhas noblecharacteristics, of which is enjoining all that is goodand forbidding that is evil.This duty is incumbent all on everymaleor femaleMuslimwho is an adult,sane and able to enjoin and forbidaccording his or her ability to and according the to degrees of the enjoiningand prohibition. He or she should commandor forbid with hand, if not able to do so then with the tongueand if not able then with the heart.By this all members of the Muslim community be supervisors the community. will in Everyindividualshould command whoever negligent do good is to deed,and forbidwhoeverdoes wrongto desist,be he eithera ruler or ruled; each accordingto his ability and in accordancewith lslamic that regulations control this matter. This matter- as yoL can see - is compulsoryupon individual according his ability Compare to thisto whatthe contemporary r A l - A n f a a l: 5 0 . 8
  • 188 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts political orders proudly claim that they give opportunity to oppositionpartiesto monitorthe governmentactivitiesand carry functions. out official These are some of the beauties lslaam.Had I wantedto go into of details,I would have stoppedat every rite, every obligation, every commandment and every prohibitionin order to explain the extensive wisdom,decisiveordainment, impressive, unique and matchlessperfectionthat lie therein.Whoever ponders over the ordainments this religion, will know with certainty of he that it is from Allaahand that it is the truth that is free of any doubt and a guidancefrom error. lf you therefore want to go back to Allaah,to follow His Law and to follow the path of His Prophets and Messengers, door of repentance open beforeyou and your the is Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most -Merciful. He calls you in order to forgiveyou,
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 189 Repentance The Messenger Allaah,blessings of and peace be upon him, said, "All children Adam do commitsins and the best of the sinners of are thosewho repent."' and is Man by natureis weak; he is weak in his aim and resolution unable to bear the consequences his sins and misdeeds.So of Allaah out of kindness, makes matters easy for man and He prescribed him repentance. for The essenceof repentance to abandonthe sin becauseof its is - ugliness out of fear for Allaah- and out of desirefor His Mercy;to regretover what one has done, to determinenot to go back to the sin againand to spendwhateveris left of one's life in good deeds.2 As you can see, repentanceis a deed of the heart that is only job betweenthe slave and his Lord.lt is not a difficult for him. lt is just a deed of the heart:to abandonthe sin, and not to go back to it. There is actuallywell-being and peace of mind in abstaining from all that Allaahforbids."' You do not need to repentat the hand of a man who will reveal your secret and manipulate your weakness. lt is only a communicationbetween you and your Lord; you seek His forgiveness and guidanceand He forgivesyou. There is nothing like inherited in lslaam,nor is thereanything sin like an expected mankindsaviour.lslaam,is as discovered the AustrianJewish by revert to lslaam, MuhammadAsad who said, "l could not find it anywhere the Qur'aan in any mention man'sneedfor salvation. of In lslaam,there is no conceptof the first rnherited that stand sin between man and his fate, because, ' A h m a d ,A t - T i r m i d h e e n d l b n M a a j a h . a 2 Al-Mufradaatfee ghareebil Qur'aan,p. 76, quotedfreely. 3 by Ibn Al-Qayyim. Al-Fawaaid
  • 190 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts {,O.i; u itu-Y A Y 'Man can have nothingbut what he does (good or bad).'1 lslaam does not require from man to presenta sacrificeor kill himselfin orderto havethe door of repentance openedfor him and to be savedfrom sins."'Allaahsays, 1i { :iD.sii ta'ai1'r,j Y "No burdened person (with sins) shall bear the burden (sins) of another.'u Repentance has greatbenefits and impacts, someof whichare: 1. lt makes man know expansiveness Allaah'sforbearance, of and magnanimity concealing misdeeds. in his Had He willed,He would have hastenedto punishhim and disgraced him in front of peopleso that he would not be able to live comfortably with them. But Allaah honouredhim by concealing him his sins, covered for him by His forbearance and endowedhim with energy,provision and sustenance. 2. lt lets him know his real self, that it is inclinedto evil and that whatever comes from it of sins, misdeedsor negligenceis an indication from forbiddendesires,and that, it cannot dispenseof Allaah - for even a twinkle of an eye - for its purification and guidance. 3. Allaah prescribes repentance in order to seek with it the greatestcauses of happinessfor man, which is creating refuge with Allaahand seekingHis assistance; and also to bring about different kinds of supplication; showing one's submission, ' An-Najnr 3:39. 5 2Road t o I s l a a m y M u h a r n m aA s a d p . 1 4 0 b d r An-Na.;m 53:38
  • Islaam: Its FoandationsAnd Concepts 191 helplessness Allaah, to showing one'slove to Allaah,one'sfear of and hope in Him; then the soul moves closerto its Creatorin a specialway which will not occur to it without repentance and escaping Allaah. to 4. lt makesAllaah forgivehim his pastsins.Allaahsays, .i,z .. t' t . .',. ,i.:'.t', +.JL Jr U )4 ?4tt45, o)f.'j1.tiU- J ) "Say to those who have disbelieved,if they cease (from disbelief) their pastwittbe forgiven."' turnsone'sevildeedsto goodones.Allaahsays, 5. Repentance ri.q- ni J* 3:$L a* t; J*i ,1 it4 +u ; {J } t:tr"i 4.ia}t^.-3 Si osi;^!; "Except those who repent and believe (in lsldnic Monotheism), and do righteousdeeds; for those,All6h will change their sins into Most Merciful.'" good deeds, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, 6. lt makesman treathis fellowhumans, when they harm him,as his he wouldloveAllaahto treathim as regards own misdeeds and sins;for recompense in accordance is with the type of deed.So, if he treats people rn this good manner,he will also be treated by Allaahin the like mannerand Allaahwill be kindto him regardless of his evil deedsand sins,just as he does with his fellowhuman beings. 7 . lt enableshim to knowthat he is full of faultsand defects; this will makehim refrain fromspeaking aboutthe faultsof otherpeople I A l - A n f a a8 : 3 8 . l 2 Al-Furqaan 5:70 2
