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Technology transfer – changes in the materials and



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  • 1. Technology transfer – changes in the materials and containers used to store and transport wine
    By Sam Bloxham
  • 2. 5000BC-Kwevri
    A Georgian clay jar.
    Were burried in the ground with a protruding neck.
    Stored wine during fermentation (Vinosseur, 2010).
    Approximately 200L (Kurtiashvili , & Rose, 2006)
    Kwevri, (Image from: Vinosseur, 2010)
  • 3. 4800BC- Amphora
    Made from clay.
    Characterised by their narrow neck and two handles (Amphora, 2011).
    Used to store wine
    Used to transport wine.
    Were placed closely on ships with rope through the handles to hold them together (Amphora, 2011).
    Amphora, (Image from Amphora, 2011)
  • 4. 350BC-Barrels
    Made from rounded (moulded) oak
    Could be rolled and stacked
    Used from fermentation through to transport
    Most convenient form of transportation until the 19th century.
    Oak wine barrels (Myrddin Barrel Club, n.d)
  • 5. 1600AD- Glass Bottles
    Initially used for wine to be immediately consumed.
    1600AD Pigmented glass added weight.
    Became used to store wine with a cork stopper.
    1800ADCylindrical bottles were then made for easier storage (McAdams, 2006).
    The evolution of wine bottle shapes (Evolution of shapes, n.d).
  • 6. Transporting environment
    Wine is perishable, for long life transporting conditions must be maintained
    Ideal temperature must be maintained
    Humidity should remain constant
    Wine movement should be minimal
    Climate controlled containers used for transporting to minimise fluctuations in environment
  • 7. Modern methods for transporting wine
    Bulk wine transport
    ISO tanks
    Pre-packaged wine transport
  • 8. ISO Tank containers
    Food grade tanks transport wine internationally on ships.
    Ullage must be left in tanks.
    Wine must be stable before transportation to reduce risk of oxidation.
    20,000L of wine per ISO
    Tank containers (Tank container logistics, 2011)
  • 9. Flexitanks
    Bladders that line the inside of containers
    Used once to reduce contamination.
    Recyclable plastic
    24,000L of wine per flexitank
  • 10. Bottled wine
    Fragile glass can be broken during transport
    Packaging materials must be incorporated
    Wine is able to be sold once at destination
    1400 bottles per container
    Cardboard dividers (
    Polystyrene packaging (
    Moulded pulp (
  • 11. Bulk vs. bottled
    Limited lost space
    Cost efficient
    Oxidation occurs throughout entire product
    Lower volume per container
    More costly
    Oxidation can be limited
  • 12. Future challenges
    To reduce CO2 emissions
    To use recyclable materials
    Bulk transportation
    To commit to trading schemes
  • 13. Reference
    Ampohra. (2011). Retrieved 3 August 2011, from:
    Evolution of shapes. (n.d.). retrieved 12 August 2011, from:
    History of wine. (2011). Retrieved 7 August 2011, from:
    Kurtiashvili, O., & Rose, B. (2006, Janurary). Grapegrowing, on Georgian wine:an introduction. The Australian and New Zealand Grapegrower and winemaker, 23-24
    McAdams, C. (2006) Wine sediments. Wine bottle evolution. Retrieved 1 August 2011,from:
    Myrddin Barrel Club. (n.d.). Retrieved 21 August 2011, from:
    Nivala, D. (2007). Oak wine barrels- a short history. Retrieved 8 August 2011, from:
    A short history of wine bottles. (2009). Retrieved 1 August 2011, from:
    Tank container logistics. (2011). Retrieved 7 August 2011, from:
    Trans Ocean. (2011). Retrieved 7 August 2011, from:
    Vinosseur. (2010). Retrieved 3 August 2011, from: