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Rapid manufacturing and the global economy
 

Rapid manufacturing and the global economy

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Rapid manufacturing is more than a novel method of production; rather, it represents a paradigm shift which will impact the very nature of production and consumption. The ability to quickly ...

Rapid manufacturing is more than a novel method of production; rather, it represents a paradigm shift which will impact the very nature of production and consumption. The ability to quickly manufacture limited quantities of highly individualized or geometrically optimized products locally is a revolutionary prospect which challenges the fundamental principles of economies of scale, specialization, mass production, and outsourcing which have largely defined the manufacturing industry since the industrial revolution.

Many have speculated that rapid manufacturing will enable a manufacturing renaissance in high wage economies by reducing labor and assembly costs. Others declare rapid manufacturing to be the next industrial revolution. While such claims are common, there has been no attempt to quantify the potential impact of rapid manufacturing upon the global economy. This study will evaluate rapid manufacturing as a disruptive technology, identify which products will be most likely impacted by the uptake of additive fabrication, and quantify the potential impact widespread adoption of rapid manufacturing may have upon global trade.

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    Rapid manufacturing and the global economy Rapid manufacturing and the global economy Document Transcript

    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Master of Philosophy in Technology Policy 2007/2008 Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Written by: Blake J. Driscoll MPhil in Technology Policy Candidate Judge Business School University of Cambridge With the guidance of: Dr. William O’Neill Institute for Manufacturing Department of Engineering University of Cambridge 1
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global EconomyDeclarationThis Project Report is substantially my own work and conforms to the Judge Schoolguidelines on plagiarism. Where reference has been made to other research this isacknowledged in the text and bibliography. 2
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global EconomyAbstract Rapid manufacturing is more than a novel method of production; rather, itrepresents a paradigm shift which will impact the very nature of production andconsumption. The ability to quickly manufacture limited quantities of highly individualizedor geometrically optimized products locally is a revolutionary prospect which challenges thefundamental principles of economies of scale, specialization, mass production, andoutsourcing which have largely defined the manufacturing industry since the industrialrevolution. Many have speculated that rapid manufacturing will enable a manufacturingrenaissance in high wage economies by reducing labor and assembly costs. Others declarerapid manufacturing to be the next industrial revolution. While such claims are common,there has been no attempt to quantify the potential impact of rapid manufacturing upon theglobal economy. This study will evaluate rapid manufacturing as a disruptive technology,identify which products will be most likely impacted by the uptake of additive fabrication,and quantify the potential impact widespread adoption of rapid manufacturing may haveupon global trade. 3
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global EconomyAcknowledgements…to Malcolm Cook and Jim Dempsey for introducing me to rapid prototyping.…to Bill O’Neill for sharing my initial enthusiasm to undertake a project of this scope.…to Grant Kopec and Satya Dash for their ideas, opinions, and sense of humor. 4
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global EconomyTable of ContentsDECLARATION ................................................................................................................................................. 2ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................................................... 3ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................................................................ 4TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................... 51 RAPID MANUFACTURING AS A DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY .............................................. 6 1.1 EVOLUTION OF RAPID MANUFACTURING ......................................................................................... 6 1.2 EVOLUTION OF TRADITIONAL MANUFACTURING ............................................................................. 6 1.3 RAPID MANUFACTURING AS A DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY .............................................................. 82 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF RAPID MANUFACTURING ................................................ 10 2.1 RECENTLY COMMERCIALIZED APPLICATIONS ................................................................................. 10 2.2 CURRENT AREAS OF RESEARCH ....................................................................................................... 13 2.3 FEASIBILITY OF IMPLEMENTING RAPID MANUFACTURING AT THE FIRM LEVEL ............................ 15 2.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF PROMISING APPLICATIONS .......................................................................... 17 2.5 LIMITATIONS OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGY ....................................................................................... 183 POTENTIAL IMPACT OF RAPID MANUFACTURING ON CURRENT PRODUCTS .......... 19 3.1 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................ 19 3.2 ANALYSIS OF CURRENT PRODUCTS .................................................................................................. 224 THE NEXT INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION? ...................................................................................... 29 4.1 MANUFACTURING AND THE GLOBAL ECONOMY ............................................................................ 29 4.2 THE PERCEIVED IMPACT OF RAPID MANUFACTURING ................................................................... 30 4.3 THE REAL IMPACT OF RAPID MANUFACTURING ............................................................................. 315 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................................ 366 FUTURE WORK ...................................................................................................................................... 38APPENDIX I: PRODUCT ANALYSIS.......................................................................................................... 39APPENDIX II: FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS.................................................................................................... 57APPENDIX III: TRADE STATISTICS BY PRODUCT.............................................................................. 59APPENDIX IV: TRADE STATISTICS BY COUNTRY.............................................................................. 62REFERENCES.................................................................................................................................................... 67 5
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy1 Rapid Manufacturing as a Disruptive Technology The first chapter will introduce the reader to additive fabrication technology,describe the evolution of traditional manufacturing, and evaluate rapid manufacturing as adisruptive technology.1.1 Evolution of Rapid Manufacturing Additive fabrication is a revolutionary manufacturing process first commercialized 1by 3D Systems in 1986. Many forms of additive fabrication exist, includingstereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modelling (FDM),and 3D printing. All additive technologies utilize an additive process of bonding liquid,powder, or other materials layer-by-layer to produce a physical part. While early additive technologies were quite crude in terms of accuracy, limited interms of material selection, and required several pre- and post-processing steps, they wereembraced by designers and engineers who used the technology to produce prototypes andmodels for evaluating form, fit, and function of designs early in the development cycle,greatly reducing design costs and increasing the speed and quality of products brought to 2market. Because of this early application, additive fabrication is often referred to as “rapidprototyping.” Additive fabrication continued to make technological advancements under the guiseof “rapid prototyping” throughout the 1990s and 2000s. With continuous improvements inmaterials, resolution, and build speed, many began to consider additive fabrication as amanufacturing process in its own right. The application of additive techniques for theproduction of end use products, or “rapid manufacturing,” is a potentially revolutionaryconcept which will form the basis of this study.1.2 Evolution of Traditional Manufacturing To understand the potentially disruptive nature of rapid manufacturing, a briefhistory of traditional manufacturing is necessary to identify the fundamental principleswhich have influenced the rise of industry. Despite numerous process improvement andtechnology based improvements, two basic principles have largely defined traditionalmanufacturing: specialization and standardization.1.2.1 Basic Principles Specialization is a natural manifestation of human interaction and represents themost fundamental characteristic of manufacturing. Adam Smith discussed the increase inhuman productivity resulting from specialization and the division of labor by drawing 6
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economyexamples from contemporary society. He notes that even within primitive tribes, certainmembers would specialize in the manufacture of tools and weapons to be exchanged withothers who specialized in hunting.3 David Ricardo identified the concept of comparativeadvantage in which entire nations or societies may benefit from specialization and trade. Henotes that natural or artificial advantages unique to geographic regions or societies supportthe production of certain products, the trade of which results in increased wealth.4 Early manufacturing, or “craft production,” was based largely upon specialization.Craft production featured highly skilled workers using flexible tools to design and producecustomized products in low volumes. It originally consisted of local customers, localproduction, and local suppliers—although improvements in transport and internationaltrade would eventually enable the expansion of markets. Because each manufactured itemwas unique, the overall consistency and quality of craft production was highly variable.5 The development of interchangeable parts by Honoré Blanc and Eli Whitney in thelate 1700s represents a significant advancement in production methodology. 6 Thestandardization of parts and processes provided improved quality and consistency, thusenabling larger production volumes at lower cost. Standardization is the fundamental process which enabled a shift from craftproduction to mass production and, along with specialization, largely defines contemporarymanufacture. While today’s global manufacturing system also benefited from numeroustechnology and process improvements, the underlying principles remain specialization andstandardization.1.2.2 Process Improvements Following the development of standardized parts, the next significant advancementin manufacturing occurred in 1908 with Henry Ford’s development of the assembly line.His system of mass production utilized unskilled workers to operate inflexible single-purpose machines and enforced rigid measurement techniques to ensure consistency andfacilitate assembly. The result was highly standardized production which delivered a highvolume of products with significantly reduced costs. By automating the entire assemblyprocess along a moving belt, Ford was able to carefully control the rate of production.7 Alsoin the early 1900s, Fredrick Winslow Taylor introduced the idea of scientific management.Taylor preached the extreme specialization through the division of labor into basic tasks, thesubsequent optimization of which would result in improvements to the overall process.Taylor’s ideas are credited with launching the field of management science.8 7
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy The concept of lean production represents the next significant process improvement.Pioneered by Eiji Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno in the 1950s and 1960s, “lean” encompasses avariety of process improvements including reduction of waste, continuous improvement ofproduction processes (kaizen), just-in-time inventory supply, and build-to-order productionbased on kanban.9 Unlike mass production, lean utilizes multi-skilled workers and semi-flexible machines to produce a limited variety of products in moderate volumes. Thisreduces time wasted changing over to a different product, thus enabling the cost effectivemanufacture of products with short lifecycles while reducing inventory and overheadcosts.10 Despite these improvements over mass production, lean factories still specialize in alimited variety of products with common, standardized characteristics. Agile manufacturing is yet another modern production philosophy which strives toimprove, but not fundamentally change, traditional mass production. Agile manufacturingsystems feature high levels of product and process flexibility to compress product lead timeand improve responsiveness. These goals may be achieved within a traditional massproduction environment through the rapid reconfiguration of manufacturing processes, buttypically result in additional waste. 11 Some manufacturers have attempted to meetconsumer demand through modularization, or the personalized combination ofstandardized components.12 The most extreme form of agile manufacture, “build-to-order,”requires process flexibility, product flexibility, and volume flexibility to effectively meetconsumer demand.13 Agility attempts to combine the flexibility and customization of craftproduction with the reliability and volume of mass production, but is restricted by the needto utilize standardized parts and specialized processes. The application of technology has also historically resulted in the improvement ofmanufacturing processes. Both Smith and Ricardo discussed the numerous benefits ofmachinery, notably the reduction of labor by specialized machines capable of completingrepetitive tasks. The steam engine powered early factories of the industrial revolution,while enterprise resource planning systems power today’s global manufacturing businesses.While technology has greatly improved the efficiency of production, it has not inherentlychanged its fundamental principles.1.3 Rapid Manufacturing as a Disruptive Technology Traditional manufacturing is built upon the principles of standardization and massproduction. Gradual improvements in process, technology, and transportation haveresulted in a truly global supply chain of international sourcing, manufacturing, anddistribution with economies of scale never previously imagined. But rapid manufacturing 8
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economyprovides producers and consumers with a different value proposition: responsiveproduction of low-volume, customized products with increasingly competitive unit prices. According to Christensen, attributes which make disruptive technologies lessappealing to mainstream markets are the same attributes which are more appealing toemerging markets.14 In the case of rapid manufacturing, the ability to generate customizedproducts with a flexible machine is counter to the fundamental principles of conventionalmanufacture—standardization and specialization. Rapid manufacturing eliminates the need to produce standardized products andmaintain highly specialized factories. It provides the flexibility to manufacture multipleproducts with a single machine, including complex geometries previously impossible tomanufacture through subtractive means. Additive technology enables the fabrication oftruly personalized products given direct customer input, thus eliminating all forms ofstandardization. Tuck and Hague discuss how rapid manufacturing achieves many goals of both leanand agile philosophies. Rapid manufacturing results in the elimination of waste through thereduction raw materials, work in progress inventory, and finished goods inventory. Furthercost savings are achieved by reducing assembly costs, consolidating the number ofcomponents, reducing set-up and change-over time, and potentially eliminating transportcosts by allowing for manufacture at the site of demand. In addition, additive technologiesallow for the creation of value through customization and the compression of lead timethrough the elimination of supply lines—two key goals of agile manufacturing.15 While leanand agile manufacturing attempt to improve traditional production techniques, rapidmanufacturing achieves the goals of both philosophies using an entirely different—andpotentially disruptive—approach. 9
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy2 Potential Applications of Rapid Manufacturing Potential applications of rapid manufacturing technologies have been widelydocumented in both academic literature and popular press. This chapter will review manyof the recently commercialized applications of additive fabrication and current areas ofresearch, and will also examine literature addressing firm level implementation of additivetechnologies. This review will serve to identify the characteristics of promising applicationsas well as the current limitations of rapid manufacturing technology.2.1 Recently Commercialized Applications The following literature review describes the numerous applications which havebeen commercialized to date.2.1.1 Prosthetic Implants Rapid manufacturing has been widely adopted by the medical industry for a varietyof applications. Janssens and Poukens attribute the early adoption of rapid manufacturingwithin the medical industry to the need for personalized implants, the ability to producecomplex geometries, and the ability of doctors to actively influence the design andmanufacture of components which greatly reduces development time and improves quality.Most importantly, the high-value nature of medical devices justifies the relatively high costof manufacture.16 Doctors are using additive fabrication to produce titanium implants which can becustomized prior to surgery, offer a more accurate fit, and provide better post-operationaesthetic appearance for the patient. Janssens and Poukens have also demonstrated thesuccessful use of electron beam melting to manufacture a titanium cranial implant.2.1.2 Orthodontics Harris and Savalani discuss a variety of applications in the field of orthodontics.They cite research into the use of selective laser melting and selective laser sintering toproduce titanium prosthetics, but note that resolution constraints of today’s technologieslimit the rapid manufacture of dental prosthetics. They also cite more successful applicationof rapid manufacturing technology for the production of orthodontic support structures,such as drill guides, which can be customized for each patient.17 The Invisalign® system is perhaps the most successful commercial application ofrapid manufacturing technology in the field of orthodontic support structures. Firstcommercialized by Align Technologies in 1999, Invisalign® utilizes SLA technology tocreate a series of customized clear plastic implants to be worn over a patient’s teeth.Incremental changes in each successive implant slowly realign and straighten a patient’s 10
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economyteeth over the length of treatment, typically lasting about twelve months. Each implant isunique, designed to fit each patient’s dental structure as well as the particular stage oftreatment.182.1.3 Hearing Aids Masters, et al, discussed the use additive techniques for the manufacture of hearingaids, citing particular benefits of quality and consistency. Hearing aids require apersonalized fit for both functionality and comfort. To achieve this level of customization, ahighly manual process resembling traditional craft-style of manufacture was employed,often resulting in variable quality and inconsistency. Rapid manufacturing is able to deliverthe necessary personalized fit in addition to consistency and quality. Masters also cites thebiocompatibility of SLS nylon material as an inherent benefit of the technology.19 Phonak, one of the top three global manufacturers of communication and ear caretechnology, uses selective laser sintering to manufacture nylon hearing aids. In addition todelivering a personalized device in a biocompatible material, rapid manufacturing allowsPhonak to carefully control their production process and quickly deliver original orreplacement products to customers. 20 Siemens, the market leader in hearing aids, alsoutilizes SLS technology to manufacture hearing aids. Like Phonak, Siemens cites processcontrol and improved quality as the primary advantages over traditional manufacturingmethods.212.1.4 Sports Equipment Delamore, et al, demonstrates the use of SLS in the development of bespoke footballboots citing advantages such as the ability to produce customized sensory and aestheticfeatures and design freedom through consolidation of components and application offunctionally graded materials. 22 Gerrits describes the use of SLS to manufacture acustomized helmet for an Olympic rower. The helmet was designed to reduce bodytemperature by reflecting sunlight and optimizing wind flow along the rower’s skull, thusimproving comfort and performance.23 Current research at Loughborough University isinvestigating the use of rapid manufacturing technologies to produce tailored sportsgarments optimized for injury prevention and impact protection.24 These examples of additive technology in sport target the niche market of world classathletes, not the mass market of amateurs. While the high cost of personalized developmentis currently limited to professional athletes who can more easily justify the expense andquantify the value of competitive advantage, continued improvements in additive 11
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economytechnology and subsequent reduction in cost may make this application more widelyaccessible.2.1.5 Aerospace Industry Fox presents variety of factors which make rapid manufacturing attractive to firmswithin the aerospace industry. Tooling is not cost effective given the low productionvolume of the aircraft industry, so the small-batch ability of rapid manufacturing isattractive. Further, rapid manufacturing is able to produce truly functional componentswith adequate material, geometry, and accuracy. Rapid manufacturing technologies are alsoflexible in their ability to build using a variety of materials, thus the continuousdevelopment of new materials suitable for rapid manufacturing will only support thecontinued application of the technology.25 Fox also presents an example of British Aerospace utilizing SLS technology tomanufacture complex duct work for its aircraft. Boeing and the US Navy also utilized SLSto manufacture cooling ducts with complex geometry for the F/A-18 Hornet. In the case ofthe F/A-18 Hornet, SLS was able to provide both the accuracy and material functionality aswell as the benefit of consolidating the number of components, thus reducing the need forintermediate assembly.26 Spielman reflects on the use of rapid manufacturing to produce “Flight Certified”components for use in space. Two hundred plastic capacitor housings were to bemanufactured for the international space station—a quantity which made rapidmanufacturing more economically viable than injection molding. Despite the need toqualify the material and process prior to production and use, the total cost of productdevelopment remained lower than that featuring traditional tooling.27 The University of Loughborough worked with Martin Baker Aircraft to developpersonalized ejector seats for pilots, but were ultimately limited by materials constraints.28 Steward examined the application of rapid manufacturing in the production ofpremium airline seats. He cites benefits of rapid manufacturing given the low volume ofpremium seats and complexity of seating design, but acknowledges that material limitations,the need for aesthetic finishing operations, and size constraints limit the practical applicationto small, non-cosmetic, non-structural seat components.292.1.6 Motor Sports Tromans has examined the application of rapid manufacturing in the automobileindustry, specifically its early applications within motor sports. He notes that rapidmanufacturing is well suited for Formula One and NASCAR because of its ability to 12
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economyproduce customized functional components in small volumes, generate complex geometrieswhich may be otherwise unmanufacturable, and quickly turn around new or replacementparts.30 The Renault Formula One team recognized the early potential of rapidmanufacturing and developed a digital manufacturing center in 2002 with 3D Systems, apioneer of stereolithography technology. 31 The ability to make quick modifications tofunctional components and reduce the need for assembly by consolidating multiplecomponents into single parts is advantageous for F1 teams. Morrison provides an example of custom motorcycle shops which are utilizingadditive fabrication to produce functional parts in low volumes for their unique bikes.32 Kimberley discusses numerous applications of rapid manufacturing by the Italianfirm CRP Technology to optimize complex, functional components in low volumes. He citesexamples from Formula One racing, including break ducts, air intakes, and body panels, aswell as examples from championship motorbikes including seats, mudguards, andwindscreens.332.1.7 Art and Furniture Rapid manufacturing has also allowed artists to construct works previouslyrestricted to their imaginations. EOS has collaborated with designer Assa Ashuash todevelop an artistic chair with optimized ergonomic and structural properties.34 Materilise, arapid manufacturing and design company based in Belgium, offers a variety of lamps, vases,and other interior ornaments.35 And the Dutch firm Freedom of Creation uses laser sinteringto produce a range of artistic lighting and furniture pieces which are not manufacturable bytraditional methods. Freedom of Creation has also used SLS technology to producepersonalized awards and trophies for a variety of clients.362.1.8 Aesthetic Models Morrison provides an example of firms using rapid manufacturing to producearchitectural models faster and cheaper than traditional, manual-intensive methods. 37Wisconsin-based 3D Molecular Designs employs five different rapid manufacturingtechnologies to produce complex models of proteins and other molecules for scientists andacademics.382.2 Current Areas of Research In addition to the wide variety of additive products have already beencommercialized, many other applications are currently being researched. 13
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy2.2.1 Textiles Fralix has documented the potential for mass customization within the apparelindustry.39 Hague has described the benefits of rapidly manufactured textiles, includingseamless garments, customized tailoring, the creation of products that transition from solidto fabric, and the potential to produce smart textiles with embedded functionality such ascomputing.40 Evenhuis and Kyttanen first developed the concept for the rapid manufacture oftextiles composed of individual links and their company, Freedom of Creation, hascommercialized a limited number of textile products which are manufactured using SLS.However, current technical capabilities limit the resolution of rapidly manufacture textiles,which tend to be quite crude and resemble medieval chainmail. Continued improvementswill likely expand the number of potential applications.412.2.2 Automotive The automobile is arguably responsible for the emergence of mass production in itscurrent form.42 Given the sheer volume of automobile production, the application of rapidmanufacturing within the automotive industry has been largely limited to the niche marketof high performance vehicles and concept cars. Lamborghini worked with CRP Technology to manufacture a carbon fibre headlightwasher cover flap for its Gallardo sports car using SLS. The aerodynamic and aestheticrequirements of the high speed vehicle demanded dimensional precision and reliability in avariety of environmental situations. While this represents the successful application of rapidmanufacturing in the manufacture of consumer automobiles, it must be noted that the initialproduction run was for only one hundred vehicles.43 Knight discusses research conducted by MG Rover and Loughborough University toassess various automotive applications of rapid manufacturing, including seats, steeringwheels, and hand breaks customized to fit individual drivers. While the ability to createaccurate part geometry exists, researchers believe there is a need to ensure the repeatabilityof mechanical properties before utilizing the technology for structural and safetyapplications.44 Hyundai collaborated with Freedom of Creation to manufacture aesthetic floorcarpeting for the QarmaQ concept car using SLS.452.2.3 Bone Scaffolds Despite the success of their titanium cranial implant, Janssens and Poukensaddressed the need for implants to be constructed of materials featuring biocompatibility 14
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economyand the ability to support bone growth rather than simply replace it. Cooke researched theuse of stereolithography to manufacture porous structure for tissue engineering applications.Cooke’s study developed bespoke bone scaffolds using biocompatible, biodegradablematerial to support cell regeneration in animals with promising results.462.2.4 Drug Delivery Harris and Savalani have discussed the use of rapid manufacturing technologies toprovide effective, personalized methods of drug delivery. They postulate that the ability ofSLS or 3D-Printing to create functionally graded materials may enhance the drug releaserate of oral pharmaceuticals by optimizing the density and diffusivity of each pill. Further,they suggest that the ability to manufacture each tablet individually would allow for patientcustomization, as a single tablet containing multiple drugs with personalized dosages anddelivery times may replace the need to take multiple pills throughout the day.472.2.5 Construction Others have examined the potential to apply rapid manufacturing techniques tolarge scale construction projects. Soar explains that the construction of buildings and otherstructures is well suited for rapid manufacturing because of its ability to producefunctionally graded and optimized designs, provide individual customization, and reducethe need for assembly by integrating features such as wiring or ducting. 48 While thisdemand for customization and flexibility are supported by rapid manufacturing principles,the technology required to meet such demand is still in infancy. Khoshnevis cites theunsuitability of existing technologies as the primary factor limiting widespread uptakewithin the construction industry, notably the low deposition rate of existing technologiesand the inability to deliver a wide range of materials simultaneously.492.3 Feasibility of Implementing Rapid Manufacturing at the Firm Level In addition to the numerous examples of rapid manufacturing applications, thefeasibility of implementing the technology for specific parts or for individual firms has beenwidely documented. Hopkinson examined the production economics of rapid manufacturing compared totraditional injection molding at the part level. He considered the machine costs, labor costs,and material costs of various rapid manufacturing technologies compared to traditionalmethods (Figure 2.1).50 It must be noted that the magnitude of cost savings will vary fordifferent applications as the unit cost of rapid manufacturing is highly dependent upon partgeometry. 15
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Figure 1.1: Production Cost Comparison for Various Technologies, 3.6 g part (Hopkinson 2006). Rufflo, et al, expanded upon Hopkinson’s study by accounting for the initialoverhead cost of the rapid manufacturing machine, as well as recurring maintenance costs,labor costs, and other costs. He also considered the cost incurred by building impartial lines,layers, or builds. Using the same baseline part, Rufflo found a higher per-part cost estimatethan Hopkinson’s study and also showed the effect of non-optimal build quantities (Figure2.2). Despite finding a higher cost per part, Rufflo’s study confirms the value of rapidmanufacturing for low volume production compared to injection molding.51 Figure 2.2: Production Cost Comparison for Laser Sintering and Injection Molding, 3.6 g part (Rufflo, et al. 2006). Tuck and Hague examined the effect of rapid manufacturing at the firm level. Inaddition to improved production economies, they note significant reductions in inventory, 16
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economylabor, and distribution costs. They postulate that rapid manufacturing may result in ageneral reduction in overhead costs, shorter lead time to market, the near elimination of rawmaterials, work in progress inventory, and finished goods inventory. They also examine avariety of potential supply chain strategies given the freedom to manufacture in anyenvironment.52 Reeves has provided a methodology to assess the value of implementing rapidmanufacturing for individual businesses. He discusses the business drivers, materialconsiderations, and process considerations which should influence a firm’s decision toimplement rapid manufacturing. He also touches on higher level impacts, including areduction in supply chain and capital costs as well as reduction of lead time and theadvantage of being first to market.53 Walter, Holmström and Yrjölä discuss the potential impact of rapid manufacturingon supply chain management by examining the many shortcomings of traditional spareparts supply methods within the airline industry and introducing rapid manufacturing as apotentially valuable alternative. They conclude that rapid manufacturing is especially wellsuited for low volume production of parts featuring variable demand, high inventoryholding costs, and high logistics costs.542.4 Characteristics of Promising Applications The preceding cases highlight many disruptive characteristics of rapidmanufacturing which have driven commercialization of the technology. These primarycharacteristics are: 1. Personalization. The ability to manufacture truly personalized features has been shown in numerous cases. Visual customization has been shown in art, aesthetic models, and automobiles. The value of comfort and functionality achieved by the manufacture of products to fit a consumer’s body has been shown in the cases of hearing aids, bespoke football boots, and bone scaffolds. 2. Responsiveness. The value of speed and reduced lead times achieved by rapid manufacturing has been widely documented and shown to be especially useful for products which are fashionable, such as clothing, or products with variable demand, such as spare parts. 3. Low Volume. The elimination of tooling and subsequent cost reduction is especially valuable for applications featuring low production volumes, such as motorsports or aerospace. 17
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy 4. Complexity. The ability to produce complex geometries which were previously impossible to manufacture, such as optimized airflow systems, is also extremely valuable. Rapid manufacturing also allows for the consolidation of components and reduction of assembly costs.2.5 Limitations of Current Technology Despite the numerous benefits, the previous cases also highlight barriers which limitthe feasibility of implementing rapid manufacturing. While additive technologies arecontinuously being researching and improved, a number of issues still remain. 1. Resolution. The precision and resolution of additive technologies limits their feasibility for some applications, as the need for finishing or post-processing results in additional costs. 2. Size. The build envelope of current rapid manufacturing technologies limits its application to relatively small products. The largest additive system is capable of building a part only 59” across.55 3. Reliability. While rapid manufacturing is able to provide some level of control and repeatability to previously manual processes, the overall quality and reliability of the process has yet to be qualified. If rapid manufacturing is used to produce a highly customized functional component, each iteration may potentially require reliability or safety testing. 4. Speed and Cost. The low deposition rate of rapid manufacturing limits its application in large-scale projects, such as construction. And the high cost of materials makes rapid manufacturing an unlikely replacement for high-volume, low- value industries. 5. Materials. Current materials also limit the number of practical applications of rapid manufacturing technology. Questions of biocompatibility restrict in vivo applications, with only limited achievements in the field of hearing aids. The ability to manufacturing multiple materials at the same time is also a current limitation of the technology. And while the ability to provide functionally graded materials my eventually prove valuable, it has yet to be commercialized. 18
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy3 Potential Impact of Rapid Manufacturing on Current Products This chapter will identify products and sectors which are most likely to be affectedby rapid manufacturing based on the characteristics identified in the previous chapter. Itwill introduce a methodology used to evaluate the potential impact on individual productsin terms of applicability and feasibility. Applicability refers to the ability of rapid manufacturing to add value to a product.Value may be added by providing customization and improved responsiveness based onconsumer demand. Value may also be created through geometric optimization and partconsolidation, which may also reduce assembly and tooling costs. Feasibility, in contrast, refers to the ability of rapid manufacturing technologies toactually manufacture products given current or expected limitations in terms of materials,size, resolution, reliability, and cost. In addition to identifying products which are mostlikely to be impacted by rapid manufacturing, evaluating the feasibility of the mostpromising applications will provide a basis for future research and improvement of rapidtechnologies. It is important to note that applicability will dictate the uptake of rapidmanufacturing more so than feasibility. Consumer demand must exist and value must becreated to justify the application of rapid manufacturing technologies. A product’s ability tobe constructed through additive means may not provide any additional value compared toconventional methods, and would therefore not justify a shift in production style.3.1 Methodology To evaluate the potential impact of rapid manufacturing for a large quantity ofindividual products, a consistent and transparent methodology is necessary. To date, nosuch methodology has been developed and a study of such scope has not been undertaken. This evaluation intends to provide a high level analysis of all commonlymanufactured and globally traded goods. It strives to identify products and sectors mostlikely to be affected by rapid manufacturing, thus allowing conclusions to be drawnregarding the potential impact of rapid manufacturing upon the global economy. Givensuch a wide scope, a flexible methodology has been developed which may accommodate adiverse range of products. The proposed methodology resembles a failure mode and effect analysis, a commonengineering tool used to evaluate product reliability in terms of multiple, independentcharacteristics. The simplicity of this method will provide flexibility to assess a wide varietyof products, each with very different features.56 19
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Characteristics presented in the previous chapter will serve as criteria for assessment.Each individual product will be assigned a numeric score for each characteristic to quantifythe value which may be added by rapid manufacturing. These criteria scores will bemultiplied to determine a “value score” for each manufactured product. This “value score”will enable the comparison of different goods based upon the total value received fromrapid manufacturing. While certain products will likely achieve greater value from certaincharacteristics, all criteria will carry an equal weighting for mathematical simplicity, clarity,and consistency, allowing for an unbiased comparison of different products. A weightedscale of 1 (low value), 2 (minor value), 4 (moderate value), and 8 (high value) was used toevaluate each characteristic.* Once the most applicable products are identified, the feasibility of manufacture willbe assessed using a similar scale ranging from 1 (not feasible) to 8 (feasible).3.1.1 Applicability Consumer demand for customization is one characteristic which will continue todrive the acceptance of rapid manufacturing technologies. However, various levels ofcustomization exist. Extreme customization, such as body fit or ergonomic personalization,achieves perhaps the highest value for products requiring direct input from the user toimprove comfort or performance (value = 8). Modular personalization, resulting invariations of shape, size, or material, is of less value than ergonomic personalization butmay significantly improve functionality (value = 4). Basic customization, such as color orappearance, may significantly affect aesthetic qualities of a product, but is of less value thanergonomic or modular personalization in that it has no impact on functional performance(value = 2). Some products may achieve no value through personalization (value = 1), suchas purely functional products with little user interaction or products for which value may beactually be achieved through standardization. Consumer demand for responsiveness is also highly variable. Rapid manufacturingmay deliver high value for products which require immediate availability in response tosporadic demand (value = 8), but little value for products featuring consistent demand(value = 1). Intermediate products may be assessed in terms of fashionability, with highly* An exponential scale was selected in preference to a linear scale to better distinguish products gainingsignificant value from rapid manufacture. A variety of alternate scales were also investigated to prove therobustness of the methodology, including both linear scales of [1,2,3,4], [1,3,5,7], and [1,4,7,10] and exponentialscales of [1,3,9,27]and [1,4,16,64]. Use of these scales identified nearly the same products to be promisingapplications as the originally selected exponential scale of [1,2,4,8] with 96% consistency. The decision tocalculate the “value score” through multiplication rather than addition was also investigated. The addition ofexponential scales resulted in generally the same products as multiplication with 73% consistency. 20
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economyfashionable products receiving moderate value from rapid manufacture (value = 4) and lessfashionable products resulting in lower value (value = 2). Value can also be achieved by enabling the production of complex products orsimplifying the number of components and labor required for assembly. Highly complexassemblies may achieve high levels of value through rapid manufacturing (value = 8), whilesimple assemblies may achieve moderate levels of value (value = 4). Complex componentsmay achieve some value (value = 2) while simple products offer little to no value (value = 1). Reduction of tooling costs and the ability to deliver low production volumes isperhaps the most disruptive aspect of rapid manufacturing. It is especially valuable forproduction quantities of one (value = 8), but is also valuable for low production volumes upto 1000 (value = 4). Medium production volumes between 1000 and 10,000 offer somebenefit (value = 2), while no benefit is achieved for mass produced products with quantitiesover 10,000 (value = 1). While the scale of appropriate production quantities may changegiven improvements in technology, the concept of individual, low, medium, and highproduction volumes remains relevant.3.1.2 Feasibility Once the most promising products have been identified, each will be evaluatedbased on feasibility of manufacture. Current limitations of rapid manufacturing technologywere discussed in the previous chapter will provide criteria for assessment. The resolution of additive technologies may limit the feasibility of producing certainproducts containing small features, fine detail, or requiring an exceptionally smooth surfacefinish. Products requiring resolution which is achievable using current rapid technologiesare considered highly feasible (value = 8). Products requiring resolution which may beattained assuming reasonable advancements in technology over the next decade areconsidered somewhat feasible (value = 4). Products requiring significant advancements inrapid technologies to meet resolution requirements are not feasible (value = 1). Current rapid manufacturing technologies are also limited by the size of their buildenvelope. Products measuring less than one cubic foot are considered highly feasible (value= 8) as they are able to fit within the build envelope of a typical additive system. Assumingreasonable advancements in additive technology over the next ten years provide buildenvelopes of up to one cubic metre, medium sized products may be considered somewhatfeasible (value = 4). Extremely large products in excess of one cubic metre will requiresignificant advancements in rapid technologies and are not currently feasible (value = 1). 21
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy As an emerging technology, many questions still surround the reliability andrepeatability of additive processes. Non-functional products have little need for reliabilityassurance and may be considered highly feasible given today’s level of technology (value =8). Products with minimal reliability requirements may be considered somewhat feasible(value = 4). Highly functional and high performance products, or products which mustmeet strict safety requirements, will require further advancements in rapid manufacturingprocesses (value = 1). The speed and cost of manufacture also limit the application of rapid manufacturingfor certain products. The low deposition rate and high cost of material make rapidmanufacturing ill-suited for the production of large, low value products (value = 1). Small,high-value products are more likely applications of the technology in its current form (value= 8). Reasonable advancements in technology over the next ten years may expand thepotential applications to include larger products of lower value (value = 4), but rapidmanufacturing is unlikely to be cost effective extremely large products. Materials represent another barrier for rapid manufacturing. While significantadvancements have been made in terms of material variety and functionality, the ability toreplicate certain material characteristics is not yet feasible. What is more, current additivetechnologies lack the ability to fabricate multiple materials simultaneously. Plastic ormetallic products of single material may be considered highly feasible (value = 8), whileproducts requiring high performance materials or biocompatibility and products composedof multiple materials may be considered somewhat feasible given moderate futureadvancements (value = 4). Heat sensitive materials such as glass and materials featuringunique tactile characteristics such as wood or fine textiles will require significantimprovements in current technology (value = 1).3.2 Analysis of Current Products The methodology described above was applied to over two thousand manufacturedproducts listed in the Standard International Trade Classification, Revision 3 (SITC Rev 3).SITC Rev 3 was selected due to the completeness of global trade statistics, which will formthe basis of the economic analysis conducted in the following chapter. The products listed in SITC Rev 3 were first evaluated based on the value which maybe added through rapid manufacturing. Full results of this analysis have been provided inAppendix I. The most promising products were then evaluated based upon the feasibility ofmanufacture, the full results of which are available in Appendix II. 22
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy The following section will discuss the products identified as receiving the most valuefrom rapid technologies. For clarity of presentation, similar products will be grouped intoproduct families, each possessing similar characteristics well suited for rapid manufacture.A detailed explanation will also address the feasibility of manufacture, as not allapplications are feasible given current or even reasonable advancements in additivetechnology.3.2.1 Medical Devices Medical devices are perhaps the most promising application of rapid manufacturingtechnology. Medical devices derive their greatest benefit from customization, as productsmay be tailored to fit the recipient’s body. This includes both in-vivo products, such ashearing aids, dental implants, and other artificial body parts, and in-vitro products, such asspectacles and frames, walking sticks, and therapeutic or massage apparatuses. Medicaldevices are also among the most feasible products to manufacture using additive methodsdespite questions regarding the availability of materials and product reliability. Theapplicability and feasibility of medical devices is further evidenced by the numerousexamples of commercialized applications presented in the previous chapter.3.2.2 Art and Home Décor Artists and designers have only recently embraced rapid manufacturing, but thelimitless design potential of additive fabrication allows the feasible production of highlycomplex, customized products in volumes of one. This is especially valuable for art andother interior decorations, especially those of high complexity featuring ornate details,which would benefit from reduced assembly costs and are valued for their artistic qualities. Clocks are a good application given their high level of fashion, the potential demandfor customization, and the complex assembly which may be reduced through rapidmanufacturing techniques. Lighting fixtures offer another opportunity for high aestheticcustomization. Decorative wall ornaments are perhaps the most feasible application ofrapid technology given the current technical capabilities of additive fabrication systems.Improved resolution, speed, and material selection will continue to justify the uptake ofrapid manufacturing for this application. Decorative woven articles, such as awnings, curtains, and tapestries, may also benefitfrom high levels of aesthetic customization in terms of color, design, and shape. The abilityto manufacture in low volumes and respond to individual demand is also highly valuable.However, the technology required to manufacture fabrics is still in infancy, and further 23
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economyadvancements in materials and resolution are needed to replace traditional forms ofmanufacture. Floor coverings, including hardwood, tile, carpet, or linoleum, provide an interestingcase. Currently, floor coverings are installed on-site. Raw materials are delivered to alocation and the floor covering is shaped to fit the unique interior space. In effect, floorcoverings are manufactured in volumes of one, and inherently possess both modular andaesthetic customization. These features make it ideal for rapid manufacture, but currenttechnical capabilities severely limit the feasibility of such an application. Significantimprovements would be required in terms of material availability and resolution. What ismore, size and deposition rate limit the physical and financial feasibility of such anapplication.3.2.3 Jewellery Jewellery is another application which would greatly benefit from the valueprovided by customization. This includes watches, watch straps, rings, bracelets, and otherarticles of metal or precious metal. The feasibility of using additive technologies forjewellery manufacture will increase as a greater variety of materials, including preciousmetals, become available for rapid manufacture.3.2.4 Musical Instruments The manufacture of musical instruments is another area which may be significantlyimpacted by additive fabrication. Musical instruments typically feature high levels ofcomplexity, and rapid manufacturing would allow for a reduction in the number ofcomponents, reduced assembly costs, and potentially optimized acoustic performance.Instruments may also be designed to provide custom ergonomic fit for the musician or evena signature sound. Additional research in this area is required, as material composition is akey component of acoustic performance.3.2.5 Sports Equipment Another commercially viable application of rapid manufacturing is sporting goods,including clothing and equipment. Sport offers an ideal application of rapid technologiesgiven the premium value associated with individual performance which is able to justifyhigher development costs. This has been shown by previous examples of bespoke footballboots and applications within Formula One racing. While it is conceivable that rapidmanufacturing may someday deliver customized products to even casual athletes, thecurrent high cost of development restricts the market to that of high performance sports. 24