  • 192 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts and will be preoccupied with reforminghis own self instead of thinkingaboutthe faultsof others.' I would like to concludethis sectionwith the story of a man who came to the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, and said, "O Messenger Allaah! | have not left any small or big sin but I of had committed it." The Messenger Allaah, of blessingsand peacebe upon him, said, "Don't you testify that there is no other deity worthy of worship exceptAllaahand that Muhammad, blessings and peacebe upon him,is the Messenger Allaah?" of He asked him this questionthree times and the man answered eachtime,"Yes." He then said, "yqrr testimonyhas erased all that (you have committed sins)"' of In anothernarration, man came to the Prophet, the blessings and peacebe upon him,and said,"Tellmel lf a man committed sins all but has not associatedanythingin worshipwith Allaah,and yet did not leaveany smallor big sin uncommitted, his repentance can be acceoted?" The Prophet, blessingsand peacebe upon him, askedthe man, "haveyou embracedlslaam?" The man answered,"As for me, I testify that there is no deity worthyof worship except that He is One and has no partner Allaah, and thatyou are the Messenger Allaah." of ' M u f t a a h u a a r i s - s a ' a a dVh , . l , p . 3 5 8 - 3 7 0 . d a ol 2 Reported Aboo Ya'laa;At-Tabaraanee; Al-Maqdisee by and
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 193 The Prophet,blessings and peace be upon him, said, "yesl Do good deedsand refrainfrom evil ones,so that Allaahmav turn all thoseevildeedsto goodonesfor you." The man said,"Evenmy actsof treachery my sins?!" and blessings peacebe uponhim,said,"Yes." The Prophet, and The man said,"Allaahu Akbar (Allaahis the Most-Great) and he kepton sayingthatuntilhe disappeared."r lslaam therefore erases whatever sin one might have committed and sincere repentance also erases whatever sin one might have committed as authentically reported from the Prophet, blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him. ' Ibn Abee'Aasim:At-Tabaraanee Al-Bazzaar. and
  • 194 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Repercussions of Rejecting lslaam As it has been made clear to you in this book that lslaamis the religionof Allaah,that it is the true religion;that it was the one preachedby all Prophetsand Messengers; Allaah has prepared greatrewardin this world and the Hereafter whoeverbelieves for in whoeverdisbelieves it with severetorment. it and threatened in Since Allaah is the Creator, the Possessor and Disposer of this entire universe,and you, man, are just one of His creatures;He createdyou, and subjected you all that is the universe, to ordained His Law for you and commandsyou to obey Him, lf you therefore believe,obeys His Commandment and abstain from all that He forbidsyou, you will attainwhat He promises you of the everlasting bliss in the Hereafter and you will be happy in this world with all that He will endow on you of all kinds of favours;you will then be like the wisest men and the purestof them in soul; the Prophets, Messengers, righteous peopleand the favoured angels. But if you disbelieve, and disobeyyour Lord;you will lose your worldly life and your Hereafterand expose yourselfto His wrath and ounishment this world and the Hereafter. in You will then be like the most wicked of all creatures,the most defective in intelligence and the most debased in mind: the devils, corrupt just peopleand falsedeitiesand transgressors, to mention few. a in Let me now tell you somethingof the consequences disbelief of detail: 1. Fear and lack of security. Allaahpromises completesecurity in this world and the Hereafterfor those who believein Him and followHis Messengers. says, He
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 195 "/t is fhose who believe (in the Onenessof Alldh and worshipnone but Him Alone) and confusenot their belief with Zulm (wrong i.e. by worshipping others besrdes NEh), for them (only) there is security and they are the guided-"' Allaahis the Giver of security, Watcherover His creatures, the the Possessorof all that is in the universe.lf He loves a slave of His becauseof his belief,He gives him security, and peace, tranquillity but if a slaveof His disbelieves Him, He withdraws in tranquillity and security from him and you will not see such a personbut afraid of his fate in the Hereafter, afraidfor his own self from calamities and diseasesand afraidfor his futurein this world.That is why the insurancemarket insureslives and properties lack of security for and lackof having trustin Allaah. 2. Difficult life: Allaahcreatedman, subjected him all that is in to the universe and portion out for every creature his share of sustenance and lifespan Hence you see the bird going out of its nest to look for its provisionand then picks it. lt moves from a branch of the tree to anotherand sings in most melodioustone. Man is also one of these creatures whom Allaahhas oortioned for out his provisionand lifespan.lf he thereforebelievesin his Lord and standsfirm on His Law, Allaahwill give him happiness and stabilityand He will make his matterseasy for him, even if he does not possess morethanthe leastmeansof livelihood. lf he howeverdisbelieves his Lord and feels too big to worship in Him, He will make his life straitenedand make him suffer from sorrow and distress even if he has all means of comfort and enjoymentat his disposal.Don't you see the great numbers of suicide victims in countriesin which all means of affluenceare guaranteedfor their citizens?Don't you see all kinds of furniture and mats used for the enjoyment this life? The cause of all this of extravaganceis the vacuity of the heart from faith, feeling of constraint hardship and and an attempt dismiss theseworries to all with all different means.Allaahsaysand truthreally HisWord, is ' Al-An'aarn :82 6
  • 196 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts '.,^sl ..-i-...i'i.-. i.. . ,'t.,: : . ..4".. ll*J.Jl ty 'or:3j. 2 : K,..a ij-; "l-i ,"J .r,G G r4t ,to ,.er"l V: b 1,.-. "But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e. neither verily,for him is a believes this Qur'dnnor actson its teachings.) in and We sha//ralse him up blind on the Day of life of hardship, Resurrection."' 3. Life in perpetual with self and the world around: war Thisis because; man'ssoulis created uponlslaamic Monotheism. Allaahsays, 4.'loj"di'*t a.,;,i;p.V "All6h'sFitrah (i.e.^All6h's lsldmic Monotheism)with which He has createdmankind.'n Man's body surrenders its Lord and it moves accordingto His to order. The disbeliever,however,insistson going againsthis own nature,and living his voluntarylife in rebellionagainst his Lord. Althoughhis body surrendersto the will of the Creator,his own voluntary is in opposition the will of his Lord. will to He will be in constantwar with the world aroundhim in the sense that, all this universeright from its greatestgalaxy to its smallest insect,moves according the way which Allaah has ordainedfor to it. Allaahsays, ' TaaHaa20:124. 2Ar-Room 30:30
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 197 q':,Dctt:',U'qji "Then He (rose over) lstawd towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said:"We come, willingly.'"' The universeloves him who agreeswith it in submission Allaah to and hateshim who opposesit. The disbeliever the recalcitrant is in this universefor he makes himselfan opponentto his Lord and contenderwith Him. That is why it is appropriate the heavens for and the earth and all other creatures hate him and his disbelief to and atheism.Allaahsays, r6;,L,.rai 3t4 '.a61G,*'& 6:r) r(j Jryi iiilqy 't ' /' ' .tt uJ .!l: t-tJju6r.,r. i = ' . : e,i .. . . - . , .1 4 , : ' t t ' j i t;- ,. ''rii !', :- '.' & u4t H,-e)t oL-j t^, -t i-' . !,r, t. - I - ,. <i ;t; )J ,r?)lJ,:t'3:^11 J ;r Je r-i1; uj :1-;l g-l:- r:Ftl "+1 c.,r , .a t :D r-q' "And they say: "The Most Gracious(Alldh) has begottena son (or offspring or children) (as the Jews say: 'Uzair (Ezra) is the son of All6h, and the Christianssay that He has begotten a son ('lesa (Christ) (peace be upon him)) and the pagan Arabs say that He has begotten daughters (angels and others.))" lndeed you have brought forth (said) a terribleevil thing. Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the eafth ls splt asunder,and the mountainsfall rn ruins, That they ascribe a son (or offspring or children) to the Most Gracious (NEh). But it is not suitable for (the Majesty of) the Most Gracious (AlEh) that He should beget a son (or offspring or I F u s s i l a tl : I l . 4
  • 198 Islaam: Its Founclations And Concepts children). There is none in the heavens and the earth but colnes unto the MostGracious (Atlah) a slave."I as and his hosts, He saysaboutPharaoh .Il .rI-J ir( t3.PtiS is''i'&'S-':t Y "And the heavens and the eafth wept not for them, nor were they given a respite.'z 4. A life of ignorance: Disbelief ignorance. is ratherthe greatestignorance; is lt because the disbeliever ignorantof his Lord. He sees this universethat is was createdby his Lord in the most wonderfulway, he sees in himselfthe greatness Allaah'sdeed and yet he is ignorant the of of Creatorof this universe and the Constructor his own self; is this of not the greatestignorance? 5. A life of one who wrongs oneself: This is because;he subjectedhis own self to purposesother than that for which he was created.He does not worship his Lord but worshipothers.lnjustice to put a thing in a placeto which it does is not belong; and whichtype of injustice greaterthan directing is acts of worshipto those who do not deservethem. Luqmaanhas told his sonwhileexplaining avvfulness polytheism, the of '+L',.tt:A;;i :-;fii 4;:D t*'t '(#-Y ' M a r y a ml 9 : 8 8 - 9 3 . t Ad-Drkhaan 4:29 4
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 199 "O my son! Join not in worship others with Altah. Verity joining others in worship with All6h is a great Z0lm (wrong) indeed.,,1 It is also injustice the peopleand other creaturesaround him; for becausehe does not acknowledge right of Him to Whom right the is due. On the Day of Resurrection,eveiy man or animalhe has wrongedwill stand beforehim askingAllaahto avengefor him. 6. Exposing oneself to Allaah's wrath. He exposeshimselfto the calamitiesand afflictions immediate as punishment his disbelief. for Allaahsays, . t tt..ii -i - . .1.ii , tq.1 ., :'^ ,, t2. .,,-f i ,..",i i:i ;rf errr'Jr ;-e4U- tt cf))t ".-7,- 4t-h;* Ol grl';;iJl ljrfu r/-dl ;,1tjl F tr t : t 7. ./ i-n-t-;! _ll 4. 3:ti'&j'by *? ;* r:g':,=J "Do then those who devise evil plots feel secure that All6h wilt not sink them into the earth, or that the torment will not seize them from directions they perceive not? Or that He may catch them in the midst of their going to and fro (in their jobs), so that there be no escape for them (from All6h'spunishment)?Or that He may catch them with gradual wasting (of their wealth and-health). Truly! your Lord is indeed full of Kindness,Mosf Merciful?'r' He also says, 'Luqmaan3l:13. t A n - N a h l1 6 : 4 5 - 4 7
  • 200 Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts "And a disasfer will not cease to strike those who disbelieved becauseof their (evil) deeds or if seff/es close their homes, until the Promiseof All6hcomes to pass. Certainly, All6h breaksnot His Promise."l He says in anotherverse, { :DirJ 4 ,# u::('&+.U u.ai S^i Y oi oiti "Or did the people of the towns then feel secureagainst the coming of Our punishmentin the forenoonwhile they were playing?'' This is the fate of every man who turns away from Remembrance of Allaah.Allaahtells us of the punishments past nations of who were disbelievers, , -. ' ; ,:1 '. 'i-^ t .. . .. '1 . t. , .i. .1 -, ,' l-p -a-i-r.,, : 1 . ' . i ' .)Sia . F t-:j;t r ? ^>-.4)t ' attetv,+1J+v r i i ,' 4" Ll-]l J'# A;JL1i'i 3;a vr'vs;i v -++i 3r'li -'..i*; :-l 'ei ";": a. 1-/L,-,?Aiie #i "So We punishedeach (of them) for hls srns; of them were some on whom We sent Hasib(a violentwind with shower of sfones) (as the people of LIt (Lot)) and of them were some who were overtaken by As-Saihah (torment - awful cry. @s Thamld or ' A r - R a ' dI 3 : 3I . 2 A l - A ' r a a f7 : 9 8 .
