- * MEZTIZOS' and MEZTIZAS‘ - Mestizos de Sangley - Mestizos de Espanol * INDIOS' or INDIOS NATURALES
Towards the Hispanization of the Natives
4.5 TOWARDS THE HISPANIZATION OF THE NATIVES
When Spaniards came into the country they destroyed the carved if idols out of wood and stone. Ifugao Bulul (Rice God) portrayed as a priest examing a chickens gall bladder in a Ritual
Spanish urbanization was centered in the city of manila, within a walled city called INTRAMUROS.
Infrastructure showing the Spanish domination in the country such as massive colonial churches, churches, convents, schools, roads and bridges, and the bahay na bato at kahoy.Convent.. THE LAZI CONVENT
Roads and Bridges.. PUENTE DE ESPAÑA OR THE BRIDGE OF SPAIN
Structurally, the Bahay-na-Bato at kahoy also known as Bahay-na-Mestiza, perpetuated the pre-Hispanic Bahay-na-Kubo.Bahay-na-Bato.. RIZAL SHRINE
The converging islands under a single administration was facilitated through “reduccion”.Reduccion referring to resettlement of inhabitants in spanish-style poblaciones.
The Spanish society always stressed "PURITY" of blood in societal rank.1ST. ESPAÑOLES Spaniards who are born in Spain. Españoles Peninsulares
Spaniards born in the Philippines who took important position s in the spanish government in the Philippines. Españoles Insulares2ND. MESTIZOS AND MESTIZAS Filipinos of mixed indigenous Filipino ( Austronesian, Malay, Malayo-polynesian)or European or Chinese ancestry.
Mestizos de Sangley Person of mixed Chinese and Filipino ancestry.Mestizos de Española Person of mixed Spanish and Filipino ancestry. Tornatras Person of mixed Spanish, Filipino and Chinese ancestry.
3RD. INDIO or Indios Naturales Person of pure Austronesian (Malay/Malayo-Polynesian) ancestry (natives). Natives of the Philippines without Spanish or Chinese ancestry.
The ceremonial splendor of the roman catholic church aroused the admiration of the natives. More representatives of various religious orders such as Augustinians, Dominicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits came to Philippines after Legazpi’s expedition. Consequently, the missionaries learned local dialects and introduced the roman alphabet.
AUGUSTINIANS Augustine of Hippo Several mendicant Orders of friars, who lived a mixed religious life of contemplation and apostolic ministry and follow the Rule of St. Augustine.
DOMINICANS Saint Dominic The Order of Preachers (Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum), more commonly known after the 15th century as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic de Guzman in France and approved by Pope Honorius III (1216–27) on 22 December 1216.
FRANCISCAN Coat of Arm Saint Francis of Assisi The most prominent group is the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called simply the "Franciscans." They seek to follow most directly the manner of life that Saint Francis led.
JESUIT Ignatius of Loyola The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu, S.J., SJ or SI) is a Christian male religious order of the Roman Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits and are also known colloquially as "Gods Marines"
By the 16th. century, there were Filipinos like Tomas Pinpin who became conservant with the Spanish language. The first Filipino printer and is Sometimes referred as the .. "Patriarch of Filipino Printing." He wrote the first published Tagalog book titled “Librong Pag-aaralan Nang Manga Tagalog Nang Uicang Castila” (Book that the Tagalogs should Study to learn Spanish). TOMAS PINPIN
Basic education was rendered by parochial schools, established primarily for religious instructions. The first one was established in CEBU.In 1582, Archbishop Domingo de Salazar ordered that every town must have one school for boys and also, one for girls. Archbishop Domingo de Salazar
By 19th century, The Spanish aristocracy tried to distinguish themselves from INDIOS with the use oflanguage and level of education. Higher education was established exclusively for the Spaniards and Filipinos. Colleges and Universities were closed to indios.
In 1589, The first college for boys the COLLEGE OF MANILA later change to COLLEGE OF SAN IGNACIO. And in 1621, it was named UNIVERSITY OF SAN IGNACIO by Pope Gregory XV. Unfortunately, This school was closed in 1768. UNIVERSITY OF SAN IGNACIO
Universidad de San IgnacioThe Universidad de San Ignacio was a university in city of Manila in the Philippines founded in 1589.