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Clothing, including footwear, safety equipment, and other high performancegarments would greatly benefit from ergonomic customization. The numerous benefits ofbespoke football boots discussed in the previous chapter may be applied to other sportingfootwear such as tennis shoes, basketball shoes, ski boots, and ice or roller skates. Safetyequipment, such as headwear and lifejackets, may also be customized for optimumperformance. While the successful commercialization of bespoke football boots reinforcesthe feasibility of sports apparel, continued advancements in materials and resolution as wellas a decrease in the cost of production are necessary for industry wide uptake. The ability to customize other sports equipment, such as tennis racquets or golf clubs,to fit individual athletes may also result in improved performance or comfort. Otherprobable applications include skis, surfboards, and saddlery. Rapid manufacturing mayallow for optimized design of high performance woven articles, such as sails or parachutes.These articles would also benefit from aesthetic customization and reduced assembly costs. Given the ability of rapid manufacturing to deliver highly responsive supply,childrens toys have oft been presented as a promising application. 57 However, most toyswould benefit from only minor customization, such as color and shape, and the simplicity ofmost toys remains better suited for high volume manufacture. But rapid manufacturing iswell suited for more complex toys which would also benefit from ergonomic customization.Bicycles, tricycles, and scooters, for example, would benefit from improved safety andcomfort achieved through customization, as well as a reduction in assembly costs.3.2.6 Consumer Electronics Consumer electronics provide another potentially promising application of rapidmanufacturing, but significant advancements in technical capabilities are required before theproduction of such products is considered feasible. Consumer electronics are highlycomplex and would significantly benefit from a reduction in assembly costs. They are alsoincreasingly viewed as fashionable, as many products offer varying levels ofcustomization—from aesthetic to functional. What is more, consumer electronics possess arelatively short product lifecycles. As technologies become outdated, they are replaced bynewer models and there is a need for producers to reinvest in tooling. Rapid manufacturingwould allow for the production of highly customized products in immediate response toconsumer demand, while eliminating the need for assembly and tooling. Telephones and mobile phones are highly fashionable and would benefit fromaesthetic customization. Headphones, earphones, and hand tools may be personalized tocomfortably fit the individual consumer, thus resulting in improved performance. 25
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global EconomyHowever, further research is needed before additive technologies are capable of supportingcomplex, electronic circuitry. Alternatively, certain consumer electronic components, suchas casings and housings, are well suited for rapid manufacture in its current form.3.2.7 Architecture and Construction The very nature of construction, featuring highly complex, highly customizedproducts in low volumes, is well suited for additive fabrication. But as previously discussed,the slow deposition rate of current additive technologies and the inability to utilize multiplematerials simultaneously limits the feasibility of large scale construction. What is more, thereliability of additive technologies has yet to be proven for use in such applications whichmust consider structural integrity and human safety.3.2.8 High Value Machinery Rapid manufacturing is well suited for complex industrial machinery produced inespecially low volumes, such as hydraulic turbines or nuclear reactors. These products areproduced in very limited volumes, and would benefit greatly a reduction in part complexity,geometric optimization, and the ability to customize features in response to uniquerequirements. However, the reliability of current additive processes may be questioned forsuch high performance machinery. Further, the size of such machinery is unable to beaccommodated by current build envelopes.3.2.9 Spare Parts Many highly complex, functional products are ill suited for rapid manufacture for avariety of reasons. Heavy machinery and transport equipment, for example, are oftenstandardized and would derive little value from personal customization. They also havelong product lifecycles and stable demand, thus not benefiting from responsiveness of rapidmanufacture. What is more, these products are produced in large quantities to controlquality and reliability. While rapid manufacturing may not be applicable for the production of complexmachinery, it offers significant value for the fabrication of spare parts and components.Rapid manufacturing can support the agile supply of spare parts for machinery which arehighly complex and feature highly sporadic demand. Significant value is created by suchresponsiveness which allows for the compression of lead time as well as the elimination ofinventory.3.2.10 Luxury Clothing Clothing is currently mass produced in a variety of colors, shapes, and sizes toprovide consumers with some level of modular customization. Rapid manufacturing, 26
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economyhowever, may potentially allow for entirely bespoke wardrobes. While a demand forrapidly manufactured clothing may exist, the feasibility of such an application may bedifficult to realize. Significant advancements in materials technology and machineresolution are required to make the fabrication of clothing feasible. Luxury garments, such as suits, jackets, and dresses, provide a potentially goodapplication given their high levels of customization, low volume of production, highfashionability, and short product life cycle. Bespoke suits and dresses are among the onlyforms of clothing which are not mass produced today, resulting in justifiably higher costs.In addition to providing customized products responsively, the ability to manufacturewithout the need for assembly would be beneficial. While demand for such an applicationclearly exists, technical capabilities limit the feasibility of manufacturing fine textiles.3.2.11 Vehicles Luxury recreation vehicles such as yachts, cruise ships, and campers, possess manycharacteristics which make them ideal candidates for rapid manufacture. While all types ofvehicle would benefit from aesthetic and modular customization and a reduction inassembly costs, recreation vehicles tend to be produced in lower volumes which are moreconducive to rapid manufacture. Automobiles were also identified as a promising application given their highpotential for customization and potential reduction of assembly costs through designoptimization. Motorcycles would likely achieve even greater benefits from ergonomiccustomization including improved comfort, safety, and performance. While recreational vehicles possess many intriguing characteristics, the need to meetstrict safety and reliability requirements may be difficult given both potentially significantvariations in design as well as the unproven nature of rapid manufacturing. What is more,the feasibility of producing full size passenger and recreational vehicles is currently limitedas the size of such products is unable to be accommodated by the build envelope of currentsystems. Certain components, such as body panels or seats, are slightly more practical thanan entire vehicle, but even these components are currently not feasible given currenttechnical limitations.3.2.12 Unpromising Applications A wide range of products will likely be unaffected by the advent of rapidmanufacturing. Highly functional products, raw materials, and simply worked products arelikely to achieve little value from additive fabrication. Some of these products may gainvalue from possessing a standard shape and size, while others tend to be consumed in 27
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economyextremely high volumes. For both reasons, mass production provides a more suitable formof manufacture. Complex industrial machinery and scientific instrumentation are typicallyvalued for their functional rather than ergonomic characteristics. The same can be said forsimple products such as screws, paperclips, or bottle caps. Raw materials including plasticsin primary form, yarn and fabric, plywood and other simply worked wood, and bulk metalproducts such as tubing, piping, wire, sheets, and ingots are unlike to be impacted. 28
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy4 The Next Industrial Revolution? The previous chapter identified a variety of products possessing characteristics wellsuited for additive fabrication and evaluated the feasibility manufacture given current orreasonable advancements in additive technology. This chapter will attempt to quantify thepotential impact on global trade which may result from mass uptake of rapid manufacturingfor those products identified.4.1 Manufacturing and the Global Economy Continued advancements in transportation, communication, and informationtechnology coupled with the reduction of policy barriers and liberalization of trade hasenabled the development of a global economic system more closely integrated than everbefore.58 Manufacturing is a critical component of the global economy, accounting for overtwo-thirds of global trade.59 OECD Trade Balance 400000 200000 Trade Balance (US$ millions) Machinery and Transport Equipment 0 Chemicals Beverages and Tobacco Oils and Fats -200000 Crude Materials Food and Live Animals Other goods -400000 Basic Manufactures Miscellaneous Manufactured Goods Mineral Fuels -600000 -800000 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Year Figure 2.1: OECD Trade Balance with Rest of the World (Euromonitor International 2008).60 An ever increasing portion of global trade is taking place between developed anddeveloping nations, but the nature of trade is very imbalanced. Members of theOrganization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, tend to export highvalue products, such as machinery, transport equipment, and chemicals, while emergingnations tend to export basic manufactured goods and mineral fuels (Figure 4.1). The balanceof basic and miscellaneous manufactured exports has slowly moved from developed todeveloping nations over the past twenty years as emerging economies are able to leverage 29
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economytheir comparative advantage in labor to ma-nufacture articles at lower costs. This shift inproduction is often perceived as a threat to developed nations, thus prompting many toproclaim rapid manufacturing the savoir for western industry. But, as discussed in theprevious chapter, not all manufactured products are well suited for rapid manufacture.4.2 The Perceived Impact of Rapid Manufacturing The potentially disruptive nature of rapid manufacturing is evident given itsfundamental differences with mass production. This has driven many to assert that rapidmanufacturing will result in “the next industrial revolution” or claim that it will enable “amanufacturing renaissance” in developed nations. 61 While common in literature, theseclaims remain largely unsubstantiated. A vast majority of literature on rapid manufacturingis dedicated to technical attributes of additive technology. Novel applications are becomingincreasingly common, while case studies examining the economic or operational impact atthe firm level remain infrequent. Larger, industry-wide analyses are even less common, andthe wider impact of rapid manufacturing on global economy and society has yet to beexamined. In Rapid Manufacturing: An Industrial Revolution for the Digital Age, Hopkinson, Hague,and Dickens provide arguably the most complete explanation of rapid manufacturingtechnology and applications to date. They evaluate the potential impact of rapidmanufacturing upon consumers and business, as well as its potential impact on howproducts are designed and distributed. However, their focus remains largely constrained tothe individual firm—a very relevant subject, but far from the “next industrial revolution”touted in their introduction.62 Tuck and Hague state that “the ability to remove [logistic,labour, and stock holding] costs could also affect the manufacturing environment on aglobal scale, by reuniting manufacturing to the country of origin, as labour costs are nolonger a burden.” However, they make no attempt to quantify such claims.63 Following a thorough analysis of additive technologies, McMains offers thefollowing, similar conclusion: “The ability to make customized products with fastturnaround times might even reverse the current trend throughout U.S. industry towardoffshore manufacturing.”64 However, no evidence is offered to support such a claim asidefrom her explanation of basic rapid prototyping technologies and materials. Knight offersthe same, unsubstantiated conclusion: “As rapid manufacturing requires no tooling, thetechnology could cut manufacturers costs, and ultimately help to reverse the trend ofproduction moving to China and India.”65 30