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Conc Shu'albb people)) and of them were some whom We caused the earth to swallow (as Qdrln (Korah)) and of them were some whom We drowned (as the people of N?h (Noah), or Fir'aun (pharaoh) and his people). lt was not All6h Who wronged them, but they wrongedthemseIves."1 7. Failure and loss will be his lot: Because his wrong, he of looses the greatestthing with which the heartsand souls enjoy, which is knowing Allaah,meditating Him and feeting in tranquiltity with Him. He also loosesthe world,for he livesthere a wretched and confused life and he looses his own soul for which he amassesthe wealth of this world;for he subjectsit for a purpose differentfrom that which it was createdfor. He therebydoes not attainwith it happiness thrsworld,for he makesit livedin misery in and causedit to die in miseryand it shallbe raisedup amongthe miserable. Allaahsays, '. '11' r. . ' , t- t' . J* Lj+q. ily6, ' Ur rl*r:t , lr " trlt -;,i, UrJt,,U;ti ;^4'?. . cl> , J.'r > .. 1 { :::) "And as for those whose scalewittbe light, they are those who witt lose their own selves (by entering Hell) becausethey denied and rejected Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, yerses, /essons, signs, revelations,etc.).'' He will also loosehis family, he livedwith them on disbelief for rn Allaahand they will also be like him in miseryand hardshipand theirfate will be Fire.Allaahsavs. I A l - A n k a b o o4 0 : 9 . t I A l - A ' r a a f7 : 9 .
  • 202 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts "Ihe /osers are those will loose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection."l they will be led to Fire,and evil is it as On the Day of Resurrection, a restingplace.AllaahsaYs, t t-i: a1 t :.. tt-.il;,,-.t...'i-',r,i ' .6i',tt..'1. Uj'f&?'illt le;tb gl'tll lr^bl I F i,._li-at, gt ,.:rj dr, :I,l o1r;-t9'S (,ef.rJ t'tu ;-)) '(lt witl be said to the angels): "Assemble those who did wrong, together with their companions (from the devils) and what they used to worship insteadof Alldh,and lead them on to the way of flamingFire (Hell).'- 8. A life of disbelief in Allaah and denial of His favours: Allaah created him from nothingand showered on him favours, how can he then worship,befriend and thank othersbesidesHim? Whichingratitude is greaterand more heinousthan this? 9. Being deprived of a real and purposeful life: This is becausethe man who deserveslife is the one who believesin his Lord, knows his goal, recognizeshis fate and is certain of his resurrection. therebygives rightto whom it is due. He does not He suppresstruth nor harm a creature. then livesthe life of happy He Allaah peopleand attainsgood life in this wodd and the Hereafter. says, ,-:..; t/. :,.. - (,'s -.t -t . ,:l-i : i 1 . t a.=," o3,=>,a-a.:,:J3Uy J"tit ht *i Jt'A; 'bb i> "Whoever worksrighteousnesswhethermaleor female- whilehe - verily,to him We (or she)is a truebeliever(of lsl6micMonotheism) ' 39:15,Shooraa42'.45 Az-Zumar 2 As-saaffaat :22-23. 37
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And will give a good ljte (in this world with respect, contentment and lawfulprovision)."' And in the Hereafter, rewardwill be, his ,i.i c -. t ,-- t r. .. . { ':!l i:F t jtsJI rll-', ,ti-pci} C + ;<:-.t y l- :i.i .,r.1 . i.-; ,/ "Pleasant^dwellings Eden Paradise;that is indeed, the great in '' success. Butwhoever livesin thisworldlikeanimals, suchdoesnot know hisLord hisgoalandfate. onlyaimis to eat,drink sleep. or His and Whatthenis the differencebetween andotheranimals? is him He evenin greatererrorthananimals.Allaahsays, "And surely, We have created many of the jinn and mankind for Hell. They have heafts wherewith they understand not, and they have eyes wherewiththey see not, and they have ears wherewith they hear not (the truth). They are like c?ttle, nay even more astray; Those! They are the heedlessones,'' He also says, ' A n - N a htl6 : 9 7 . ' A s - s a f f 6'l1 2 . t Al-A'raaf7:179
  • 204 Islsom: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts "Jr&.;i <r;;.i;-f Li : :,z7iy e-J $3:({t e il . !. . i 4 -Il )t".- -l.;t "Or do you think that most of them hear or understand?They aye only like cattle - nay, they are even further astray from the path."' 10. Living in an infinite torment:This is because disbeliever the moves from a tormentto another.He goes out of this world- after - In he has tasted all its agoniesand afflictions to the Hereafter. the firststageof the Hereafter, angelsof deathcome upon him the and beforethem come the angelsof tormentwho will give him his deserved punishment. Allaahsays, , .,..-i.. -'4^t t t. t -, ...'-? :,.ii'i,: ; . ..? t...",., r-.1.i. { 1,r;rt; :3--,yA-",5.riLJl trsr+ U-r$ Jr-r5l i.S; }t> "And if you could see when the angels take away the souls of those who disbelieve (at death); they smite their faces and their backs.'2 Then his soul departsand when he is put in the grave , he meetsa greatertorment. Allaahsaysaboutthe People Pharaoh, of 3y13t; t1f >t a-ctAt1tt: 1V-t Qbi l.9-'r-i, {t:** VJ" )at b ( '!) '-'l't''J | -t ' t ''i"'i The Fire, they are exposed to it, morning and afternoon.And on the Day when the Hour will be esfab/ished(it will be said to the ' Al-Furqaan 5:44. 2 2 A l - A n f a a l8 : 5 0 .
