A GLIMPSE OF ISLAMIC FAITH

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A GLIMPSE OF ISLAMIC FAITH

  1. 1. • A GLIMPSE OF ISLIMIC FIITI GHAlib AHMAd MASRi i:i+.<>!l..w P 0 -'-! ii ~ 1I(j..C. ib..oJ ] o I 9JLlil ~I uJLt
  2. 2. GLIMPSE A GLIMPSE OF ISLAMIC FAITH BY GHALIB MASRI GHALIB MASRI
  3. 3. Coopcrrdvc Otlcc for Cdl end Guldrmc ln Al-Brtbr, Riyrd 1996 CooperaUn Oflke for CaB and Guidance In AI-Batha, Riyadh, 1996 King Fahad National Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data King Fahad National Library Caralosing-in-Publication Data Musri, Ghalib Musri, Ghalib A glimpse of Islamic faith A of Islamic faith .... P, ...... CD1. . . . .P , . . . . . .c m . 9960-798-35-6 ISBN: 9960-798-35-6 I. Faith creeds) I. 1. Faith (Islamic creeds)l. Title 243 243 dc Lcgal Dcposit No. 0617/17 Legal Deposit 0617(17 ISBN:9960-798-35-6 ISBN:996G798-35-6
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS SUBJECT SUBJECT PAGE PAGE Dedication Dedication ............ 4 4 lntroduction ......... Introduction .. 5 5 Man's Need the CorrectCreed Man's Need for the Correct Creed .". 8 8 Monotheism Islam Monotheism in Islam 11 l1 Religion and Human Nature(Belief Religion and Human Nature (Belief in Allah) 133 1 Messengers Messengers of Allah 28 28 The Message Prophet The Message of Prophet Mu- hammad (PBUH) hammad 33 33 Pre-Islamic Times Pre-Islamic Times 33 33 The Mission....... The Mission......... 41 41 Character the Gracious Character of the Gracious Prophe(PBUH) Prophe (PBUH) 46 46 Holy Scriptures(the books of Allah) 63 Scriptures (the books of 63 The Holy Qur'an The Qur'an 65 65 The Hereafter Hereafter................................... 82 82 Divine Destiny Destiny................................. 8787 Angels of Allah Angels of 89 89 3
  5. 5. DEDICATION * * the Searchers Truth To the Searchers for Truth with anan open mind and an enlightened open and an enlightened heart... heart... * To those who are keen on saving * those who are keen on saving themselves from going astray and themselves from going astray and living in the broad expanse of the broad expanse Light. Light. * To every man and woman desiring to * every man and woman desiringto know about Islam'sattitudetowards know about Islam's attitude towards the major issues DIVINITY,'fHtr the major issues of DIVINITY, THE and LIFE, and about UNIVERSE and LIFE and about the position and role man the the position and role of man in the Universe. Universe. dedicatethis quick glimpse the I dedicate this quick glimpse of the Islamic Faith. Islamic Faith. 4
  6. 6. Introduction Introduction In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent. In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful the Merciful Islam has liberated man from mental Islam has liberated man from mental bondageand trained its followers to search bondage and trained its followers to search the truth open minds. for the truth with open minds. Allah hashas honouredthe humanmind and made a honoured the human mind and made it a means discovering tokens His ex- means of discovering the tokens of His ex- the istence and glory istence and glory in the universe and un- the universe and un- derstanding GloriousRevelation. derstanding His Glorious Revelation. His In the time when the non-Islamic world the time when the non-Islamic was suffering from the abyss of the so was suffering the abyss of the so calledDark Ages, the Islamic world was called Ages, the Islamic world was alreadyliving in an age of enlightenment already an age of enlightenment and had advanced in alt fields of life- and advanced all fields of spiritual and material. That is, in fact, a spiritual and material. That is, fact, 5
  7. 7. naturaloutcome of the living faith which natural outcome the living faith which is compatible with undefiledhuman na- is compatiblewith undefiled human na- ture. ture. When in action, the Islamic faith brings When action,the Islamic faith brings fonh other honourable examples hu- forth other honourable examples of hu- and guides man to the man civilization and guides man to the man Straight Path. This faith is summed up and StraightPath.This faith is summedup and pronounced pronounced in the following Arabic the Arabic Words: Words: tJ i ~i !I t, . i,i 5.!iii s dlJl U dJ 1U. i ~i " 1 a,lllU!.lJ lJtJ :riii • • gi II " ' dlJ 1J..... J I.. 0 " .. II. olJl Jg.rr1 l:oa-c It can be transliterated into Roman can be transliteratedinto Roman Letters as follows: Lettersas follows: '' ASH-HADU "ASH-HADU AN LA ILAHA ILLAL-LAAH, WA ASH-HADU ILLAL-LAAH. MUHAMMADAN RA- ANNA MUHAMMADAN RA- SULUL-LAAH." SULUL-LAAH." 6
  8. 8. Its meaningin English is Its meaning in English is :: ''I BEAR WITNESS THAT THERE IS "I BEAR WITNESS THAT THERE IS NO GOD BUT NO GOD BUT ALLAH; AND THAT THAT MUHAMMAD IS HIS MESSEN- MUHAMMAD IS HIS MESSEN- GER.'' GER." explanation the Muslim faith A brief explanation of the Muslim faith is given the pages. is given in the following pages. Yet this is this is only a glimpse thosewho are interested only a glimpse for those who are interested to know aboutthe articles to know about the articles of the Islamic the Islamic Faith.It could also be a step forward on could also be a step forwardon the way studying and discussingthe the way of studying and discussing the foundations Islamic belief. foundations of Islamicbelief. It could convince sincere searchers could convince sincere searchers for the truth to embrace the true religion. An the truth embrace the true religion. impartialassessment their beliefs and impartial assessment of their beliefs and of practicesshould hopefully lead them to practices should hopefully lead them shift their stand and guide them to the stand and guide them the only straightpath ( that is, Islam). straight path that Islam). 7
  9. 9. MAN'S NEED FOR MAN'S NEED FOR CORRECT CREED. THE CORRECT CREED. Man standsat the peak Man stands at the peak of creation and creationand holds the position the master this uni- holds the position of the master in this uni- verseowing to the unique qualities he en- verse owing to the unique qualities he en- joys. He is providedwith a number fa- joys. He is provided with a number of fa- culties and qualities that enable culties and qualities that enable him to to control and build this world. He is en- control and build this world. He is en- dowedwith sense makehim understand to dowed with sense to make him understand things and acquireknowledge. He is also things and acquire knowledge. He is also provided the means power and provided with the means of power and control.He enjoys,too, a variety control. He enjoys, too, a variety of emo- emo- tions and feelings, suchas love,hate,an- tions and feelings, such as love, hate, an- ger,etc.. ger, etc.. These qualitiesare two-edged weapons Thesequalities are two-edged weapons that can be employedeither for good or for that can be employed either good evil purposes. purposes. Power, for example,can be Power, example, can be usedeitherfor helping people and giving used either helping people and giving 8
  10. 10. them happiness.or wronging the weak them happiness. or for wronging the weak and oppressingthem. The human mind and oppressing them. human can be used either for inventing the means can used either inventing the means of luxury and comfort or for manufactur- and comfort manufactur- ing the devices of death and destruction. the devices deathand destruction. Therefore, there must be someother Therefore, there must be some other drive that is able to control these force or drive that is able to control these force human qualities and faculties and direct human qualities and faculties and direct the interest man and his com- them in the interest of man and his com- them munity. That is, the sound belief in the munity. That is, the sound the true God and His perfect One and Only true God and His perfect One and attributes and in the resurrection after attributes and the resurrectionafter death when everybody is brought to ac- death when everybody is brought to ac- count for his past deeds. This belief will count for his past deeds. This belief be the main factor that leads man be the main factor that leads man in the the away from right path and keeps him away from evil right path and keeps and injustice. helps to build a real ideal and injustice. It helps to build a real ideal society as was witnessedin the past society as it was witnessed in the past actual when Islam was embodied in actual life when Islam was embodied 9
  11. 11. and the Muslim soceitywas a concrete and the Muslim soceity was a concrete representation the Islamic faith. of representation of the Islamic faith. In fact, Allah doesnot needour belief In fact, Allah does not need our belief in Him, nor does He need our worship in Him, nor does He need our worship and submission to His exalted and submission to His exalted Will; it is we who need this belief order to be is we who need this belief in order to be coftect correct in our concept of life, the universe concept the universe and its Creator, and to achieveour happi- and its Creator, and to achieve our happi- ness and welfare both this ness and welfare both in this world and in and the Hereafter. the Hereafter. l10 0
  12. 12. MONOTHEISM I N I S L A M MONOTHEISM IN ISLAM ISLAM, general, means surrender- ISLAM, in general, means surrender- ing one's whole self to Allah, getting rid one's getting of polytheismand completesubmission to polytheism and complete submission the orders and instructions of the orders and instructions of Allah. Submission to Allah is a thing which Submission thing Allah requires of the whole humanity as AUah requires the whole humanity as He its Creator;He has createdthe whole He is its Creator; He has created the whole universe and He alone dominates over it. universeand He alone dominates over is the duty creaturesto their Creator It is the duty of creatures to their Creator and a requisite of their servility to their and a requisite their servility to their Lord. Lord. Adam, Noah, Islam was the religion of Adam, Noah, Islam was the religion Abraham and other prophets up to Abraham and other prophets up to Mu- hammad (peaceand blessing Allah be hammad (peace and blessing of Allah be upon them), for their faith was one and upon them), for their faith was one and the siune, although the applied ethics the same, although the applied ethics 11l 1
  13. 13. might be different. might be different. The Islamic faith consistsof six funda- The Islamic faith consists of six funda- mentals: mentals: I - in AUah. 1 - Belief in Allah. 2 - Belief His Angels. 2 - Belief in His Angels. - Belief Divine Books. 3 - Belief in Divine Books. - Belief His Prophers. 4 - Belief in His Prophets. - 5 - Belief in the Last Day. the Last Day. - Divine Destinv. 6 - Belief in Divine Destiny. The first fundamental is rhe most im- The fundamental the most Im- port of all. port of all. t12 2
  14. 14. RELIGION AND HUMAN RELIGION HUMAN NATURE ( Belief in Allah ) Allah) Everyone is bom upright Everyone is born upright by nature.nature. Pure natureleads Allah, the One and Pure nature leads to Allah, the One and fact, human nature Only true God. In fact, human nature true God. Almighty Allah's existence awakes to Almighty Allah's existence awakes even earlier than we very early in life, even earlier than we very early may think. We generally think that only may think. We generally think that only an older person pondersover Allah's an older person ponders over Allah's existenceand Oneness. existence and Oneness. But if we ob- we ob- a little child, we notice serve the life of a little child, we notice serye the that a certain stage his life he asks that in a certain stage of his life he asks his parents endlessquestionsaLroutthe his parents endless questions about the thingshe sees aroundhim the universe. things he sees around him in the universe. Who madethe heaven? is the sky Who made the heaven? Why is the sky blue? Where does the sun go at night? blue? Where does the sun go at night? Why doesn't it appear to us at night? doesn't appear to us at night? T3 13
  15. 15. go when the dark Where does light go when the dark Where does do stars gliaer? Where comes? Why do stars glitter? Where comes? does the earth end? Why does one flower does the earthend? doesone flower have smell while another doesn't? Where have smell another doesn't?Where did I come from? Where was I before I come from? Where was before these questions came? etc. What do all these questions came? etc. What do mean and indicate? mean and indicate? They indicate that nature In this child They indicate that nature in this awake and recognize the has begun to awake and recognize the has begun Creator of the earth and heavens through Creator the earthand heavensthrough His tangible and seen creation. There are tangibleand seen creation.There are several effects that touch man's senses severaleffects that touch man's senses and awaken him to the fact of Allah's ex- and awaken to the fact Allah's ex- istence,Oneness and peerlessness. istence, Oneness and peerlessness. The The universe, so vast and wide, would certain- universe, vast and wide, would certain- so awaken man to that plain fact.Those ly awaken man to that plain fact. Those great dimensions in the skies and the great dimensions the skies and the earth... those countless, immense, celes- earth... thosecountless, immense, celes- tial bodies... Who hascreated them? The tial bodies... Who has created them? The 14 1,4
  16. 16. earth, though too tiny compared with earth, though too compared other celestial bodies, contains moun- other celestial bodies, contains moun- tains, plains, oceans, seas and rivers tains, plains, oceans, seas and rivers that would take the whole life of man to that take the man leam about a small part learn about a small part of them. How, them. then, about the solar system of which then, about the solar system earth is a part? our earth is only a part? How about the about the way which milky way of which our solar system solar system is considered a small part?. is considered a small part? And other other celestial masses which contain millions celestial masseswhich contain millions and millions galaxies and millions of galaxies like ours? And ours? millions and millions of stars in compari- and stars compari- son with which the large sun is consid- son which the large sun is consid- ered to be too small? ered be too small? With all its bulkiness, the UnIverse IS its bulkiness, the universe is marvellously accurate. Night and day marvellously accurate. and day eachother so preciselythat we ad- follow each other so precisely that we ad- just our watches to them. In fact, the watches them. fact, the its astro- whole universe IS so exact in its astro- whole universe is so exact t5 15
  17. 17. nomical revolutionthat clocks in observa- nomical revolution that clocks in observa- tories, which are the most accurate tories, which are the most accurate clocks we have and to which clocks in clocks we have and to which clocks in broadcasting stations are adjusted, are broadcasting stations are adjusted, are themselves adjustedto the extremelyaccu- themselves adjusted to the extremely accu- rate astronomical revolution which is rate astronomical revolution which is never disturbed never disturbed in the course of time un- the course time un- less, course, less, of course, Allah willed it otherwise. Allah willed otherwise. Every being,animateand inanimate, en- Every being, animate and inanimate, en- joys such miraculous accuracy. Have you joys suchmiraculous accuracy.Have you seenthe extremelyminute seen the extremely minute living cell that cell that can be seen only under the microscope? can be seen under the microscope? Yet it grows, splits and performs highly grows, splits and performs highly wonderfrrltaskswhich makeman helpless wonderful tasks which make man helpless and humble towards the omnipotence of and humble towards the omnipotence Ailah! Who, other than Allah, has in- Allah! Who, other than Allah, has fused it with the secretof life and guided fused it the secret of and guided it to suchsurprisingactivity? it such surprising activity? 16 16
  18. 18. A germ cannot be seenwith the unaided A genn cannot be seen with the unaided eye. A minute kind called 'virus' cannotbe eye. A minute kind called 'virus' cannot be seen even under the ordinary microscope. seen even under the ordinary microscope. Yet, you know from your studies in Yet, you know from your studies in sciencethat it might causethe most dead- science that it might cause the most dead- ly disease unless man immunized him- ly disease unless man immunized him- self against meansofmedicines and self against it by means of medicines and serums.The multicellular being, man at serums. The multicellular being, man at the top, was originally one impregnated the top, was originally one impregnated went on splitting and growing cell which went on splitting and growing till till it became an integral being. What became an integral being. power, other than that of Allah, has giv- power, other than that of has en it life and activity? Most surprising and activity? surprising in that splitting process is the fact that process thosecells appear sirnilar in their begin- those cells appear similar begin- ning, then orders are given to them ro spe- orders are to spe- cialize and take certain forms - one cell cialize take certain - one cell moyes to a certain place and becomesan moves to a certain place and becomes an ear or part of an ear; another cell goesto ear or part of an ear; another cell goes to another position and becomes an eye or another position and becomes an eye or t17 7
  19. 19. part of it; a third becomes one of the a becomes one the cells; a turns bones"' etc' brain cells; a fourth turns into bones ... etc. those invisible cells re- What order did those invisible cells re- order ceive and obey in such extraordinary ex- ceive and obey such extraordinary actitude? It is the order of the Creator. actitude? the order the Creator' He order s them and they obey Him, and orders them and theY obey and move and form in accordance with His move and accordance Divin e Will. Divine Witl. - coloured Have you obser ved a multi - coloured Have you observed a has be- fragrant beautiful flower? Who has be- fragrant beautiful flower? stowed it with that fragrance and how stowed that fragrance and have these colours combined it? Sup- have these colours comb ined in it? Sup- perfume a flower so that pose you tried to perfume a flower so that pose it would diffuse fragrance from morning diffuse fragrance moming to eveni ng, and to paint it in all colours evening, and paint colours so that it woul d not lose colour so long as so that would not lose colour so long as it exists. How hard would it be for exists. hard would be you, and how far would your attempt be you, and would Your attemPtbe successful? If all people on earth busied successful?If people on earthbusied l8 18
  20. 20. themselveswith such a task with all flow- themselves with such a task with all flow- en growing on earttr or in the sea, could ers growing on earth or in the sea, could they perform it? they perform it? And even if they could, even if they could, what time and effort would be left for oth- what time and effort would be left for oth- er activities? er activities? flowers on earth Yet millions of flowers on earth grow scented,colouredand pleasant. Allatr has scented, coloured and pleasant. Allah has created created all without the least effort or dis- the least dis- traction directing the immense traction from directing the immense uni- verse, verse, for He (Glory be to Him!) only be says thing: "Be! says to a thing: "Be! And it is". For Him, is". For it is so easy. so easy. The phenomenaof death and life also phenomena of death and also attract man's attention to the miraculous attract man's attention the miraculous Divine Power that gives life and death. Power that gives and death. What is life in reality? It is a marvellous reality? It marvellous secret which no one can explain. All that secret one can explain. All that man has so far attemptedis the interpreta- has attempted interpreta- t9 19
  21. 21. tion of some phenomenaof life such as of some phenomena of life such as movement, growth and physiology. As for movement, physiology. for life itself - what is it? How does it exist in life itself does it living things? How does it living things? How does it direct them to fulfil their functions? All this is a vague fulfil functions? All vague mystery incomprehensible to man. Man, mystery incomprehensible man. especially biologists,has employed all his especially biologists, has employed create one scientific knowledge to create one cell of knowledge billions of living cells with which the di- cells the was vain. vine creation abounds, but all was in vain. creation abounds, As for man's livelihood, whether in the man'slivelihood, whether the the sky; crops form of rain falling from the sky; crops growing from earth; fish, birds and ani- earth; fish, birds and ani- mals; treasures and minerals underground; mals; treasures and minerals underground; the air we breathe; the wind driving ships the we brcathe; the wind driving ships on the sea; or power driving machines on the sea; power driving machines such as steam power, electric power; such as steam power, electric Power; wa- atomic energy, the power of fuel or of wa- atomic energy,the power fuel ter falling down from mountains - who, ter falling down from mountains - who, 20