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy But to what extent will rapid manufacturing impact global trade? What productsand sectors are most likely to be affected? Will some countries be more impacted thanothers? Is rapid manufacturing truly capable leading a manufacturing renaissance indeveloped nations?4.3 The Real Impact of Rapid Manufacturing The ability of developed and developing nations to manufacture domestically willundoubtedly impact the current magnitude of global trade, potentially disrupting the levelof surpluses and deficits of individual nations and within individual sectors. Havingidentified a variety of products for which additive fabrication is most applicable and mostfeasible, the potential economic impact of large scale adoption may be quantified. Tradestatistics from 2005 will be analyzed as recorded by the United Nations’ Commodity TradeStatistics Database. This year was chosen given its high level of completeness relative tosubsequent years.4.3.1 Potential Magnitude Seventy products and product types were identified in the previous chapter forwhich rapid manufacturing is most applicable. These products represent 10.79% of globallytraded manufactured articles by value. Of those, only thirty-nine products were identifiedas feasible given reasonable advancements in rapid manufacturing technology, representingonly 2.05% of globally traded manufactured goods by value. Such a magnitude is unlikelyto be considered revolutionary, but closer examination reveals a disproportionate impactupon individual countries and sectors. In 2005, a US$587 billion dollar trade deficit existed between OECD nations and non-OECD nations for all traded commodities including fossil fuels, agriculture, raw materials,and manufactured goods. Manufactured goods represented eighteen percent of the totaldeficit, or US$106 billion. This deficit is largely a result of basic and miscellaneousmanufactured articles which are increasingly produced by non-OECD nations, as previouslyshown in Figure 4.1. In 2005, basic and miscellaneous manufactured articles represented a$284 billion dollar trade surplus for developing nations, while high value manufacturesimported from OECD nations represent a US$178 billion dollar deficit.66 When viewed in terms of trade deficit between developed and emerging nations, thepotential impact of rapid manufacturing appears more significant. A majority of the feasibleproducts identified as being well suited for rapid manufacture are categorized as basic ormiscellaneous manufactures by the standard international trade classification. Theseproducts represent over 20%, or US$21 billion, of the total manufacturing trade deficit 31
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economybetween OECD and non-OECD nations, and nearly 4% of the total trade deficit betweendeveloped and emerging economies.4.3.2 Impact on Products and Sectors Not all products and sectors will be equally impacted by rapid manufacturing.Luxury and recreational products will most likely be affected, while high valuemanufactures such as medical devices will remain largely unaffected. Trade statistics andanalysis by product are provided in Appendix III. Artistic products, including statues and sculpture, and other products of home décor,including lamps, chandeliers, and clocks, will be significantly affected by the uptake of rapidmanufacturing. These products represent US$40 billion worth of international trade, ofwhich nearly 30%, or US$11.7 billion, takes place between OECD and non-OECD nations.Not all artistic products will be impacted, however, as wood products, ornamental ceramicproducts, floor coverings, and woven articles including tapestries and curtains, requiresignificant advancements in rapid manufacturing technology to support industry-wideuptake. Musical instruments may also be significantly impacted by the uptake of rapidmanufacturing. The trade of musical instruments which may be manufactured usingadditive methods represents a US$2.7 billion dollar industry, one-third of which, or US$0.9billion, takes place between developed and developing nations. The trade of sports equipment, including saddlery, sails, skis, golf equipment, andtennis equipment, will also be considerably affected. These applications represent an US$8.7billion dollar industry, nearly 30% of which takes place between OECD and non-OECDnations. While rapid manufacturing has already been used to produce custom sportsfootwear, this will most likely remain a niche application as cost constraints limit thefeasibility of mass-market acceptance. The trade of jewellery products which may be impacted by rapid manufacturerepresents a US$51 billion industry, of which US$3.7 billion takes place between developedand developing nations. Medical devices, including spectacles and frames, hearing aids, artificial teeth, andother prosthetic implants, will remain largely unaffected. For these products, over 95% ofglobal trade is conducted among developed nations. The trade deficit between OECD andnon-OECD nations represents just US$1.6 billion of the US$34 billion dollar industry. As previously discussed, consumer electronics, high value machinery, and luxuryclothing will not likely be affected as significant advancements in additive technology are 32
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economyrequired to enable industry wide uptake. Perhaps the most promising consumer electronicis headphones and earphones, which, like hearing aids, may be customized to provide amore comfortable fit and improved acoustic performance. Headphones and earphonesrepresent a US$3.6 billion industry, of which $1.2 billion takes place between developed anddeveloping nations.4.3.3 Impact on Individual Nations The belief that high-wage economies will benefit from additive fabrication due to theelimination of labor and assembly costs is overly simplistic, as not all countries will beuniformly impacted by the uptake of rapid manufacturing. Also, the notion that developingcountries may benefit from the ability to manufacture domestically is oft overlooked. Inreality, rapid manufacturing provides variable advantages and disadvantages for both theconsumers and producers of individual nations. Trade statistics and analysis by country areprovided in Appendix IV. As previously stated, products well suited for rapid manufacturing account fornearly 20% of the manufacturing trade deficit between developed and developing nations.Thus, to some extent, assertions that rapid manufacturing can “stop the trend” ofproduction moving overseas is justified. But it must be noted that cost reduction is not theonly factor which will drive the adoption of rapid manufacturing. Rather, additivefabrication will be adopted for applications that derive value from customization,responsiveness, or geometric optimization. Consumers seeking these attributes typicallyreside in more developed nations. Consider that while OECD countries import over 70% ofall globally traded manufactured goods and commodities, they import an even higherportion—over 80%—of products identified as potential applications for rapid manufacturingbased on value. Thus, it can be argued that developed nations have the tendency and ability toconsume more luxury and recreational goods, such as art, jewellery, musical instrumentsand sports equipment. In fact, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France,and Japan are the top five importing nations for those products described. Given thegeographic freedom allowed by rapid manufacturing, the production of these products willconceivably shift to the nations of consumption negatively affecting nations which currentlyspecialize in these manufactures, regardless of their level of economic development. Switzerland represents a developed nation which may ultimately be harmed by aworld wide uptake of rapid manufacturing. Switzerland is a model high-wage economy,routinely ranking among the highest nations in terms of gross national income per capita.67 33
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global EconomyHowever, Switzerland is also the world’s largest exporter of watches and clocks with nearlyUS$10 billion exported in 2005. As illustrated in the previous chapter, watches and clockspossess many characteristics which make them well suited for additive fabrication. Theability for countries to manufacture watches and clocks domestically represents anespecially significant risk to Switzerland’s second largest exported commodity as well astheir marginal trade surplus of US$4.4 billion. Italy provides another example of a high-wage economy which may be negativelyimpacted by rapid manufacturing. Italy is the world’s largest exporter of both spectaclesand jewellery—two products which may gain immense value from the customizationprovided by rapid manufacturing. Italy’s current manufacturing trade deficit of US$11.9billion may potentially increase by over 50% to US$18.6 billion given the advent of rapidmanufacturing and subsequent reduction of its two primary exports. The adoption of rapid manufacturing will also negatively impact numerous Asianeconomies currently specializing in the supply of generic luxury and recreational goods.Countries such as China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, and Thailand stand to be impactedto varying degrees. Chinese manufactures will be most severely impacted as nearly 17% of China’sUS$102 billion dollar trade surplus is composed of luxury and recreational products. Thisrepresents US$17 billion in trade surplus which may be eliminated if their trading partnersadopt rapid manufacturing. Indonesia, another net exporter, will also be negativelyimpacted. Nearly 2% of Indonesia’s US$28 billion dollar surplus, US$0.5 billion, may beeliminated given the rise of rapid manufacturing. Asian nations which are net importers will generally be negatively impacted. Theelimination of luxury and recreational products as manufacturing exports may cause HongKong’s current trade deficit grow by over 50%, from US$8 billion to US$12 billion. Likewise,Thailand’s trade deficit may grow 20%, from US$8 billion to US$10 billion, and India’sdeficit may grow 7%, from US$46 billion to US$50 billion. However, not all developing nations will be negatively impacted. Net exportersfeaturing a strong industrial base of transport equipment and heavy machinery, such asBrazil and Russia, will be largely unaffected by the uptake of rapid manufacturing. Thesenations will see less than a one-percent change in their current surplus of manufacturedgoods. But as their economies continue to grow and prosper, the consumers of Brazil andRussia will increasingly benefit from the ability to manufacture luxury and recreationalproducts domestically. 34
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy The potential impact upon developed nations which are net exporters is also highlyvariable. Some net exporters will gain substantially from the ability to manufacturepreviously imported luxury goods. Given the proposed uptake of rapid manufacturing,Japan’s current trade surplus could grow from US$79 billion to US$85 billion. Germany,however, will remain largely unaffected. Its current trade surplus may grow from US$197billion to US$198 billion—a change of less than one percent. Net importers, such as France, the United Kingdom, and the United States willsignificantly benefit from the ability to produce luxury and recreational productsdomestically. France may see up to a 3.4% reduction in its trade deficit, from US$42 billionto US$40 billion. The US trade deficit may fall from US$828 billion to US$805 billion and theUK trade deficit may fall from US$131 billion to US$128 billion, reductions of 2.8% and 2.4%respectively. 35