  • Islasm: Its Foundations And Concepts 20s angels): "Cause Fir'aun's (Pharaoh)people to enter fhe seyeresf torment!"' On the Day of Resurrection, when the creaturesare raisedup and the deeds are exposedand the disbelieversees that Allaah has accuratelyenumerated his deeds in that book about which He all says, r'. : rt' r'i'. ". i :'' ' ,' ' . ' ti'i .:1 t .zi'! . r, t-,'a ejt- u"4* or*t * t^: et:_L- Wf*)l " ctF J^:.:SJ|ft:j ,c,- ..1-?.t t -. t .t a . " ry k:-it !l t;5 3 ai* i;t-ij : ,;ie|t "And the Book (one's Record) will be placed (in the right hand for a believer in the Oneness of All6h, and in the left hand for a disbelieverin the Onenessof Alldh),and you will see the Mujrimln (criminals, polytheists, sinners), fearful of that which is (recorded) therein. They will say: "Woe to us! What sort of Book is this that /eayes neither a small thing nor a big thing, but has recorded it with numbers!"2 Here,the disbeliever wishto be dust.Allaahsays, will ( :::) .-s cri lrri J*.ii6;:'it L; t- i?i j'itry "The Day when man will see that (the deeds)which his hands have sent forth, and the disbeliever will say: 'Woe to me! Would that t were dust.' 'u Because the horrorof that Day, man will wish that he owns all of that is in the earth,so that he can ransomhimselfwith it from the torment thatDay.Allaahsays, of I Ghaafir40:46. t Al-Ka'f r8:49. t An-Naba 8:40. 7
  • 206 Isluum: Its Foundations And Concepts -.iiJit ,!na,'iJiG-9*1'li Ct i# ().N.-oi-liy "And those who did wrong (the polytheists and disbelievers the in Onenessof AllAh),if they had all that is in earth and therewithas much again,they verily,wouldofferit to ransom. "' Allaahalsosays, :.. t - t1i 4L. . ' i--- --. ')i : .1. v. tCJ:-t) "Ji a'--Jl J . )$, Wa"*" , Lt.J- ( ii3) a-r g-e'i €t *ii *::' "The Mujrim, (criminal, sinner, disbeliever) would desire to ransom himselffrom the punishmentof that Day by his children, and his wife and his brother, and his kindred who sheltered him, and all that are in the earth,so that it might save him.'" For, that abode is that of recompense and not of wishfulthinking. Man must therefore, a rewardfor his deed, if it is good he gets get good reward and if it is evil, he gets rewardedwith punishment. And the worst punishment may meet on the Day that a disbeliever of Resurrection that of Fire in whichAllaahhas provided is different kinds of retributionfor its dwellers so that they can taste the tormentof theirdeeds.Allaahsays, . t.ri'i..,1.?t ... (, . -:I.'t,:t;;+ ! . .uui a. ! .i*:b.. .!'.oyi)r t +F dlf i '19- -:*,. i F ,,. - ..r'"..1 - 1 .., ' . Az-Zumar39:41 r A l - M a ' a a r 7j 0 :I l - 1 4 . i
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 207 'This is Hell which the Muirimln (polytheists,criminals, sinners) denied. They will go between it (Hell) and the fierce boiling water!."1 He alsoinforms of the garments the dwellers Hell, us of of t . r,'.' t:;',i;; '.='. t g=:i) gf .t: :-p; )L Jt Qq e c--+; t,f-+ -, .i1 tt t-l. rr.'-ti''ii.i 4t J-'{tr } ,| *P b F fi :D:tv.tiCP 4L '",''i:'J- "As for those who disbetieved,garments of fire will be cut out for them, boiling water witt be poured down over their heads. With it wilt mett (or vanish away) what is within their bellies,as wel/ as (their) skins. And for them are hooked rods of iron (to punish them).'" ' 55:43-44 Ar-Rahmaan t R t - H a . 2 21 t 9 - 2 1 . 1. :
  • 208 Islaam:IttFour@ C o n cl u si o n O man! You were beforea non-existent. Allaahsays, ( :!l 6j, .t; )t J1 .,:'t* ti 3;li e*,tii y "Doesnot man rememberthat We createdhim before whitehe was nothing?"1 Then He createdyou from a mixtureof male and femaledischarqe and madeyou hearing, seeing. Allaahsays, t t.1.s,r., -a,-,.u ... .i.- ,-i1 [il-; bl ;;].tt.l.eS-u ofi. , i r^*l' d;-""^l)r l=., 2 il G-;9 dr*)i.p J U^ I 111(*r(*:'^a8 -A nCf yb n t "Has there not been over man a period of time, when he was nota thing worth mentioning? Verily, We have created man from Nutfah (drops) of mixed semen (sexualdischargeof man and woman),in order to try him: so We made him hearer and seer.,2 Then you moved graduallyfrom a state of weaknessto strenqth and you shall be returnedto a state of weaknessaqain. nttaln sdv5. )7 b t;1{:i.# )1; J+ l#; b €6 citij,ioy 4.:!)r-ai:,-Fi t^"c,gL"*s fu fi i:, I Maryan 19:67. t Al-lnsaa77:l-2. n