  22. 22. other than Ailah, providesall these? "Lo? other than ABah, provides all these? "Lo? Allah, He it is that gives livelihood, the Allah, He it is that gives livelihood, the Lord unbeatable might". (Qur'an, Lord of unbeatable might". (Qur'an, 51:58) 5i:58) Man yeamsafter the unseenwhich only Man yearns after the unseen which only Allah knows,but all his atrernpts Allah knows, but all his attempts fail. He fail. He longsto know what is longs to know what is in store for him in storefor him his future life, what his lot his future life, what his lot will be next be next year, what is going to happento him a year, what is going to happen to him a month a week a day later and what month or a week or a day later and what is going to take place in a moment. He is going to take place in a moment. He cannot discover what is going to take cannot discover what is going to take placein a moment, whether place good evil. moment, whether good or evil. Who, other thanAllah alone, enjoys om- Who, other than alone.enjoys om- niscience,since He hascreated everything niscience, sinceHe has created everything and nothing in the heavens and the earth and nothing the heavens and the earth escapes escapes His infinite knowledge?. infinite knowledge? Many things impress the human mind, Many things impress the human mind, awakeningit to the idea of the OneGod, awakening the idea of the One God, 2l 21
  23. 23. with no partner. It perceives that He with partner. It perceives alone possesses perfection, might, glory, alonepossesses perfection, might, glory, and limitless power. greatness and limitless Power. greatness " He is AUah, the One and OnlY; Allah,, Allah, the One and Only; Allah the Etemal, Absolute; He begetteth not, the Eternal, Absolute; begetteth Nor is He begotten;and there is none like begotten; and there none unto Him." (The Holy Quran 112:1-4) unto (The HolY Quran ll2:l-4) enjoy righteousnature Thus, man would enjoy righteous nature Thus, man and be an upright believer. and an uPright believer. the human nature sometimessuf- But the human nature sometimes suf- derangement and relapse'The fers from derangement and relapse. The fers perception may be dulled; so faculty of perception may be dulled; so faculty man fails to perceive the signs of inimita- man fails perceive the signs inimita- bility in the universe and life. He forgets bility the universe and life' He forgets the miraculous power that gives the miraculous powe r that gives liveli- com- hood, controls events and possesses com- hood, controlseventsand possesses prehensiveknowledge of the seenand the prehensive knowledge of the seen and the 22
  24. 24. unseen. unseen. When man undergoesa new experience, When man undergoes a new experience, all his senses will be alert to it. If he no- all his senses will be alert to it. If he no- tices a sceneor hearssomething new for tices a scene or hears something new for the first time or goesto a new town, street the first time or goes to a new town, street house, he be careful to recognise or house, he will be careful to recognise the details the new place. He is high- the details of the new place. He is high- impressed since is new to him; ly impressed since it is new to him; but as as he grows familiar with the scene or place he grows familiar the scene place and sees several times, his sensesno and sees it several times, his senses no longerpay much, or perhaps the least,at- longer pay much, perhaps the least, at- tention to it. tention Sometimes man behaves likewise to- Sometimes behaves likewise wards Allah. He forgets that Allah is the wards forgets Allah Creator,the Director, the Giver of life and Creator, the Director, the Giver of life and death. He overlooks the multitudes of death. He overlooks the multitudes of signsin this universe. He neglects to ob- signs in this universe. He neglects to ob- servethe rising sun and light until they are serve the rising sun and light until they are 23 23
  25. 25. swallowedup in the dark. He fails to no- swallowed up in the dark. He to no- tice the fragrant, beautiful flowers with fragrant, beautiful flowers joyous colours and the melodious notes joyous colours and the melodious notes of song-birds. He ignoresthunder,light- of song -birds. ignores thunder, ning and rain falling from the clouds. He and the clouds. disregards new-bombaby and the dead disregards the new-born baby and the dead the man. He forgetsabout his completeweak- man. forgets about complete weak- ness relation the absolute powerof ness in relation to the absolute power Allah. Allah. Otherthingsmay dull man's senses He- Other things may dull man's senses - He may be busy with his food, drink, whims may be busy with his food, drink, whims and transient worldly comforts, which and transient worldly comforts, which would divert his mind from considering would divert his mind from considering the portents in the universe, seeking the portents in the universe, seeking Allah's favour and remembering the Allah's favour and remembering the Hereafter and the reckoning and retri- Hereafter and the reckoning and retri- bution in it. bution in it. Another cause of dull perceptionmay Another cause of dull perception may 24 24
  26. 26. be deviation from Allah's orders. Man be deviation from Allah's orders. Man would be rebeilious against Allah on would be rebeilious against Allah on earth and follow his own lust -- He would earth and tbllow his own lust He would go beyondwhat AUah allows him to do go beyond what Allah allows him to do becauseof his greedinessand his desire because of his greediness and his desire to have mastery over others and make to have mastery over others and make them slavesto his desires; so he encroach- them slaves to his desires; so he encroach- es upon their property, honour blood es upon their property, honour or blood and wants deify himself so as to be wor- and wants to deify himself so as to be wor- shippedbesideAllah. He may be too proud shipped beside Allah. He may be too proud to serveAllah, to serve Allah, or he may be fascinated he may be fascinated what he possesses - his talents, health, by what he possesseshis talents,health, power, money or anythingAllah has bes- power, money anything has bes- towed on him. He thinks he has acquired towed thinks he has acquired them by his own power and forgets that them power and forgets that all these bounties emanatedfrom Allah. these bounties emanated The humanperceptionor mind gets dull The human perception or mind gets dull owing to one of the afore-mentionedrea- owing to one of the afore-mentioned rea- sons or to other deviations and relapses; sons or to other deviations and relapses; 25 25
  27. 27. so it forgets AUah wholly or ascribes a so forgets Allah wholly ascribesa pafiter to Him and imagines that some- partner and imaginesthat some- one or something in the universeshares one somettring the universe shares divinity, majesty and power with Allah. divinity, majesty and power Allah. Thus, the human nature getscorruptand Thus, the human nature gets corrupt and is possessed Satan, who drives away is possessed by Satan, who drives it away from Divine Guidanceand Favour. Yet, from Divine Guidance and Favour. Yet, go Alatr does not let His sewants astray; Allah does not let His servants go astray; so He sent them Prophets call them to to so He sent them Prophets to call them to guidance turn them backto truth. He and guidance and turn them back to truth. He has sent Muhammad(peace blessing and has sent Muhammad (peace and blessing Allatr be uponhim) as the last prophet of Allah be upon him) as the last prophet to be a harbinger good tidings and a to be a harbinger of good tidings and a wamer to mankindup to the Day warner to all mankind up to the Day of Resurrection. Resurrection. He revealedto him the Qur'an gua- and He revealed to him the Qur'an and gua- ranteedits preservation," We, even Lo! ranteed its preservation," Lo! We, even We, reveal the Reminder(i.e.the We, reveal the Reminder (i.e.the Qur'an) Qur'an) and h! We verily are its guardian". and La! We verily are its guardian". 26 26
  28. 28. (Qur'an,l5:9). (Qur'an, 15:9). The Qur'anincludes ttrat is essential The Qur'an includes all that is essential humannatureto be nobleandvirtuous, for human nature to be noble and virtuous, guidesto ttrereal meaning divinity and guides to the real meaning of divinity and acquaints the Rightful God, Creator acquaints with the Rightful God, Creator and Director the universe,Owner and Director of the universe, Owner of Sovereignty without any partner. Sovereignty without any partner. 27 27
  29. 29. MESSENGERSOF ALLAH MESSENGERS OF ALLAH One of the fundamentalsof faith is the of the fundamentals of is the belief in the Prophets (messengersof belief Prophets (messengers of AUah). A man cannot be considered a Allah). A cannot considered Muslim or a believer unless he believes believer unless believes that Allah sent to mankind Prophetsfrom Allah sent Prophets among themselves, who conveYed the among themselves, conveyed the Truth revealed to them from their Lord, revealed them ALLAH, brought them good tidings, ALLAH, brought them good tidings, wamed them, expoundedand interpreted warned them, expounded and interpreted them. Hence, man Allah's message for them. Hence, man Allatr's message will be considered Muslim only will be considered a Muslim only if he a he all prophets and that they all believes in all prophets and that they all believes brought the sametruth from Allah, with- brought the same truth from Allah, with- out making distinction between any of out making distinction between any of them. them. "Say (O Muhammad): We believe in "Say (0 Muhammad): We believe in Allah and that which was revealedunto us Allah and that which was revealed unto us 28
  30. 30. and that which was revealed unto and that which was revealed unto Abratram and Ismael and Isaac and Jacob Abraham and Ismael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and that and the tribes, and that which was vouch- was vouch- safed unto Moses and Jesus and the Pro- safed unto Moses and Jesus and the Pro- phets their Lnrd. We make no dis- phets from their Lord. We make no dis- between any tinction between any of them, and unto them, and unto we have surrendered". (Qur'an,3: 84) Him we have surrendered". (Qur'an, 3: 84) has enjoined Why has Allah enjoined belief in the the Prophets and made Prophets and made it a fundamental of a fundamental faith besides faith besides belief in Him, though the though rhe is the basis everything? belief in Allah is the basis of everything? The answer obvious. The answer is obvious. How can man can man know his Lord and worship Him in the his and worship the right way without the Prophets and their the Prophets and guidance? Consider the falsehoods of guidance? Consider the falsehoods of mankind concerning their Lord through- mankind concerning through- out history, how they imagined Him and history, they imagined and worshippedHim in their variousages of worshipped Him various ages of pre-Islamic paganism. Once they ima- pre-Islamic paganism. Once 29 29
  31. 31. gined gined Him in the fonn of the sun's disc, as the form the sun'sdisc, as was the case was the case with ancient Egyptians; once ancientEgyptians;once the form in the fonn of supennan, as did the Greeks superman,as the Greeks and Romans; once and Romans; once in the fonn of the the form the moon, another the form moon, another in the fonn of a star and a star and another still another in the fonn of an idol. So the form an So fancies fancies differed and all strayed from the and strayed the true god because they sought guidance true god because they sought guidance from their own imagination, desires and imagination,desires and knowledge and didn't limited knowledge and didn't follow the the the truth in the right way as continned by as confirmed Allah, that is through Prophets to whom that through Prophets whom the Truth had beenrevealed. the Truth had been revealed. less wrong was the perception No less wrong was the perception of ideological ignorance various times of ideological ignorance various times when there were small gods besides the when there were small gods besides the Lord of lords who enjoyed some of His lords enjoyed some traits, such as a god of rain, another of traits, suchas god rain, another lightning, another thunder, another lightning, another of thunder, another of 30
  32. 32. the wind, another of the sea (Neptune) the wind, another of the sea (Neptune) as another of fertility, anottrerof progeny as another of fertility, another of progeny and others of every affair of life. and others of every affair of life. If we believe that Divinity and If we believe that Divinity and Lord- ship are the ship are the major issues in the life of man issues the man man and that the worship man and that the worship of Allah is the is the object humanexistence: created ttre object of human existence: "I created the jinn and humankind jinn and humankind only that they might that they might worship (Qur'an,51:56), worship Me." (Qur'an,51:56), then, wethen, we will understand will understand why belief in the Pro-the pro- phets is a principal constituent of faith; phets principal constifuent faith; for as we have seen in historical reality, as have seen historical reality, it is impossible for humanity to be guid- impossible humanity be ed to the truth with regardto divinity and the regard and worship through other than the right and than and authorized source, that is - the prophets authorized source, that - the prophets senrby Almighry Allah. sent Almighty The sameappliesto the necessityof be- The same applies to the necessity of 31 31
  33. 33. in all prophets without distinction lief in all prophets without distinction whatsoeverbetweenany them. They whatsoever between any of them. They all one purpose. They were sent came for one purpose. They were sent came to make to make it known that there is only ONE that there is GOD in the whole universe, that is the whole universe, that is AUah (Be He glorified and high Almighty Allah (Be He glorified and high exalted!) no partner.They exalted!) with no partner.They said to peo- said to peo- ple, "Serve ple, "Serve Allah! Ye have no other god have no other god but Him". (Qur'an,11:50, but Him". (Qur'an, 11:50,11:61, 11:84). l1:61, l1:84). So, what is the meaning of believing in So, what is the meaning believing itt one prophet and denying another? fact, one prophet and denying another? In fact, denying any of them is the same as deny- denyingany them is the same as deny- ing them all, since they expounded to men them sincethey expounded men the same thing revealedto them by Allah: the same revealed them "We sent no messengerbefore thee but sent messenger before thee we inspired him (saying): There is no inspired (saying): There god Save Me (Allah), so worship Me". god Save (Allah), so worship (Qur'an,2l:25) (Qur'an, 21 :25) 32 32
  34. 34. THE,MESSEGE PROPHET OF THE MESSEGE OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD( Peace be Upon Him) Peace UponHim) be --------------------------- --------------------------- Pre- IslamicTimes: Pre - Islamic Times: Before the advent man- Before the advent of ISLAM all man- kind had degenerated into the worst kind had degenerated into the worst of sktesandthedarkest stages. states and the darkest of stages. Arabia was predominated Not only Arabia was predominated by such pagan ignorance; the whole such pagan ignorance; the whole world suffered 'great' suffered from it. There were two 'great' There were states: Persiaand Byzantium; they ruled states: Persia and Byzantium; they ruled most the most of the world at that time. Either had at that time. Either had a historic'civilization',but what was its historic 'civilization', but what was its basisand what was the mental, psycholo- basis and what was the mental, psycholo- gical and material standard of its people? gical and material standard its people? In Penia a 'Khosrau' ruled. He was not ln Persia 'Khosrau' ruled. was 'god'.The cere- merely a ruler; he was a 'god'. The cere- merely ruler; he was 33 33
  35. 35. monies greetingwere nearest to those monies of greeting were nearest to those worship. Feoplewere really slaves to of worship. People were really slaves to that god, - whatevertheir rank and that god, living - whatever their rank and class was - the way that Khosrau'orhis class was - in the way that Khosrau' or his inherited royal traditions would allow. inherited royal traditions would allow. 'handful' a Only a 'handful' of people enjoyed the people enjoyedthe riches of the country - that is, the court of riches the country that is, the court Khosrauthat held sway over the masses; Khosrau that held sway over the masses; while the latter were an abject state while the latter were in an abject state of poverty, slavery and humiliation. The as- poverty, slavery and humiliation. The as- pects 'pomp' and 'civilization'were pects of 'pomp' and 'civilization' were all confined the palace. the 'people', confined to the palace. As for the 'people', they were importantas they were important as far as they served as they served the interests the interests of these ruling masters with these ruling masters 'god' that 'god' at their head. Yes, there were that at their head. Yes, therewere arts and materialproduction, arts and material production, but all was was used, along people, used, along with people, for the sake of the sake those interests. The those interests. The official worship was worship was that of fire. Morals had collapsed and that fire. Morals had collapsed and Mazdek'scommunism and permissiveness, Mazdek's comrnunismand permissiveness, 34 34
  36. 36. dissolution and anarchyhad spread.What dissolution and anarchy had spread. What mental, spiritual and material contempt mental, spiritual and material contempt man- under that 'great' civilization had man- under that 'great' civilization -- had lived in! lived in! In Byzantium conditions were no better. In Byzantium conditions were no better. Caesarwas surrounded Caesar was surrounded with the same ha- the sameha- loes as Khosrau, and people were, as loes as Khosrau, and people were, as in every state ideologicalignorance, every state of ideological ignorance, mas- mas- ters and bondsmen. These bondsmen ters and bondsmen. These bondsmen fought and died greatnumbers fought and died in great numbers only in the cause the 'Empire' the cause of the 'Empire' and the personal and the personal glories of Caesar and his commanders. glories of Caesar and his commanders. Like Persia, there were arts,material pro- Persia, there were arts, material duction and building, but for whosesake: duction and whose sake: The mastersor the bondsmen?Are there masters bondsmen? there for bondsmen other than serving their for bondsmen than serving their masters? There was a creed! - a pagan masters? There was a creed! - a pagan creed guarded by the church and the creed guarded by the church and the clergy:God is One of three! Christ was clergy: God is One of three! Christ was 35 35
  37. 37. the son of God! Bishops and monks were the sonof God! Bishops and monkswere lords lords ruling the domain of minds and the domain minds and spirits contrary to God's revelations and spirits contrary God's revelations and the property people taking the property of people unlawfully; whereas, Caesar was ruling the physical whereas, Caesar was the physical domain in accordance with the Roman domain accordance the Roman (i.e. Law (i.e. not in accordance with Divine accordance Law). People were servants of the court People were servants the on the one hand and servants of the Pope the one hand and servants the Pope bishops and rnonks the other. and his bishops and monks on the other. and Beyond the 'great' empires therewere Beyond the 'great' empires there were 'civilizations' the Chinese and Indian 'civilizations' in the Chinese and trndian Asia. Asia. In India, as everywhere else, there were India, as everywhereelse, therewere lords and bondsmen. tsut bondsmen there lords and bondsmen. But bondsmen there had a peculiar position. They were be- had a peculiar position. They were be- lieved have beencreatedfrom the god's lieved to have been created from the god's foot, so they were considered unclean. foot, so they were consideredunclean. 36 36