Pope Gregory XVIn 1601, the COLEGIO DE SAN JOSE was established..
In 1611, the COLEGIO DE NUESTRA SENORA DELSANTISSIMO ROSARIO was established by FRAY MIGUEL BENAVIDES. Later named UNIVERSIDAD DE SANTO TOMAS in1645 by Pope Innocent X. UNIVERSIDAD DE SANTO TOMAS
University of Santo TomasThe Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines is a private, Roman Catholic university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on 28 April 1611 by archbishop of Manila Miguel de Benavides.
FRAY MIGUEL BENAVIDESThe third Archbishop of Manila. He came to the Philippines with the first Dominican mission in 1587.
COLEGIO DE SAN JUAN DE LETRAN established to take care of orphaned Spanish boy. COLEGIO DE SAN JUAN DE LETRAN
COLEGIO DE SAN JUAN DE LETRANThe Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Letran College, or simply Letran is a private Roman Catholic institution of learninglocated in Intramuros, Manila, in the Philippines. The college was founded in 1620.
The girls also given special education. The schools were of two kinds: the COLEGIO, which is the regular school for girls; and the beaterio, a combined school and nunnery. Royal College of Santa Potenciana: The oldest school for young girls, its was established in 1589 by Philip II upon the urging of Manila bishop, Domingo de Salazar, OP and the Franciscans
The COLLEGE OF SANTA ISABEL is now the oldest existing college for girls in the country. It was built to care the spanish orphaned girls. Eventually, it became an exclusive school For the daughters of affluent Spaniards.
In 1621, The REAL MONASTERIO DE SANTA CLARA was established. REAL MONASTERIO DE SANTA CLARA
In 1694, The BEATERIO DE LA CAMPANIA DE JESUS was established founded by MOTHER IGNACIA DEL ESPIRITU SANTO. BEATERIO DE LA CAMPANIA DE JESUS
MOTHER IGNACIA DEL ESPIRITU SANTO Also known as Mother Ignacia born on February 1, 1663 - and died onSeptember 10, 1748 was a Filipino Religious Sister of the Roman Catholic Church. Known for her acts of piety and religious poverty, founded the Congregation of the Sisters of the Religious of the Virgin Mary.
Primary education consisted of courses in reading, writing, arithmetic, religion, geography, history of Spain, Spanish language, vocal music, and agriculture for boys and needle works for girls.
Academic reforms were later on implemented, after the Spanish government conceded to it’s growing demand. The EDUCATIONAL DECREE, DECEMBER 20, 1863 was implemented. EDUCATIONAL DECREE (December 20, 1863)It liberalized access to education, which provided for the establishmentof at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government. Also provided for the Establishment of normal schools to train teachers. The decree also Provided for the use of Spanish as the language of instruction, Starting at the elementary level.
The “Escuela Normal” for the training of male teachers for elementary instructions was delegated. Inaugurated in 1865, and in 1893 it became the normal superior.Schools for the art were also built. Archbishop Juan A. Rodriguez founded the Escuela de Tiples in 1743.In the late 19th century, the school was able to pattern it’s plan of study after the Conservatory of Music in Madrid.
Damian Domingo founded the academy of FINE ARTS, the first school of painting in Manila 1820, He is also known as the "FATHER OF FILIPINO PAINTING" "FATHER OF FILIPINO PAINTING"
In 1824, The ACADEMIA de DIBUJO y PINTURA (ACADEMY of DRAWING and PAINTING) was founded.In the 19th century, various technical school were established. Like the “School of Mercantile Accounting and Modern Languages”.COMMERCE was introduced as a three-year vocational course, with the “degree of perito”. MECHANICS and other vocational courses were offered in secondary instruction leading to BACHILLERATO EN ARTES. - PERITO MECANICO or Mechanical Expert - PERITO AGRIMENSOR
In 1860, The nautical school was opened upon orders of the queen. After four years the student was to board a ship. The degree of PILOTO DE MARINA MERCANTE was to be given after it’s training. The seeds of vocational education were sown by the early Spanish missionaries who taught the natives better methods of farming, the cultivation of foreign plants like indigo, corn, cotton, and wheat, and various crafts like painting, carpentry, masonry and dyeing.The early missionaries were also the first to establish a printing press in the Philippines.