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy5 Conclusion The disruptive nature of rapid manufacturing is evident given its ability to delivertruly customized or optimized products quickly and in small volumes. Further, theelimination of labor costs allow for geographically unconstrained production anddistribution. Continuing advancements in additive technology and an expanding number ofpractical applications have led many to speculate that rapid manufacturing may result in asecond industrial revolution and manufacturing renaissance in high income nations. Whilerapid manufacturing will undoubtedly impact individual products, its impact uponindustrial sectors and nations has been shown to be highly variable. The industrial revolution of the 1700s was enabled by new technologies and newways of thinking, but it was only a revolution because of the significant social and economicchanges which changed the how people lived, where people worked, and what peopleconsumed. As a disruptive technology, rapid manufacturing has the potential to redefineour present conceptions of manufacturing as it removes many of the limitations inherent inthe current global manufacturing system. It will undoubtedly impact numerous products interms of design and production and fundamentally change what people consume and howpeople live. But the impact of rapid manufacturing will be much greater for certain products andsectors. Luxury and recreational goods will be most significantly impacted given the highvalue associated with customization and a reduction in part complexity and assembly costs.The uptake of additive technology may also impact the balance of trade between developedand developing nations, as well as among developed nations. The degree to whicheconomies of individual nations will be impacted has been shown to be highly variable.However, consumers in all nations stand to benefit as rapid manufacturing willundoubtedly result in improved product performance, increased consumer comfort, andnovel business models—all of which will deliver increased value to the customer. While thebalance of global trade will be impacted by rapid manufacturing, the outsourcing of mostlow-value, labor intensive industries will be unaffected. Highly functional products, rawmaterials and simply worked products are better suited for mass production, as they gainlittle value from rapid manufacture. However, as Clayton Christensen contends, radical innovation tends to create newmarkets of customers whose needs are initially unknown to themselves andmanufacturers. 68 This is perhaps the most exciting aspect of rapid manufacturing, asfreedom from the design constraints inherent in traditional subtractive manufacture will 36
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economyundoubtedly result in a multitude of innovative products which have previously beenimpossible to manufacture or not yet conceived. This study attempted to quantify thepotential impact of rapid manufacturing by evaluating current products and trade flows, butit is impossible to quantify the impact of products yet to be imagined. 37
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy6 Future Work Given that this study attempted to evaluate the potential impact of rapidmanufacturing upon the global economy, it relied upon a methodology designed toaccommodate a wide variety of products and characteristics. A better understanding of howrapid manufacturing may impact specific products or industries may be achieved bytailoring the methodology to meet the demands of specific products. This may beaccomplished by weighting the criteria so characteristics which are considered morevaluable for a particular industry have greater influence. Further investigation into specificindustries is highly encouraged, as it may reveal a more accurate assessment of whichproducts may be affected by rapid manufacturing, and thus allow a more accurate analysisof how additive technology will impact the global economy. Spare parts were identified as a potential application of rapid manufacturing giventhe high value associated with responsiveness, reduction in part complexity, and lowvolume. Unfortunately, the standard trade classification index does not provide aclassification for spare parts thus making its magnitude impossible to quantify in the samecontext as other products. However, the SITC Rev 3 provides numerous sub classificationsfor generic “parts.” While these generic classifications may include spare parts as well asregular uncategorized components, their magnitude represents over 25% (US$1.77 trillion)of globally traded manufactured goods. This represents a significant opportunity for rapidmanufacturing, especially considering that all other applicable products identified asfeasible represent only 2% (US$0.14 trillion) of globally traded manufactured goods. For thisstudy, the value of a generic “parts” classification were considered only when listed as asubclassification of products identified as a potential applications of rapid manufacturing. While rapid manufacturing represents a fundamentally different approach totraditional manufacturing, it may be successfully integrated with systems of massproduction to deliver value for certain components. This study largely analyzed the abilityof rapid manufacturing to create finished products in their entirety. A closer evaluation of“parts” may also reveal components of mass produced products which may be impacted byrapid manufacturing. The magnitude of this impact is unable to be quantified given the lackof detail regarding “parts” within the SITC Rev 3. 38
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global EconomyAppendix I: Product Analysis Responsiveness Customization Responsiveness Customization Value Score Complexity Value Score Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product1221 Cigars, cheroots and cigarillos, containing tobacco 1 1 2 1 2 Articles of leather or of composition leather, of a1222 Cigarettes containing tobacco 1 1 2 1 2 kind used in machinery or mechanical appliances or 1 1 2 2 41223 Oth.manufactured tobacco 6121 for other technical uses Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes, of Saddlery and harness for any animal (including 1 1 2 1 2 8 2 4 4 25612231 tobacco substitutes 6122 traces, leads, knee-pads, Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes, of 6129 Other articles of leather or of composition leather 2 4 2 2 32 1 1 2 1 2 613 FURSKINS,TANNED,DRESSED12232 tobacco substitutes248 WOOD, SIMPLY WORKED 6131 Whole furs,not assembled2481 Railway,tramway sleepers Whole furskins of mink, with or without head, tail 2 1 1 1 2 Railway or tramway sleepers (cross-ties) of wood, 61311 or paws, tanned or dre 1 1 1 1 1 Whole furskins of rabbit or hare, with or without24811 not impregnated 2 1 1 1 2 Railway or tramway sleepers (cross-ties) of wood, 61312 head, tail or paws, tan 1 1 1 1 1 Whole furskins of lamb, the following: Astrakhan,24819 impregnated 2 1 1 1 2 Wadding, gauze, bandages and similar articles (e.g., 61313 Broadtail, Caracul, Per 4 1 1 1 4 Other furskins, whole, with or without head, tail or54191 dressings, adhesive 2 1 1 1 2542 MEDICAMENTS 61319 paws, tanned or dres5421 Medicaments,antibiotics Heads, tails, paws and other pieces or cuttings, 2 1 1 1 2 Medicaments containing penicillins or derivatives 6132 tanned or dressed, not a 8 1 2 1 16 Whole furskins and pieces or cuttings thereof,54211 thereof, with a penicil 2 1 1 1 2 Medicaments containing other antibiotics, not put 6133 tanned or dressed, assembl 8 1 2 1 16 62 RUBBER MANUFACTURES, NES54212 up in measured doses or Medicaments containing penicillins or derivatives 621 MATERIALS OF RUBBER 8 1 2 1 16 6211 Compounded rubber,unvulc54213 thereof, with a penicil Medicaments containing other antibiotics, put up in Rubber, unvulcanized, compounded with carbon 8 1 2 1 16 2 1 1 1 254219 measured doses or in 62111 black or silica5422 Medicaments,hormones etc Solutions, rubber, compounded, unvulcanized; 1 1 1 1 1 Medicaments containing insulin, not put up in 62112 dispersions, rubber, compoun 8 1 2 1 16 Other materials of unvulcanized, compounded54221 measured doses or in forms 2 1 1 1 2 Medicaments containing other hormones or other 62119 rubber 8 1 2 1 16 6212 Oth.forms unvulcd.rubber54222 products of subgroup 541.5 Medicaments containing insulin, put up in measured 62121 "Camel-back" strips for retreading rubber tyres 1 1 1 2 2 8 1 2 1 16 62129 Other forms and articles of unvulcanized rubber 1 1 1 2 254223 doses or in forms or p Medicaments containing adrenal cortical hormones, 6213 Vulcanized rubber 8 1 2 1 16 62131 Vulcanized rubber thread and cord 1 1 1 1 154224 put up in measured dose Medicaments containing other hormones or other Plates, sheets, strip, rods and profile shapes, of 8 1 2 1 16 1 1 1 1 154229 products of subgroup 541.5 62132 unhardened vulcanized5423 Medicaments,alkaloid.etc Plates, sheets, strip, rods and profile shapes, of 1 1 1 1 1 Medicaments containing alkaloids, but not 62133 unhardened vulcanized 8 1 2 1 16 6214 Vulc.rubber tubes,pipes54231 hormones, not for retail sale Medicaments containing alkaloids, but not Tubes,pipes,hoses,of unhard.vulc. rubber, not 8 1 2 1 16 4 1 1 1 454232 hormones, for retail sale 62141 reinforced5429 Medicaments, nes Tubes,pipes,hoses,of unhard.vulc. rubber, 4 1 4 1 16 Medicaments, n.e.s., not put up in measured doses 62142 reinf./comb. only with metal 8 1 2 1 16 Tubes,pipes,hoses,of unhard.vulc. rubber,54291 or in forms or packings 4 1 4 1 16 Medicaments containing vitamins or other products 62143 reinf./comb. only with textile 8 1 2 1 16 Tubes,pipes,hoses,of unhard.vulc. rubber,54292 of subgroup 541.1, put 4 1 4 1 16 Medicaments, n.e.s., put up in measured doses or in 62144 reinf./comb. with other materia 8 1 2 1 16 Tubes,pipes,hoses,of unhard.vulc. rubber, with54293 forms or packings for 4 1 4 1 16554 SOAP,CLEANERS,POLISH,ETC 62145 fittings5541 Soap 625 RUBBER TYRES,TUBES,ETC. Soap and organic surface-active products and Tyres, pneumatic, new, of a kind used on motor cars 4 1 1 1 4 4 1 4 1 1655411 preparations, in the form of 6251 (including station wa Soap and organic surface-active products and Tyres, pneumatic, new, of a kind used on buses or 4 1 1 1 4 4 1 4 1 1655415 preparations, in the form of 6252 lorries55419 Soap in other forms 4 1 1 1 4 6253 Tyres, pneumatic, new, of a kind used on aircraft 4 1 4 4 6458 PLASTIC,NON-PRIMARY FORM 6254 Tyres,pneum.new,cycles581 PLASTIC TUBE,PIPE,HOSE Tyres, pneumatic, new, of a kind used on 4 1 4 1 16 Artificial guts (sausage casings) of hardened protein 62541 motorcycles 4 1 1 1 4 62542 Tyres, pneumatic, new of a kind used on bicycles 4 1 2 1 85811 or of cellulosic ma5812 Tubes, pipes and hoses, rigid 4 1 1 1 4 6255 Other pneumatic tyres Flexible tubes, pipes and hoses, having a minimum Tyres, pneumatic, new, other, having a "herring- 4 1 1 1 4 4 1 2 1 85813 burst pressure of 27.6 62551 bone" or similar tread Other tubes, pipes and hoses, not reinforced or 62559 Tyres, pneumatic, new, other 4 1 2 1 8 4 1 1 1 4 6259 Other tyres,tubes etc.5814 otherwise combined with o Tubes, pipes and hoses, not reinforced or otherwise 62591 Inner tubes 1 1 4 1 4 4 1 1 1 4 62592 Retreaded tyres 2 1 2 2 85815 combined with other m5816 Other tubes, pipes and hoses 4 1 1 1 4 Solid or cushion tyres, interchangeable tyre treads 2 1 1 2 4 Fittings for tubes, pipes and hoses (e.g., joints, 62594 and tyre flaps 4 1 1 1 4 629 ARTICLES OF RUBBER, NES5817 elbows, flanges), of p Safety fuses; detonating fuses; percussion or 6291 Hygienic,pharm.rubbr.art 1 1 4 1 4 62911 Sheath contraceptives 2 1 1 1 25932 detonating caps; igniters;5933 Fireworks,flares,etc. Other hygienic or pharmaceutical articles of 2 1 1 1 259331 Fireworks 1 1 4 1 4 62919 unhardened vulcanized rubber Signalling flares, rain rockets, fog signals and other 6292 Vulc.rubber belting 1 1 4 1 4 Conveyor or transmission belts, of vulcanized59333 pyrotechnic articl 1 1 1 4 46 MANUFACTURED GOODS 62921 rubber, V-belts61 LEATHER, LEATHER GOODS Conveyor or transmission belts, of vulcanized 1 1 1 4 4611 LEATHER 62929 rubber, other Composition leather with a basis of leather or 6299 Hard rubber etc.,nes 2 1 1 1 2 Hard rubber (e.g., ebonite), in all forms (including6112 leather fibre, in slabs, s 2 1 1 1 2 Whole bovine skin leather, without hair on, of a unit 62991 waste and scrap); ar 2 1 1 1 2 Articles of unhardened cellular vulcanized rubber,6113 surface area not ex 2 1 1 1 26114 Oth.bovine,equine leathr 62992 n.e.s. Other bovine and equine leather, without hair on, Articles of unhardened non-cellular vulcanized 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 261141 tanned 62999 rubber, n.e.s. Other bovine and equine leather, without hair on, 63 CORK, WOOD MANUFACTURES 2 1 1 1 2 633 CORK MANUFACTURES61142 parchment-dressed6115 Sheep,lamb skin leather 6331 Articles of natural cork61151 Sheep- or lambskin leather, without wool on, tanned 2 1 1 1 2 63311 Corks and stoppers 1 1 1 1 1 Sheep- or lambskin leather, without wool on, 63319 Articles of natural cork, other than corks or stoppers 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 6332 Agglmrtd.cork,cork artcl61152 parchment-dressed6116 Goat or kid skin leather Blocks, plates, sheets, strip; tiles and solid cylinders 1 1 1 1 161161 Goat- or kidskin leather, without hair on, tanned 2 1 1 1 2 63321 of agglomerated Goat- or kidskin leather, without hair on, 63329 Articles of agglomerated cork, not of 633.21 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 6349 Wood, simply shaped, nes61162 parchment-dressed or6117 Leather of other animals Hoopwood; split poles; piles, pickets and stakes of 2 1 1 1 2 Leather of swine, without hair on, other than leather 63491 wood, pointed but not 2 1 1 1 2 63493 Wood wool; wood flour 1 1 1 1 161171 of subgroup 611.8 Leather of reptiles, other than leather of subgroup 635 WOOD MANUFACTURES, NES 2 1 1 1 2 6351 Packings,pallets etc.61172 611.8 Leather of other animals, other than leather of Packing cases, boxes, crates, drums and similar 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 161179 subgroup 611.8 63511 packings, of wood; cable-6118 Leather,special finish 63512 Pallets, box pallets and other load boards, of wood 1 1 1 1 161181 Chamois (including combination chamois) leather 2 1 1 1 2 Casks, barrels, vats, tubs and other coopers 4 1 4 4 64 Patent leather and patent-laminated leather; 6352 products and parts thereof, 2 1 1 1 2 6353 Buildrs.joinery,wood etc61183 metallized leather612 MANUFACT.LEATHER ETC.NES 63531 Windows, French windows and their frames 4 2 4 2 64 39