  38. 38. They had to endureall humiliation, con- They had to endure all humiliation, con- tempt and torture they underwent; tempt and torture they underwent; for on on the one hand, that was the one hand, that was their fate; and on fate; and on the other, was their sole way to salva- the other, it was their sole way to salva- " tion through transmigration souis.Man, tion through transmigration of souls. Man, according to them, spetrdshis fixed according to them, spends his fixed life, then his soul passes then his soul passes into another new bo- into another new bo- dy. If the enslaved untouchables were dy. If the enslaved untouchableswere satisfied satisfied with their fate, surrendered to hu- fate, surrendered miliation and carried out the hardest and and carried the hardestand dirtiest pieces dirtiest pieces of work, their souls might souls pass otherpersons superior slaves pass into other persons superior to slaves and get thereby pursued salva- and get thereby to their pursued salva- tion, though they wouldn't acquire the tion, though they wouldn't acquire the rank of their masters who were created of masters were created from the deity's heador ann! the deity'shead arm! There werc countless There were countless formsof worship fonns worship offered to countless offered countless deities,but theyhad deities, but they had one thing 10 cornmon,that is - ERROR. one thing in common, that is - ERROR. 37 37
  39. 39. Perhapsthe most curious thing was 'tem- Perhaps the most curious thing was 'tem- ple prostitutes'whostayed ple prostitutes' who stayed in temples for temples the sake deity! No, the sake of deity! No, for the sake of Sa- the sake Sa- tan! might be the 'cow tan! But stranger still might be the 'cow stranger worship' - men worship' - men wallowing in its dung and dung and bathing its urine, bathing its urine, for the sake of god's the sake god's blessing! If the cow could have spoken it blessing! If the could have spoken would have laughed at its worshippers have laughed at worshippers and would have been surprised to see man, and have been surprised seeman, whom whom Allah has honoured, satisfied with has honoured, satisfied suchdegradation! such degradation! At the end of the earth there was China, the end of the earth there was China, vast expanse land ruled a vast expanse of land ruled by an emper- an emper- - sacred or - sacred like all rulers of the time. Rites rulers of the time. Rites of worship and sacrifices were offered to of worship and sacrifices were offered him and people prostratedthemselves be- and people prostrated themselves fore him. The god worshippedwas Bud- worshipped was dha, whose imageswere graven and wor- dha, whose images were graven and shipped by people. [n Buddhism, as in shipped people. In Buddhism, as 38
  40. 40. the Indian religions, the body was de- the Indian religions, the body was de- spisedand tortured for the redemption spised and tortured for the redemption the soul,andworldly was scorned of the soul, and worldly life was scorned and rejected ttre attainment immor- and rejected for the attainment of immor- tality. Immortality! But where? and tality. Immortality! But where? and in what form? is immortality with Bud- what fonn? It is immortality with Bud- dha the world imagination. There dha in the world of imagination. There werearts, material production and 'wis- were arts, material production and 'wis- dom' but was no avail, people dom' but all was of no avail, for people themselves werelost. themselves were lost. Arabia was drowned Arabia was drowned in religious ig- religious norance, the rest norance, like the rest of mankind.There mankind. There were three religions, all of which were were three religions, which were misguided.Jews, who wereliving in the misguided. Jews, who were living the outskirtsof Medina,had distortedtheir outskirts Medina, had distorted their holy' book centuriesbefore, stuffed it 'holy' book centuries before, stuffed with lies and legends, changedthe Di- lies and legends,changed the vine Revelationand renounced wholly, vine Revelation and renounced it wholly, complying with their whimsandinterests. complying whims and interests. 39 39
  41. 41. There were, also, small Christian groups There were, also, small Christian groups who held false beliefs, such as the Trinity, who held false beliefs, such as the Trinity, the deifieation of Jesusor considering the deification of Jesus or considering him a son of God. Arab idolators throughout a son of God. Arab idolators throughout Arabia worshipped idols Arabia worshipped idols which were were placed inside placed inside AL- KA'BA, the Holy the House God (AUah), the place House of God (Allah), the place which Abraham and Ismael had been ordered Abraham and Ismael had been ordered by Allah to build in order that Allah alone order that alone should be worshipped should be worshipped without ascribing ascribing any parmer any partner to Him. Yet, they claimed Yet, they claimed they were they were followers of Abraham. A va- Abraham. riety of myths had nested in their minds. of myths had nested their minds. Angels, for example, were the daughters Angels, example, were the daughters of Allah and they werc worshipped on of Allah and they were worshipped that account. The jinn (i.e. genies) be- that account. jinn (i.e. genies) be- longed to Allah and were, therefore,wor- longed Allah and were, therefore, shipped.Idols were carved and then wor- shipped. were carved and then shipped by people. Many new-bom shipped people. new-born girls were buried alive for fear of shame were fear of shame 40 40
  42. 42. or poverty. Women were scomed and or poverty. Women were scorned and wronged. Wine was drunk, games of wronged. Wine was drunk, games of chance(i.e.maysir) were used to, and chance (Le. maysir) were used to, and adultery was allowed-Life was spent in adultery was allowed. Life was spent in drinking, amusement and plundering raids' drinking,amusement plunderingraids. and 'Man' was 'Lost' as was his casein all 'Man' was 'Lost' as was case states religiousignorance. Thatwasthe states of religious ignorance.That was the state of the world beforeMuhammadwas state the world before Muhammad was sent to savemankind from the darkness of sent to save mankindfrom the darkness error: error~ The Mission: The Mission: there In this extremely dark atmosphere there In this extremely dark atmosphere shonea Light; it was Muhammad, son shone a Light; it was Muhammad, son of Abdullah, (peace andblessing Allah of of Abdullah, (peace andblessing of Allah be upon him). be upon him)" The Jews in Medina, before the Pro- The Jews in Medina, before the pro- phethood of Muhammad (PBUFI), had phethood of Muhammad (PBUH), had ill 41
  43. 43. often said to its inhabitants, 'The time of a often said to its inhabitants, The time a prophet has almost arrived. We shall prophet has almost arrived. We shall fight with him against you and defeat against you and defeat you'. The Jews, you'. The Jews, in fact, depended in fact, depended upon the Torah, their claim upon the Torah, which in- dicates that the old copies of the Torah dicates that the copies the Torah not only mentioned Prophet Muhammad's not mentionedProphetMuhammad's name and description, but also pointed name and description, but also pointed to his prophethood and its approximate to his prophethood and its approximate time. time. his 'Muhammad In his 'Muhammad in the Bible', Prof. the Bible', Prof. Abdul Ahad Dawud, former Bishop of Abdul Ahad Dawud, former Bishop Uramiah, quotes the Uramiah, quotes the following verses verses from Haggai, ii: 79, which he has trans- from Haggai, ii; 79, which he has trans- lated from an Assyriancopy the Bible, lated from an Assyrian copy of the Bible, 'And 'And I will shake all nations and the Hi- shake all nationsand the mada of all the nations will come - and in rnada the nations come and this place give shalom, saysthe this place I will give shalom, says the Lord of hosts'. Lord hosts'. 42 42
  44. 44. The word 'Himada' is derivedfrom an The 'Himada' derived an archaic Hebrew rather Aramaic archaicHebrew or rather Aramaic root Hebrew 'hemed' generally hemed'. In Hebrew 'hemed' is generally 'hemed'. used the sense great desire, covet, used in the senseof great desire, covet, appetite and lust. In Arabic the verb appetite and lust. Arabic the verb 'hamida' means 'to praise' and so on. 'hamida' means 'to praise' and so on. What more praised and illustrious than What is more praisedand illustrious than that which is most craved for, covet- that is most craved for, covet- ed and desired. Whichever of the two ed and desired. Whichever the meanings be adopted, the fact that Ahmad meaningsbe adopted, the fact that Ahmad is the Arabic fonn of Himda remains in- is the Arabic form Himda remains The Qur'an (61: disputable and decisive. The Qur'an (61: disputableand decisive. 6) declares that Jesus announced unto declares that Jesus announcedunto the people of Israel the coming of an the people Israel the coming an Apostle from Allah whose name was to Apostle from whose name was to be 'Ahmad'. be'Ahmad'. The Gospel of 51. John, being written in The Gospel St. John,being written 'Pariclytos',a bar- Greek, uses the name 'Pariclytos', a bar- Greek, usesthe name barous fonn unknown to classical Greek barousform unknown to classicalGreek 43 43
  45. 45. literature. But 'Periclytos', which corres- literature. But 'Periclytos', which corres- pondsexactly wirh Ahmad in its signi- ponds exactly with Ahmad in its signi- fication of illustrious', 'glorious' and fication of 'illustrious', 'glorious' and 'praised', in its superlative degree,must 'praised', in its superlative degree, must have been the franslation into Greek of have been the translation into Greek of 'Himda' 0r probably 'Hemida' 'Himda' or probably 'Hemida' of the the Aramaic form, as uttered Aramaic fonn, as uttered by Jesus Christ. JesusChrist. Aias! there is no Ccspel e.xtant the Alas! there is no Gospel extant in the original languagespoken Jesus. original language spoken by Jesus. As to the etyrnologyand significanceof As to L~e etymology and significance of the Hebrew words'shaiom'and 'shalama'. the Hebrewwords 'shalom' and 'shalama', and the Arabic words'salam'and'Islam',I and the Arabic words 'salam' and 'Islam', I (i.e.,Prof. Abdui Ahad) need not detain (i.e., Prof. Abdul Ahad) need detain the reader dragginghim into iinguistic tlle reader by dragging hirn linguistic details. Any serniticscholarknows that details. semitic scholar knows that 'shalorn' 'shalom' and'lslant'arederivedfrom one and 'Islam' are derived from one and the sarne root and that both mean and the same root and that both mean peace, submission resignation.". peace, submission and resignation.". and 44
  46. 46. AUah chooses His ProPhetsfrom the Allah chooses His prophets from the best of mankind. And Muhammad (peace best of mankind. And Muhammad (peace and blessingof Allah be upon him) is the and blessing of Allah be upon him) is the best of humanity in general, and of pro- best of humanity in general, and of pro- phetsin particuiar.Altah takeseareof,and phets particular. Allah takes care of,and refines His prophetsbefore charging them refines prophets charging with prophethoodand withaut their know- prophethood and without ledge or expectation. They would thereby ledge ar expectation" They thereby be, psychologically, spiritually and mo- be, psychologieally,spiritually and rally, more qualified to carry out their rally, more qualified to carry out their messageand fulfil the task as fullY as message and fulfil the task as fully as wills. This applies to the Prophet Allah wills. This applies to the Prophet Muhammat! (peace and blessing Ailah Muhammad (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) to an extent unequalled be- be upon him) to an extent unequalled be- fore. Even in his early youth, ire had the fore. Even in his early youth, he had the deep-think-ing man manner of a solemn deep-think-ing man manner of a soLernn 'man'' and enjoyed the ncble feelingsof and enjoyed the noble feelings of 'man'. 45 45
  47. 47. Characterof the GraciousProphet(PBUH) Character of the Gracious Prophet (PBUH) The Pre-Islamicperiod was full of cor- The Pre-Islamic period was full of cor- ruption, pleasure-seeking and waste of ruption, pleasure-seeking and waste of time, though there were some respect- time, though there were some respect- able, sober men hereand there,but they able, sober men here and there, but they were rarely young men; for a young man were rarely young men; for a young man would be unusual he didn't seek pleas- would be unusual if he didn't seek pleas- ure and entertainment that time. If he ure and entertainment at that time. If he at addedto his solemnitythe avoidance li- added to his solemnity the avoidance of ti- quors which were drunk even quors which were drunk even by respect- respect- able able old men, shunning of thoseidols set men, shunning those idols set up beside the Holy Mosque (i.e.Ka'aba), up beside the Mosque (i.e.Ka'aba), keepingaway from inequity, along with keeping away inequity, along othernoblequalities, would undoubted- other noble qualities, he undoubted- ly draw others'attention draw others' attention since noneof the since none of the old men possessed men possessed such qualities,not to such qualities, not to speakof the youths. speak of the youths. One of his traitswas so outstandingand One of his traits was so outstanding and 46 46
  48. 48. deep-rooted that it attracted the attention deep-rootedthat attractedthe attention of Qurayshi people that was honesty. of Qurayshi people - that was honesty. "the Honest" (Al- They used to call him "the Honest" (AI- They usedto call Amin). People trusted him with their pro- Amin). Peopletrusted their pro- perty owing to their confidence perty owing to their confidence in his his honestyand trustworthiness. honesty and trustworthiness. Muhammad's silence during the meet- Muhammad's silence during the meet- ings Quraysh, his wisdom and equa- ings of Quraysh, his wisdom and equa- when he talked, nimity when he talked, won their respect their respect and admiration; so they consulted and admiration; so they consulted him about their affairs and were satisfied about their affairs and were satisfied with his counsel. The most famous event his counsel. The most famous event in this regard was the appeal this regard was the appeal of Quraysh Quraysh (i.e. Makkans) (i.e. Makkans) to him for a decisioncon- decision con- cerning the Black Stone. They had de- ceming the Stone. They had de- cided rebuild the cided to rebuild the Holy Ka'aba twice Ka'aba its fonner height becauseof the ruin of its former height because of the of some parts of it. They worked together. some parts They worked together. they differed about the But they differed about dre Black Stone; Stone; 47
  49. 49. for each tribe competedwith the othersto for each tribe competed with the others to enjoy alonethehonourof putring it back enjoy alone the honour of putting it back in its place.They almostfought with each in its place. They almost fought with each other, but at last agreedto take the counsel other, but at last agreed to take the counsel of the first man to come to them. That of the first man to come to them. That first man was the HONEST (i.e., Muham- first man was the HONEST (i.e., Muham- mad), who took mad), who took off his mantle spread it his mantle spread on the ground, put the Black Stone on on the ground, put the Black Stone on and asked a man it and asked a man from each tribe to each tribe carry carry with him the mantle holding its the manrle edges.Thenhe took the Stone his hands edges.Then he took the Stone in his hands and irr its place. All went away sat- and put it in its place. All went away sat- isfied isfied with the Honest'sdecision. the Honest's decision. In his wife Khadija's (May Allah be his Khadija's pleased with her) description of him, pleased her) description of soothing his fearson receiving the first soothing fears receiving the revelation,she gavea portrait of his man- revelation, she gave of his man- ners and their impression on people's ners and impression on people's minds. She said to him, 'Surely, Allah minds. She said to him, 'Surely, Allah 48
  50. 50. never will discredityou! you are kind never will discredit you ! You are kind to your relatives,truthful, protecting or- to your relatives, truthful, protecting or- phans, generous the poor, hospitable phans, generous to the poor, hospitable to and helpful to the victims of misfor- and helpful to the victims of misfor- tune!' tune!' He was, during the hours He was, during the hours of silence, silence, much given to meditation. He spent a much given to meditation. He spent a month retirementevery year month of retirement every year in Hira' cave on top cave on top of the Mountain of Light the Mountain (in Arabic,Jabal-un-Nur), worship (in Arabic, Jabal-un-Nur), in worship of Allah in accordance with Abraham's accordance Abraham's monotheistic monotheistic religion,away from the dis- religion, away from the dis- iortions added through prevailing idola- tortions addedthrough prevailing idola- trous ignorance. trous ignorance. Allah was preparinghim for the serious was preparing the serious task - for the Messageaddressed the task - Message addressed to the to whole hurnanity.The Messenger Allah, whole humanity. The Messenger of Allah, of Muhammad (PBUH) told the rrurh when Muhammad (PB UH) told the truth when 49 49
  51. 51. he said: "My Lord has disciplined me in he said: "My has disciplinedme m the best refmed manner". the best refined manner". The Prophet Muhammad's character is Prophet Muhammad's character the greatest character throughout human the greatest character throughout human history, unmatched by any other charac- history, unmatched any other charac- amongst great men, ter, not only amongst great men, but ter, also amongst prophets. If we are to also amongst prophets. If are judge by the standards of human great- the standards human great- ness, let us consider the case of a political ness, us considerthe case political leader, dedicating his life to political leader, dedicating his leadership. He found his nation dispersed, leadership. found his nation dispersed, He with no common cause or link, and was no common cause and was able, by means of his wise leadership able, means his wise leadership and impressive character, to unite the di- and impressivecharacter, unite the vided nation and found the link which vided nation and found the which connected its variouswarring fac- firmly connected its various warring fac- a purpose which tions. He drew for it a purpose which tions. He drew and removed its differences, united it and removed its differences, united Then he raised it to a lofty, respectable Then he raised to a respectable 50 50
  52. 52. position among other nations. Shouldn't position among other nations. Shouldn't we call him a 'greatman', thoughhe was we call him a 'great man', though he was devotedmerely to sucha task? devoted merely to such a task? What if this was only one aspecr What if this was only one aspect amongstmany othersenjoyed by the great amongst many others enjoyed by the great prophet'scharacter?How he has excelled prophet's character?How if he has excelled every other specialistpolitician, though every other specialist politician, though the latter was devotedto sucha task? the latter was devoted to such a task? Suppose there were social reformer Suppose there were a social refonner who found injustice and corruption pre_ found injustice and corruption pre- dominant; therefore, he took it upon him- dominant; therefore, he upon self to establishsocial justice and elimi- establish social justice and nate perversion and decay from society. nate perversion and decay society. He realizedbalancebetweenthe individual He realized balance between the individual and society, between the ruler and the and society, between the ruler and the ruled, and causedthe rich to sympathize ruled, and caused the rich to sympathize with the poor, so that the whole commu- with the poor, so that the whole commu- nity lived as if it were one large family. nity lived as if it were one large family. 5l 51