  • Isluam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 209 "Altdhis He Who createdyou in (a state of) weakness,then gave you strength after weakness, then after strength gave (you) weakness and gray hair. He creates what He wills. And if is He Who is the Atl-Knowing, the AlFPowefful (i.e. Able to do all things)."1 Then the end is death and you, throughthese stages,move from weaknessto weakness; you cannotavertevil from yourself can nor you bring about benefitfor yourselfexcept by using the strength and provision that Allaahgave you. You are, by nature,poor and needy.Manyare the thingsthat you need to keepyou alivewhich you do not possess whichyou sometimes or haveand sometimes are deprivedof. Many are also those thingsthat are usefulto you and you wouldliketo haveand whichyou achieve sometimes and do not achieveothertimes.Many are thingsthat harm you, ditch your hope, waste your effortsand bring on you tribulations and calamity whichyou wouldlike to avert;and whichyou sometimes succeedin avertingand which you fail sometimes avert.In view to of this,do you not feelyourhelplessness yourneedto Allaah? and Allaahsays, b ,( :i::-r=*;ji.,:i; ait {J Jlll};i l:i'o6i 4.ti * I O mankind!it is you who standin need of Allah. But All6h is Rich (Freeof attneedi),Worthyof all praise.'2 You are exposedto a weak virus which you cannotsee with your nakedeyes,and that causesyou painfuldiseasewhichyou cannot preventand you then go to a weak human being like yourselfto treat you. Sometimes the medicineworks and sometimes the doctorfailsto cure you and both you and your doctorthen become confused. I Ar-Roorn 0:54. 3 - haatlr J): | ).
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Conce O man! What a weak creatureyou are when the fly snatches something from you and you cannottake back from it! Allaahsavs the trLfth when He savs, c t q '&s"ot, ,:nt;-Gi v L2l-+.:,. +qiJi li 61',Iri&j (;=).:iLiii<s.af 'l+ "O mankind! A similitude has been coined, so /lsfen to it (carefulty): Verily those on whom you callbesrdes AllAh,cannot create (even) a fly, even though they combine together for the purpose. And if the fly snafches away a thing from them, they will have no power to release it from the fly. So weak are (both) the seeker and the sought."1 lf you cannot take back what the fly snatchesaway from you, which then of your affairsdo you have controlover? Your forelock is in the hand of Allaah,so is your soul. Our heart is betweentwo of His fingerswhich He turns round as He wills. Your life, death, happiness misery and are all in His Hand. Your undertakings sayingsare by the permission Allaahand and of His Will. You do not move exceptwith His permission and you do not performany act exceptby His Will. lf He leavesyou to yourself, He leaves you to weakness,negligence, and misdeed;and if sin He leavesyou for others,He leavesyou with the one who cannot avail you of any benefit, harm, death, life or resurrection.you cannotdispenseof Allaahfor a twinkleof an eye. You ratherneed Him in every aspectas long as you live.You inviteHis wrath with sins and disbeliefthoughyou seriously need Him in all aspects. t.,,,..^^-^ At-naJJ tz: | )
  • Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 2tl You forgot Him though,your return is to Him and it is in front of Him thatyou shallstand.' O man!As a resultof yourweakness and your inability shoulder to the consequences of your sins, "A//aah rlrrishes lighten (the to burden) for you and man was created weak.'" He sent Messengers,revealed Books, ordained Laws, establishedthe Straight Path before you and established signs, proofs and evidences and made in everything sign that shows His Oneness, a Lordship and His solerightto be worshipped. in spiteof all this, But you block the truth with falsehood,take Satan as a friend besides Allaahand arguewith falsehood. Allaahsays, t-.. ' :- it. -,1..i t :!:'i.- .,i-rj-+t,i;)t Sf-; ) "Man is ever more quarrelsome than anything'g Allaah's favours in which you move and enjoy have made you forgetyour beginning and end! Don'tyou rememberthat you were createdfrom a mixedsexualdischarge, that your returnwill be to a grave and that final destinationafter Resurrection will either be Paradise Fire?Allaahsays, or l'ri t;Ai cir L.-^>r , 19 ' ' '.^i 'o'; t, , I: -" -'^Ji,'Jt y li ; r J t J ._' -. y . ' From Al-Fawaaid lbn Al-Qayyirn by 2 Al-Nisaa :28. 4 t A l - K a h fl 8 : 5 4 .
  • 212 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts "Does not man see that We have created him from Nutfah (mixed male and female sexualdischarge- semen drops) yet behold he (sfands forth) as an open opponent.And he puts forth for LJsa parable, and forgets his own creation. He says: "Who will give life to thesebones after they are rotted and have became dust?,,Say: (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) "He witt give tife to them Who created them for the first time! And He is the All-Knower of everv creation!"1 He alsosays, 1itpji et"',a* c r';!i 4A.y {;.';4i;a C2:r* Gi "O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous? Who created you, fashionedyou perfecily, and gave you due proportion. ln whatever form He willed, He put you together.'' O man! Why are you denyingyourselfthe joy of standingbefore your Lord,meditatingwith Him, so that He can enrichyou out of poverty,heal you from your ailment,relieveyou of your sorrow, forgiveyour sins, remove your harm, help you when you are wronged, guide you when you are confusedor go astray,give you knowledge when you are ignorant,give you security when you are frightened, show mercy to you when you are weak, drive away yourenemies and provide you yourlivelihood." for O man!The greatest blessing that Allaahendowed man with after that of the religion the blessing intelligence, that he can is of so distinguish it between with what benefitshim and what harmshim, I Yaa seen36:17-79. 2 M i f t a a hd a a r i s - s a ' a a dla hp . 2 5 1 . , r M i f t a a h a a r i s - s a ' a a dla hp . 2 5 1 . d ,
  • Islaam: Its FoundutionsAnd Concepts 213 to understand commandments prohibitions Allaahand in the and of order to know by it, the greatestgoal which is to worship Allaah aloneWho has no partner. Allaahsays, -i,ir,* -i:s t:rI '.=;:'"t'e ;y;ai 6:: 6lt . v. t -"|,jJ(-!ur) .v. - , L.t .. ,.t - { :I: uf.r+'ir 54 e.; rs15'^s-'}ztt :,:,-2 zt "And whatever of b/essrngsand good things you have, it is from All6h. Then, when harm touches you, unto Him you cry aloud for help. Then, when He has removed the harm from you, behold! Someof you associateothersin worshipwith their Lord (Allah)."' O you man! The wise person loves lofty matters and abhors debased ones. He loves to emulate every righteous and magnanimous amongthe Prophets and pious peopleand yearns to join them even if he cannot reach their status.The only way to that is what Allaahdirectsus to when He says, "lf you (really) love Allah then follow me (i.e. accept lsllmic Monotheism,follow the Qulan and the Sunnah), Allah will love you and forgiveyou your sins."' lf man can do this, Allaah w i l l make him join the rank of the Prophets,the Messengers,h e Martyrs and righteous people. t Allaahsays, ' A n - N a h ll 6 : 5 3 - 5 4 r A a l ' l r n r a a3 : 3 1 . n
  • 214 Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts . -ir1 .. -i._ ,l.i ..:f . . 1 1. . .r'zr.i..i,.i i+!t Jt F;Jt drl r-l cl-ttlt f e4J:tr: Jyjti .r_i.l ., t' ;r.i h e ( :l:6:; i))'ri #t'|vtX"Ji5 ]J$ir'ei4ii "And whoso obey All6h and the Messenger(Muhammad(peacebe upon him)) then they will be in the company of those on whom AIl6h has bestowed His Grace, of the Prophets, the Siddiqln (those followers of the Prophets who were first and foremost to believe in them, like Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him), the martyrs, and the righteous. And how excellent these companionsare!"' O you manl I advise you that you go into seclusion with yourself and think deeplyof the truth that has come to you reflectover the proofs and evidences;if you find it to be truth hastento follow it and do not be a slave of customsand traditions. Know that your own soul is dearer to you than your friends, companionsand heritage of your fore-fathers. Allaah has admonished the disbelieverswith this and calledthem to it. He says, t-t YZ ty "l exhort you to one (thing) only: that you stand up for All6h's sake in pairs and singly, and reflect (within yourselves the life history of the Prophet (peace be upon him)) there is no madness in your companion (Muhammad (peace be^uponhim)) he is only a warner to you in face of a severe torment.'n O man!When you acceptlslaam, you standto losenothing. Allaah says, I An-Nisaa :46. 4 'saba34:46.
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 215 a/ 1.-= | l- 4 6ll* "And what /oss have they if they had believed in Allah and in the Last Day, and they spend out of what Allah has given them for sustenance?And Alldh is Ever All-Knowerof them."' lbn Katheer said, "What would have harmed them had they believed in Allaah, followed the praiseworthy way, believed in Allaah hopingfor His promisein the Hereafter him who did for good deeds and spent out of what He has given them in ways which He loves and is pleasedwith? He knowstheir good and evil intentions; knows who deservedsuccessamong them so that he He might give him successand show him guidance and appoint him for good deeds with which he is pleased.He also knowswho deservesdisgraceand expulsionfrom His DivineAffectionwhich whoever is expelledfrom the door of Allaah has failed and lost in thisworldand the Hereafter."2 Your lslaam does not stand betweenyou and anythingthat you want to do or to have among the things that Allaah has made lawfulfor you. Rather,you will be rewarded any good deed you for do in which you seek the pleasureof Allaah even if that is in the rnterestof your worldly life or increases your wealth or portionor fame. As for the lawful things that you use, when you restrict yourself them and you abstain to from unlawfulthings,you will be rewardedfor that. The Messenger Allaah,blessings of and peace be upon him, said, "There is an act of charity in satiatingyour sexualdesire." The companions said,"O Messenger Allaah! of Will anyone of us satiate his desire and still get rewardfor that?" He answered."Tell me. if he satiatesit in an unlawful wav, will he be ' An-Nisaa :39.4 r S e el b n K a t h e e r . 4 9 7 l
  • 216 Islsam: Its FoundotionsAnd Concepts committing sin by that? Likewise,if he satiatesit in the lawful a way, he will have rewardfor that."' O manl The Messengers have broughtthe truth and conveyedthe will of Allaah, and man needsto knowthe Law of Allaahso as to live his lifewith sure knowledgeand to be amongthe successful in the Hereafter. Allaahsavs. j . ': , ,t,'i ,,t(-. , rls: 6g"-ii t';; ;tt E u: ,- :,L, J;')i f; L> ' -19 *LjJ I L-LrJ- S v r- , ' uA'ii : .2"t;-aiA C $.'iy "O mankind! Verily, there has come to you the Messenger (Muhammad (peace be upon him)) with the truth from your Lord. So believe in him, it is better for you. But if you disbelieve, then certainlyto All6h belongs all that is in th^eheavens and the earth. And All6his EverAtl-Knowina. All-Wise.'" He alsosavs. . -.--i ': -2., t-',1 '&r; i' 'r-Ai 4i U y 6).; ttp d-u-6r JAr *, {r, d'-rl Say: "O you mankind! Now truth (i.e. the Qur'dn and Prophet Muhammad(peacebe upon him)) has come to you from your Lord. So whosoeverreceivesguidance,he does so for the good of his own self,and whosoevergoes astray, he does so fo his own /oss, 'Muslirn. I A n - N i s a4 : 7 0 . a
  • Islaom: Its Foundations And Concepts 217 and I am not (set) over you as a Wakil (disposerof affairsto oblige you for guidance)."' O manl lf you embracelslaam,you benefit none but yourself, and if you disbelieve harm none but your own self.Allaahis in no you need of His slaves.Sin of the sinnersdoes not harm Him nor do acts of obedienceof the obedientones benefit Him. He is not disobeyedunlessby His knowledge and He is not obeyed except with His permission. Allaahsays in what was reported from Him by His Prophet,"O My Slaves! | have made injusticeforbiddenfor myselfand I have also made it forbidden amongstyou, so do not wrong one another.O My slaves!You are all in error except him whom I guideso seek guidance from Me, I will guideyou. O May slaves!All of you are hungryexceptwhom I feed so seek food from Me, I will feed you. O My slaves!All of you are naked except him who I clothe;so seek clothing from Me, I will clotheyou! O My slaves! You commitsins by day and night,but I forgive sins.So all seekforgiveness from Me, I witlforgive you.O My slaveslYou can never be able to harm Me; and you can never be able to benefit yourselves, alonebenefiting let Me. O My slaves!lf the firstand the lastof you,and all the jinn and mankind amongyou were to be as pious as the most pious one among you, that adds nothingto My Kingdom. My slaves!lf the firstand the last amongyou, and all O the jinn and mankind you are to be as sinfulas the most sinful of one amongst you,that decreases nothing from My Kingdom. MyO slavesl lf the first of you and the last among you were to stand at one place and ask Me and I grant to each and everyone his request, that decreases nothingfrom My Kingdomexceptlike what a thread reducesfrom the ocean when it is dipped inside it and then withdrawn.O My slaves! These are only your deeds that I enumerateaccurately you, and upon which I give you reward. for So whoeverfinds good reward,let him thank Alliih, but whoever findsanything else,let him not blamebut himself."' ' Y o o n u sl 0 : 1 0 8 . I Reported Muslim by
  • 218 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Lordof the worlds.Peaceand blessings All praiseis due to Allaah, be upon the noblestof all Prophetsand Messengers, Prophet our Muhammad. Peacealso be uponhis household companions and
  • Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 219 Table of contents Translator's note.. . . .. ... ..2 Author'spreface. Where is the way? of (overall creation), Oneness Existence Allaah,His Lordship His and His being the only God worthy of worship. ....10 C r e a t i o n f t h eu n i v e r s e . . . . . o 29 The underling reason. 33 Creating and honouring man 40 The position woman of 46 W h yw a s m a nc r e a t e d ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Man'sneedfor religion Criteria identifying truereligion for the .62 Types f religions o . . .. . . . 7 2 relig o n s . . . Conditions the existing of r 75 The essence Proohethood. of a2 Signsof Prophethood. 91 Mankind's needfor the Messenoers
  • 220 Islaam: Its Foundutions And Concepts T h e F i n a lR e t u r n . . . . .1 0 0 Mission. Fundamentals the Messenoers' of 108 T h e E v e r l a s t i n ge s s a g e ....... M . .. . .11 3 T h eS e a l o fP r o p h e t h o o d . . . . . .......123 M e a n i n g f t h ew o r d :l s l a a m . o .......126 Reality disbelief of . . . ..130 Sources f lslaam. o .. 135 D e g r e eo f R e l i g i o n . s ..........149 -The FirstDegree. ....149 - T h eS e c o n d e g r e e . D ........156 - T h eT h i r d e g r e e . D ............178 S o m eo f t h e b e a u t i eo f l s l a a m s . . . .. . .1 8 1 - l t i s t h e o n l yr e l i g i o c h o s e n y A l l a a h n b .....182 -Comprehensiveness. . . .. . .. 1 8 3 -lt linksman to his Creator . . .1 8 3 - l t c a t e r s o r t h e b e n e f i to f t h i sw o r l da n d t h e H e r e a f t e r . . . . . . . . 1 8 4 f s .. -Easiness... ....185 -Justice. ........187
  • Islaom: Its Foundotions And Concepts 221 - E n j o i n i n glg o o d n df o r b i d d i n gle v i l . . . al a al .......187 Repentance.. 189 Repercussions rejecting of lslaam.. . . . . .. 194 -Fearandlackofsecuritv... . .......194 - D i f f i c u| li t e . . . . . . f ........195 -Lifein perpetual withselfand the worldaround.. war ...196 - A l i f eo f i g n o r a n c e . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 1 9 8 - A l i f eo f o n ew h o w r o n o s i m s e . f . h l. . . . .. . .. 1 9 8 oneself Allaah's Exposing to wrath... 199 - F a i l u r a n d l o s s . ... e - A l i f e o f d i s b e l i e fi n A l l a a h .. . .. . .. . . 2 0 2 -Beingdeprived a realand a purposeful of life... . 202 -Livrng an infinite in torment Conclusion. 208 Ai-Homaidhi Press 4581000 4592217 Printng Tel. Fax
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