XYLOGRAPHIC METHOD is the method of printing using engraved wood blocks. Doctrinal Christiana en lengua espanola y tagala (1593)The earliest book printed written by Fray Juan de Oliver. This catechetical book sought to explain the importance of Christ, Chastity and devotion to God in the Vernacular.
Beginning of 19th century, the"PASION" was the prevalent form in print. Written in verse and chanted during lent, it depicted the life and passion of Jesus Christ. The first tagalog pasion was written by Gaspar Aquino de Belen. It was published in 1704. Entitled "Ang Mahal na Pasión ni Jesu Christong Panginoon Natin na Tola" . ("The Sacred Passion of Jesus Christ Our Lord that is a Poem")
The second written pasion titled “CASAYSAYAN NG PASIONG MAHAL NI JESUCRISTONG PANGINOON NATIN NA SUCAT IPAG-AALAB ANG SINOMAN BABASA”(THE STORY OF THE HOLY PASSION OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST THAT SHOULD INFLAME THE HEART OF THE READER, CIRCA 1814) also known as PASYONG GENESIS.This version was edited by father Mariano Pilapil and published by the Imprenta de Santo Tomas.
First half of 19th century, JOSE DELA CRUZ was the prominent poet in the oral tradition. His works are DOCE PARES DE FRANCIA; BERNARDO CAPIO and ADELA AT FLORANTE. CAPTION De la Cruz was popularly known by his nickname, “Huseng Sisiw”. Jose de la Cruz (21 December 1746 – 12 March 1829) was a Tagalog poet and playwright in the 18th and 19th century.
PEDRO BUKANEG, The blind poet who wrote the popular Ilocano epic, LAM-ANG. "Father of Ilocano literature."
FRANCISCO BALAGTAS also known as "PRINCE OF TAGALOG POETS“. Became popular with his poetical pieces particularly, “Florante at Luara” Francisco Balagtas y de la Cruz (April 2, 1788 – February 20, 1862),also known as Francisco Baltazar, was a prominent Filipino poet, and is widely considered as one of the greatest Filipino literary laureate for his impact on Filipino literature.
Momentous feast and events like the arrival of a new Spanish official also meant stage presentations. Comedia written by Vicente Puche s the first recorded drama staged in Cebu in 1598 Moro-Moro presents the Christian victory over Muslims in 1637.
End of 17th century, The first theater was established. the "TEATRO COMICO“ Turn of 19th century, ZARZUELA was always performed.ZARZUELA is a spanish one-act opera with satirical theme became popular in the country.
Field of music, SAMPAGUITA by DOLORES PATERNO became popular. Dolores Paterno y Ignacio (March 10, 1854 — July 3, 1881) was Filipina composer famous for the song "La Flor de Manila" (also known as "Sampaguita")
Sampaguita(Tagalog version by Levi Celerio) I Sampaguita ng aming lipi, bulaklak na sakdal ng yumi Ikaw ang mutyang pinili Na sagisag ng aming lahi, II III At ang kulay mong binusilak O bulaklak, na nagbibigay ligaya, Ay diwa ng aming pangarap, O! paraluman, mutyang Sampaguita, Ang iyong bangot halimuyak Larawang mistula ng mga dalaga;Sa tuwinay aming nilalanghap. Ikaw ang tanging bituin Hiraman ng kanilang ganda. IV Ang iyong talulot Ang siyang tunay na sagisag Ng sa dalagang pusoy wagas, Kayumian at pagkamatapat.
The first music teacher to win distinction in Philippine history was Geronimo de Aguilar, a Franciscan Missionary. In 1811, The first newspaper "DEL SUPERIOR GOVIERNO was printed with Gov. Gen. MANUEL GONZALES DE AGUILAR as editor.
In the field of science, The first scientists in the country were the friars. FR. MANUEL BLANCO also known as "PRINCE OF BOTANIST. He wrote "FLORA DE FILIPINAS" The “FLORA DE FILIPINAS” was published in 1837. This book identified 1,200 kinds of plants in the country. FR. MANUEL BLANCO
The first sundials were built in 1871 at TAGUDIN, ILOCOS SUR by FR. JUAN SOROLLA, a spanish Augustinian. SUNDIAL
Father Marcial Funcia Ramos introduced the first iron printing press in the Philippines in 1847.GEORGE OPPEL, Introduced lithography in the country in 1858.