  53. 53. Isn't such a man really GREAT? Isn't such How if this was one part of Mu- if this was one of hammad's character? How if he, in this hammad's character? if he, regard, surpassedthose specialized in regard, surpassed those specialized this field? this field? Suppose there were a moral reformer Suppose there were moral reformer who found moral corruption prevaientin who found moral corruption prevalent his society and devoted himself to the im- his societyand devoted the provement of social manners. Through his provement sacialmanners. Through patience and strugglehe was abie patience and struggle he was able to lay down an ethic (moral code) that ruled down an ethic (moral code) that ruled their conduct, so that lying, drinking, their conduct, so that lying, drinking, adultery and gambling disappeared; an adultery and gambling disappeared; an owner felt his property was secureeven owner felt his property was secure even if he was a weakling, an orPhan if he was a weakling, an orphan or a a woman; and conscience ruled hurnan re- woman; and conscience ruled human re- lations.Won't we agree that such a man lations. Won't we agree that such a man was truly a greatone? was truly a great one? 52 52
  54. 54. How, then, if that was How, then, if that was only one side of one side the outstanding character the prophet, the outstanding character of the Prophet, and his influence was greater than that and his influence was greater than that of any reformer history who was devoted any reformer in history who was devoted to his career? to his career? Suppose, too, there were lli"1 educator Suppose,too, there were an educator who devoted himself to education and who devoted himself to education and was able to bring up a generation of ex- was able to bring up a generation ex_ traordinary people, everyone of whom traordinary people, everyone whom was a leader in his domain of activity was a leader his domain activity and an example of good conduct and and an example good conduct and towering personality, as firm as a moun- towering personaiity, as as a moun- tain lli"1d of noble character. Dosen't such tain and noble character. Dosen't such a man deserve to be called a great educa- a man deserve be called a greateduca_ tor? How, then, if this was only one tor? then, if this was only one the prophet, who of several aspects of the Prophet, who several aspects excelled in this respect even the greatest exceiled this respecteven the grearest of educators in history, especially with the educators history, especiallywi.ththe generation he had educated introduce generation he had educated to introduce 53 )J
  55. 55. summit leadersin every field of life? leaders in field of Suppose there were a military com- Suppose there were mander,who devoted himseH to his ca- mander, devoted himself ca- reer and brought up an army of heroes reer and an anny of heroes - soldiers and commanding officers - ac- soldiers and commanding officers - ac- customed endurance inconvenience, customed to endurance of inconvenience, adversity and daring steadfastness in adversity and daring steadfastness despite danger. them battles despite danger. He led them in battles and obeyed orders and and won. They obeyed his orders and places dan- instructions and raced to places of dan- instructions and raced ger seeking martyrdom. Shouldn't he be ger seeking martyrdom. Shouldn't he be <iescribed a great commander? described as a great commander? as If such a commander had trained his If such a commander had trained his soldiers not only to acquire individual soldiers to acquire manners, also to the cause manners, but also to fight in the cause of ideals and values, would it suffice to ideals and values, would it suffice to as a great leader? describe him only as a great leader? describe 54 54
  56. 56. How then, if the graciousprophet had How then, if the gracious Prophet had exceededin this respect every other mi_ exceeded in this respect every other mi- litary commander throughout humanhis- litary comm ander throughout huma n his- tory, and this was only one aspect tory, and this was only one aspect of thethe various aspects his greatchartacter? various aspects of his great chartacter? Supposea man gayehimself up to wor- Suppose a man gave himse lf up to wor- ship. His spirit washighly pure, and his ship. His spirit was- highly pure, and his heartalways remembered heart always remembered Allah, whether Allah, whether his prayer in his prayer or work, in private or in work, private public. So he was friendly to other peo_ public. So he was friendly to other peo- ple, sincere his work, and ruledcom_ ple, sincere in his work, and ruled com- pletely pletely by fear of Allah and observance fear Allah and observance His orders. Suppose of His orders ... Suppose such a man were sucha man were able to collect number able to collect a numberof worshippers worshippers of Allah and bring rhem up to develop and bring them up develop a strong relationshipwirh the Almighty" strong relationship with the Almighty. They would rememberHim (Allah) in They would remember (Allah) all circumstances would be influenced circumstances and would be influenced and by faith in all their deeds,rhoughtsand faith their deeds, thoughts and 55 55
  57. 57. feelings. Their love and fear of AUah were feelings. Their love and of Allah were stronger than all earthly pleasures and stronger all pleasures temptations. Should we not say he was temptations. Should say was a great soul in himself and a great teach- great in great teach- companions? er to his companions?. This and others were parts of the gra- and others were parts of the gra- cious Messenger'scharacter in which he cious Messenger's character he was superior thosepersons devotedto, was superior to those personsdevoted to, are we and specialized in them. What are we to and specialized them. the man combines his gra- call the man who combines in his gra- thosepersonalities, each cious person all those personalities, each cious person be sufficient to make of which would be sufficient to make him great? great ? The greatness Muhammad (Peaceand The greatness of Muhammad (Peace and blessingof Allah be upon him) does not blessing of Allah be upon him) does not lie only in the combinationof thosesever- lie only in the combination of those sever- al personalitiesin his own person;in fact, al personalities in his own person; in fact, he enjoyed a superior degree of greatness -- he enjoyeda superiordegreeofgreabress 56
  58. 58. that is, thoseaspects that is, those aspects did not divert him did not divert him from eachother. Political acriviry did not from each other. Political activity did not distract him from military, social,moral, distract him from military, social, moral, educational or spiritual tasks. Even all educational or spiritual tasks. Even all thosedid not distracthim from his family, those did not distract him from his family, so he was a perfect husbandand father. so he was a perfect husband and father. If we comparethe character prophet If we compare the character of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) with that of the Muhammad that the other prophets we will grasphis superiori- other prophets we will grasp his superiori- them. All the greatqualitiesenjoyed ty to them. All the great qualities enjoyed by them separately were all infusedin his them separatelywere infused great personality great personality par excellence. Noah excellence. Noah was was known for his endurance his folk's of his endurance of obstinancy; Abraham (Ibraheem,in Ara- obstinancy; Abraham (Ibraheem, bic) for his clemency; Mosesfor his wise clemency; Moses leadership of the sons of Israel; Jesus leadership of the sons of Israel; Jesus Christ for his spiritual aspectagainst the for spiritual aspect against the prevailing materialism.But Muhammad's prevailing materialism. But Muhammad's character embodiedall those characteris- character embodied all those characteris- 57
  59. 59. tics and his influencewasmuch greater tics and his influence was much greater in every one those aspects.He was the every one of those aspects. He was the prophets his message and wasthe final of prophets and his message was the epitome and the crowning prophet- epitome and the crowning of prophet- hood. hood. the Glorious Qur'an,Alatr tells us: In the Glorious Qur'an, Allah tells us: 'nThis day have perfected your religion ''This day have I perfected your religion you and completed my favour unto for you and completed my favour unto you as relig- you, and have chosen for you as relig- you, and have chosen ion Al-Islam".(Qur'an,5:3) ion AI-Islam". (Qur'an, 5:3) So the message Islamconfirmsbelief So the message of Islam confinns belief previous prophetsand revelations. in all previous prophets and revelations. Jews disbelieved JesusClrist and Jews disbelieved in Jesus Christ and Muhammad. Christians disbelieved Muhammad. Christians disbelieved in Muhammedandbelieved Jesus Christ, Muhammed and believed in Jesus Christ, not as a messengerbut as a god son not as a messenger but as a god or son Allah. is the Muslims alone who of Allah. It is the Muslims alone who 58
  60. 60. believ e in all proph ets from Adam believe prophets from Adam throu gh Noah til! Muha mmad (Peac e through Noah rill Muhammad (peace and blessi ng of Allah be upon them all). and blessing Allah be upon themall). Both Jewish and Christiannationsare un- Both Jewis h and Chris tian nation s are un- fit to rule huma nity, for they canno t get to rule humanity, they cannot get rid rid of hatre d and preju dice. hatredand prejudice. Only the Musl im natio n is well quali- Only the Muslim narion is well quali_ fied for the leadership manhind led fied for the leade rship of mank ind (it led mankind once for several mank ind once for sever al centu ries) be- centuries) be_ cause is the only nationthat ruleswith_ cause it is the only nation that rules with- out any hatredowing to the Divine guid_ out any hatred owing to the Divin e guid- ancethat made ance that made it fit for leade rship, espe- for leadership, espe_ cially irs belief in previous cially its belief in previ ous proph ets of prophets Allah without discrimination Allah witho ut discri minat ion or malic e malice what.soever. whats oever . More over, the messa ge of Mrlreover, the message Islarn is adclressed the wholemankincl. Islam is addre ssed to the whole mank ind. to Allah (SWT) addresses Allah (SWT ) addre sses Muha mmad : Muhammad: 59
  61. 61. .' sent thee save as "We sent thee not save as a mercy for the peoples". (Qur'an, 2l:107) the peoples". (Qur'an, 21:107) the Prophet Muhammad According to the Prophet Muhammad (Peaceand blessing of Allah be upon (Peace and blessing of Atlah be upon him), "Every prophet before me was sent to prophet before was sent his own people, but I have been sent to people, have been sent the whole of mankind". the mankind". - embracing message. It is also an all - embracing message. also an Earlier messages were limited to certain messageswere certain aspects of human life, and were limited aspects human and were in space as well. All of them included the spaceas well. All them includedthe (i.e. major question of divinity (i.e. belief in question 'Oneness the 'Oneness of God' and offering Him the God' and pure worship). they also included instruc- pure worship). they also includedinstruc- tions and rules that suited the conditions tions and rules that suitedthe conditions and circumstances of each nation and and circumstances each nation and aimed at the bettennent of morals and the aimed at the bettermentof,morals and the elimination of corruption. elimination comrption. 60
  62. 62. The stagehad come when the human The stage had come when the human mind was mature enough to accept a mind was mature enough to accept a world religion which would last on earth world religion which would last on earth till the Day of Judgement; such a world till the Day of Judgement; such a world message must ernbrace, message must embrace, too, all human re- too, all humanre- quirements in all fields life, which is quirements in all fields of life, which is true of the Message Islam. For true of the Message of Islam. For it in- cludes, other messages, the major cludes, like other messages, the major question question of Divinity which is essential which is essential the integrity for the integrity of human life, and also human and also canons and laws ruling canons and laws ruling all aspects of aspects life: economic, political, social, intellec- life: economic, political, social, intellec- tual, spiritual, ethical,etc. tual, spiritual, ethical, etc. But it never never opposes scientific progress. opposes scientific progress.In fact, it was fact, was ISLAM that moved Muslims to serout a ISLAM that moved Muslims set great scienific movement, the most im- great scienific movement, portant effect of which was the experi- portant of was the experi- mental method of scientific research mental method of scientific research which Europelearned from the Muslims Europe learned from the Muslims in Andalusea, North Africa, Sicily and in Andalusea, North Africa, Sicily and 61 61
  63. 63. South Italy, and upon which our present South ltaly, and upon which present scientific renaissance has been based. scientific renaissance beenbased. has 62 62
  64. 64. HOLY SCRIPTURES HOLY SCRIPTURES (The Booksof Allatr) (The Books of Allah) Allah, Glory be to Him, providedevery Allah, GIory be to Him, provided every one of His prophetswith books which one of His prophets with books which He revealed to them. Those books or He revealed to them. Those books or scriptures containedthe tenets and fun- scriptures contained the tenets and fun- damentals religion as well as the damentals of religion as well as the in- structions and commandments structions and commandments of Allah conveyedto variousnations through His conveyed to various nations through His Messengers. holy books were meant The Messengers. The holy books weremeant to be records religion so that the var- to be records of religion so that the var- ious peopleandnationsof the world might iouspeople and nations the world might refer to themto know the ordinances refer them the ordinances and and laws revealedby Allatr and comply with laws revealed Allah and comply them. them. On the one hand, w€ arerequiredto be- one hand, we are required to be- lieve in all revealedbooks at large. On the lieve in all revealed books atlarge. On the other,we arerequiredto believein certain other, we are required to believe in certain 63 63
  65. 65. books which Allah told us He had re- books AUah us had re- vealed, namely: vealed, namely: 1. The Qur'an, revealed to Muhammad; l. The Qur'an, revealed Muhammad; 2. The Gospel, 'r " rt "Jesus; 2.eGospel, Jesus; 3. The Psalms 3. The Psalms , " " David; "David; 4. The Torah 4. The Torah,, " " Moses "Moses;; 5. The Tablets Ibrahim, (i.e., 5. The Tablets of Ibrahim, (i.e., Abraham) and Moses (May peace Abraham) and Moses peace and blessing of Allah be upon and blessing be upon them). them). Although books revealed to prophets Although books revealed to prophets before Muhammad (the last Messenger before Muhammad (the last Messenger of Allah) were just temporary revela- were temporary revela- tions each addressed a particulartribe tions each addressed to a particular tribe or nation, yet it is incumbent upon Mus- nation, yet is incumbent upon Mus- believe them general, and lims to believe in them in general, and in the Qur'an on detailed basis in particu- the Qur'anon detailedbasis particu- lar. The Qur'an is the final and compre- lar. The Qur'an is the fmal and compre- 64
  66. 66. hensive Scripture. It is the only book of hensive Scripnrre. is the book Allah which has remained free from dis- AUah has remained free tortion and change, and has been transmit- tortion and change, and has been transmit- ted to us whole in the most reliable ways ted to us whole the most reliable ways and in its original text - a feature nor en- and original featurenot en_ joyed by any of the earlier books of revela- any the earlier books revela- tion. tion. 65 65
  67. 67. TI{E GLORIOUS QLJR'AN THE GLORIOUS QUR'AN The miraclesbroughtby earlier Prophets miracles brought earlier Prophets hadbeenfiansient, so to say, and for that had been transient, so say, and that very reason, rapidly forgotten,while that reason, rapidly forgotten, that of the verses(of ttreQur'an)may be called of the verses the Qur'an) may be called "The Permanent Miracle". Its activity has "The Pennanent Miracle". has been unceasing. Everywhere and been unceasing.Everywhere and at all hours, each believer, reciting the ver- hours, each believer, by reciting the ver- ses, helped to realize the miracle, and in ses, helped redize the miracle, and this canbe found the explanation many this can be found the explanation of many conversions,incomprchensible the Eu- conversions, incomprehensible to the Eu- ropean who unfortunately knows little or ropeanwho unfornrnately knows nothing the Qur'an. He may alsojudge nothing of the Qur'an. He may also judge on the ba3is inaccuraciesfed to him it on the basis of inaccuracies fed to him throughanti-Islamic media.The wonder- through anti-Islamic media. The wonder- this Book, resemblingno ful chann of this Book, resembling no charm other masterpiece the literanrre other masterpiece of the literature of mankind, need not be explainedto us, mankind, need not be explained to us, Muslims, because we considerthat it Muslims, because we consider that it 66
  68. 68. emanates from the words emanates from the words of Allah Him- Allah Him- self, sent down through the mouth self, sent down through the mouth of His prophet. His prophet. In this connection, it may be interesting this connection, be interesting to quote the opinion to quote the opinion of Savary, a cele- Savary, a cele- brated orientalist, who was the first to brated orientalist, was the translatethe meaning translate the meaning of the Holy Qur'an the Qur'an into French. He says, "Muhammad was into French. He says, "Muhammad was leamed the study learned in the study of his language, the his language,the richest and the most harmonious richest and the most harmonious in the the world, and which, world, and which, by the composition of the composition its verses, permits thoughts as they soar its verses, permits thoughts as they soar be correctly described....Poets were to be correctly described.... Poets were greatly looked greatly looked up to in Arabia. Arabia. Rabyah, an illustrious poet, Labid Ibn Rabyah, an illustrious poet, nailed one of his poems on the door of nailed one of his poems the of the Temple of Makkah (Al Kabah). His the (AI Ka'bah). reputation and the value of reputation and the value of his work kept 67 67
  69. 69. competitors away. Nonecirmeforward all competitors away. None came forward to competefor the prize.... The second compete the pize.... The second chapter the Qur'an was then placedby chapter of the Qur'an was then placed the side of the poem. I-abid, although a the side the poem. Labid, although worshipper graven images,was seized worshipper of graven images, was seized with a fit of admirationafter readingthe admiration after reading the first versesand confessed himseH van- fint verses and confessedhimself van- quished". quished". He becamea convertvery soonafterand He became a convert very soon after and one day, his admirersbeing desirous one day, his admirers being desirous of gathering together his complete works, gathering together his complete works, 'I questioned him this subject. haveno questioned him of this subject. 'I have no poetry,' he re- recollection of any of my poetry,' he re- recollection any 'for my entire memory has been ab- plied, 'for my entire memory has beenab- plied, sorbed the verses the Book Reve- sorbed by the verses of the Book of Reve- by lation'. lation'. As for the Arab Hijaz, comprehending As for the Arab of Hijaz, comprehending the most subtle hints of the language the most subtle hints of the language of 68 68
  70. 70. the Qur'an -- his own language -- and who the Qur'an his own language and who welcomed the Surahs as they came out welcomed the Surahs as they came out from the lips of his fellow - countryman: from the lips of his fellow - countryman: the genial, inspired Messenger of the genial, inspired Messenger of Allah (PBUH), that listener was overwhelmed that listener was overwhelmed by such sudden surprise that he re- such sudden surprise that he re- mained as if petrified. Could this super- mained as if petrified. Could this super- natural languagecome natural language come from Muhammad Muhammad (PBUH), known to be completely illite- be completely rate and possessingno other knowledge rate and possessing no other knowledge than that due than that due to nature and intuition? nature and intuition? seemed perfectly impossible. The This seemed perfectly impossible. The Arab was therefore forced to admit that was therefore forced that Muhammad's words were dictated bv Muhammad's words were dictated by the Almighry. the Almighty. Utbah Ibn Rabiyah, one of the noted Rabiyah, one of the noted idolators- known for his mastery of idolators - mastery of Arabic - having heardsomeversesof the - having heard some verses of the Qur'an from Muhammad, said to his Qur'an Muhammad, said 69

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