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product63532 Doors and their frames and thresholds 4 2 4 2 64 Box files, letter trays, storage boxes and similar 2 1 2 1 463533 Shingles and shakes 2 2 4 2 32 64216 articles, of a kind us63539 Other builders joinery and carpentry of wood 4 2 4 2 64 6422 Stationery,etc.6354 Wood,domest.use ex.furnt 64221 Envelopes 2 1 2 1 4 Wooden frames for paintings, photographs, mirrors Letter-cards, plain postcards and correspondence 4 2 2 2 32 2 2 2 1 863541 or similar objects 64222 cards63542 Tableware and kitchenware, of wood 2 2 1 1 4 Boxes, pouches, wallets and writing compendiums, 2 1 2 1 4 Wood marquetry and inlaid wood; caskets and cases 64223 of paper or paperboard, 4 2 4 2 6463549 for jewellery or cutler 6423 Registers,acct.books,etc6359 Manufact.articl.wood,nes Registers, account books, notebooks, order books, 2 1 2 1 4 Tools, tool bodies, tool handles, broom or brush 64231 receipt books, letter p 8 1 2 2 3263591 bodies and handles, of w 64232 Exercise books 2 1 2 1 463599 Other articles of wood 2 1 2 1 4 Binders (other than book covers), folders and file 2 1 2 1 464 PAPER,PAPERBOARD,ETC. 64233 covers641 PAPER AND PAPERBOARD Manifold business forms and interleaved carbon 2 1 2 1 46411 Newsprint, in rolls or sheets 2 8 1 1 16 64234 sets6412 Paper,paperbrd.uncoated 64235 Albums for samples or for collections 2 2 2 1 864121 Handmade paper and paperboard 2 1 1 1 2 Book covers; blotting pads and other articles of 2 2 2 1 8 Paper and paperboard of a kind used as a base for 64239 stationery, n.e.s. 2 1 1 1 264122 photosensitive, heat-se 6424 Paper,paperboard,cut,nes64123 Carbonizing base paper 2 1 1 1 2 Cigarette paper, cut to size, whether or not in the 2 1 1 1 264124 Wallpaper base 2 1 1 1 2 64241 form of booklets or t Other paper and paperboard, weighing less than 40 Carbon paper, self-copy paper and other copying or 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 264125 g/m2, not containing fi 64242 transfer papers, cut t Other paper and paperboard, weighing 40 g/m2 or 64243 Toilet paper, cut to size, in rolls or in sheets 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 264126 more but not more than 15 64244 Gummed or adhesive paper, in strips or rolls 2 1 1 1 2 Other paper and paperboard, weighing more than 64245 Filter paper and paperboard, cut to size or shape 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 264127 150 g/m2, not containing f Paper and paperboard, of a kind used for writing, 2 1 1 1 2 Other paper and paperboard, of which more than 10 64248 printing or other graph 2 1 1 1 264129 % by weight of the tota 6429 Artcls,pulp,papr,brd nes6413 Paper,paperbd,coated,etc Bobbins, spools, cops and similar supports of paper 2 1 1 1 2 Carbon paper, self-copy paper and other copying or 64291 pulp, paper or paperb 2 1 1 1 264131 transfer papers (inclu Cards, not punched, for punch card machines, 2 1 1 1 2 Paper for writing or printing, coated, weight < 150 64292 whether or not in strips 2 1 1 1 264132 g/m2 Trays, dishes, plates, cups and the like, of paper or 2 1 1 1 2 Paper for writing or printing, coated, weight > 150 64293 paperboard 2 1 1 1 264133 g/m2 Handkerchiefs, cleansing tissues, towels, serviettes, 2 1 1 1 2 Paper for writing or printing, coated, obtained by a 64294 tablecloths, bed sh 2 1 1 1 264134 mechanical process Sanitary towels and tampons, napkins (diapers) and 2 1 1 1 26414 Kraft paper,brd,uncoated 64295 napkin liners for babi64141 Kraft paper, uncoated, in rolls or sheets 2 1 1 1 2 Other articles of paper pulp, paper, paperboard, 2 1 1 1 264142 Sack kraft paper, uncoated, in rolls or sheets 2 1 1 1 2 64299 cellulose wadding or web Kraft paper,uncoated, in rolls or sheets, n.e.s., 65 TEXTILE YARN,FABRIC,ETC. 2 1 1 1 264146 weight < 150 g/m2 651 TEXTILE YARN Kraft paper,uncoated, in rolls or sheets, n.e.s., 150 6511 Yarn,of wool,animal hair 2 1 1 1 264147 g/m2 < weight < 225 Yarn of carded wool, containing 85% or more by 2 1 2 1 4 Kraft paper,uncoated, in rolls or sheets, n.e.s., 65112 weight of wool, not put up 2 1 1 1 264148 weight > 225 g/m2 Yarn of combed wool, containing 85% or more by 2 1 2 1 46415 Paper,paperbd,unctd,bulk 65113 weight of wool, not put up Semi-chemical fluting paper, uncoated (corrugating Yarn of fine animal hair (carded or combed), not 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 464151 medium), in rolls or s 65114 put up for retail sale64152 Sulphite drapping paper, uncoated, in rolls or sheets 2 1 1 1 2 Yarn of coarse animal hair or of horsehair 2 1 2 1 4 Vegetable parchment, greaseproof papers, tracing 65115 (including gimped horsehair ya 2 1 1 1 264153 papers and glassine and Yarn containing 85% or more by weight of wool or 2 1 2 1 4 Multi-ply paper and paperboard, uncoated, in rolls 65116 of fine animal hair, put 2 1 1 1 264154 or sheets Yarn of carded wool containing less than 85% by 2 1 2 1 464155 Cigarette paper, n.e.s. 2 1 1 1 2 65117 weight of wool, not put u Filter-paper and paperboard, uncoated; felt paper Yarn of combed wool containing less than 85% by 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 464156 and paperboard, uncoate 65118 weight of wool, not put u Other paper and paperboard, uncoated, weighing Yarn of wool or of fine animal hair, containing less 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 464157 150 g/m2 or less 65119 than 85% by weight o Other paper and paperboard, uncoated, weighing 6512 Cotton sewing thread 2 1 1 1 264158 more than 150 g/m2 but les 65121 Cotton sewing thread, not put up for retail sale 2 1 2 1 4 Other paper and paperboard, uncoated, weighing 65122 Cotton sewing thread, put up for retail sale 2 1 2 1 4 2 1 1 1 264159 225 g/m2 or more 6513 Cotton yarn,excl. thread6416 Paper,paperbrd,corrg,etc Cotton yarn (other than sewing thread), containing 2 1 2 1 4 Sack kraft paper, cr ped or crinkled, whether or not 65131 85% or more by weight 2 1 1 1 264161 embossed or perforat Other cotton yarn (other than sewing thread), put up 2 1 2 1 4 Other kraft paper, in rolls or sheets, cr ped or 65132 for retail sale 2 1 1 1 264162 crinkled, whether or not Cotton yarn (other than sewing thread), containing 2 1 2 1 4 Toilet or facial tissue stock, towel or napkin stock 65133 85% or more by weight 2 1 1 1 264163 and similar paper of Cotton yarn (other than sewing thread), containing 2 1 2 1 4 Paper and paperboard, corrugated (with or without 65134 less than 85% by weigh 2 1 1 1 264164 glued flat surface shee 6514 Thread of man-made fibre Paper, cr ped, crinkled, embossed or perforated, in Sewing thread of synthetic filaments, whether or not 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 464169 rolls or sheets, n.e. 65141 put up for retail sa6417 Paper,paperbd,coated nes Sewing thread of artificial filaments, whether or not 2 1 2 1 4 Paper and paperboard coated, impregnated or 65142 put up for retail s 2 1 1 1 264171 covered with plastics (exclud Sewing thread of synthetic staple fibres, whether or 2 1 2 1 4 Other paper and paperboard coated, impregnated or 65143 not put up for retai 2 1 1 1 264172 covered with plastics ( Sewing thread of artificial staple fibres, whether or 2 1 2 1 4 Paper,tarred, bituminized or asphalted, in rolls or 65144 not put up for reta 2 1 1 1 264173 sheets 6515 Synth.filament yarn,bulk Kraft paper,coated with kaolin (China clay), weight Filament yarn (other than sewing thread), of nylon 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 464174 < 150 g/m2 65151 or other polyamides, n Kraft paper,coated with kaolin (China clay), weight Filament yarn (other than sewing thread) of 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 464175 > 150 g/m2 65152 polyesters, not put up for re Other kraft paper and paperboard, coated with Other synthetic filament yarn (other than sewing 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 464176 kaolin (China clay) or othe 65159 thread), not put up for Other paper and paperboard coated with kaolin 6516 Oth.synth.filament yarn 2 1 1 1 264177 (China clay) or other inorg Yarn of synthetic filaments (other than sewing 2 1 2 1 464178 Gummed or adhesive paper and paperboard 2 1 1 1 2 65161 thread), put up for retail6419 Convrtd.paper,pprbrd,nes High tenacity yarn of nylon or other polyamides or 2 1 2 1 4 Paper and paperboard, laminated internally with 65162 of polyesters (other t 2 1 1 1 264191 bitumen, tar or asphalt, Other synthetic yarn, single, untwisted or with a 2 1 2 1 4 Other composite paper and paperboard (made by 65163 twist not exceeding 50 2 1 1 1 264192 sticking flat layers of pap Other synthetic yarn, single, with a twist exceeding 2 1 2 1 464193 Filter blocks, slabs and plates, of paper pulp 2 1 1 1 2 65164 50 turns per metre, Wallpaper and similar wall coverings; window Other synthetic yarn, multiple (folded) or cabled, 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 464194 transparencies of paper 65169 not put up for retail642 PAPER,PAPERBOARD,CUT ETC 6517 Artif.filament yarn, nes6421 Containers,etc.of paper Yarn of artificial filaments (other than sewing 2 1 2 1 4 Cartons, boxes and cases, of corrugated paper or 65171 thread), put up for retai 2 1 2 1 464211 paperboard Textured artificial filament yarn, not put up for 2 1 2 1 4 Folding cartons, boxes and cases, of non-corrugated 65172 retail sale 2 1 2 1 464212 paper or paperboard High tenacity yarn of viscose rayon, not put up for 2 1 2 1 4 Sacks and bags, of paper or paperboard, having a 65173 retail sale 2 1 2 1 464213 base of a width of 40 cm Other yarn, single, of viscose rayon, untwisted or 2 1 2 1 4 Other sacks and bags, including cones, of paper or 65174 with a twist not excee 2 1 2 1 464214 paperboard 65175 Other artificial filament yarn, single 2 1 2 1 4 Other packing containers, including record sleeves, Other artificial filament yarn (other than sewing 2 1 2 1 4 2 1 2 1 464215 of paper or paperboar 65176 thread), multiple (fold 40
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product Artificial monofilament of 67 decitex or more and 65312 Woven fabrics obtained from strip or the like 2 2 4 1 16 2 1 2 1 465177 of which no cross-secti Fabrics consisting of layers of parallel synthetic 2 2 4 1 166518 Yarn,staple fibres, etc. 65313 filament yarns superim Yarn containing > 85% synthetic fibres, for retail Other woven fabrics, containing 85% or more by 2 1 2 1 4 2 2 4 1 1665181 sale 65314 weight of filaments of nyl Yarn containing > 85% synthetic fibres, not for Other woven fabrics, containing 85% or more by 2 1 2 1 4 2 2 4 1 1665182 retail sale 65315 weight of textured polyest Yarn containing < 85% synthetic fibres, for retail Other woven fabrics, containing 85% or more by 2 1 2 1 4 2 2 4 1 1665183 sale 65316 weight of non-textured pol Yarn containing < 85% synthetic fibres, not for Other woven fabrics, containing 85% or more by 2 1 2 1 4 2 2 4 1 1665184 retail sale 65317 weight of synthetic filame Yarn (other than sewing thread) of artificial staple Other woven fabrics,<85% of synthetic filaments, 2 1 2 1 4 2 2 4 1 1665185 fibres, put up for r 65318 mixed mainly or solely w Yarn (other than sewing thread) containing 85% or 65319 Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, n.e.s. 2 2 4 1 16 2 1 2 1 465186 more by weight of artif 6532 Fabric,85%+syn.stpl.fibr Yarn (other than sewing thread) of artificial staple Fabrics, woven, of polyester staple fibres, 2 1 2 1 4 2 2 4 1 1665187 fibres containing le 65321 containing 85% or more by wei Synthetic monofilament of 67 decitex or more and Fabrics, woven, of acrylic or modacrylic staple 2 1 2 1 4 2 2 4 1 1665188 of which no cross-sectio 65325 fibres, containing 85% or6519 Yarn,textile fibres, nes Fabrics, woven, of other synthetic staple fibres, 2 2 4 1 16 Metallized yarn, being textile yarn, or strip or the 65329 containing 85% or more 2 1 2 1 465191 like of heading 651. 6533 Fabrc<85%syn.stp.fbr+ctn Silk yarn (other than yarn spun from silk waste), not Fabrics, woven, of a weight not exceeding 170 2 1 2 1 4 2 2 4 1 1665192 put up for retail s 65331 g/m2, of polyester staple f65193 Yarn spun from silk waste, not put up for retail sale 2 1 2 1 4 Fabrics, woven, of a weight not exceeding 170 2 2 4 1 16 Silk yarn and yarn spun from silk waste, put up for 65332 g/m2, of other synthetic st 2 1 2 1 465194 retail sale; silkworm Fabrics, woven, of a weight exceeding 170 g/m2, of 2 2 4 1 16 Slivers, rovings, yarn and chopped strands, of glass 65333 polyester staple fibre 2 1 2 1 465195 fibres Fabrics, woven, of a weight exceeding 170 g/m2, of 2 2 4 1 1665196 Flax yarn 2 1 2 1 4 65334 other synthetic staple Yarn of jute or of other textile bast fibres of group 6534 Fabr<85%syn.stp.fbr+othr 2 1 2 1 465197 264 Fabrics, woven, <85% of synthetic fibres, mixed 2 2 4 1 1665199 Yarn of other vegetable textile fibres; paper yarn 2 1 2 1 4 65341 with wool or animal hair652 COTTON FABRICS, WOVEN Fabrics, woven, <85% of synthetic fibres, mixed 2 2 4 1 166521 Cotton gauze,etc.woven 65342 with man-made filaments Cotton gauze (other than narrow fabrics of Fabrics, woven, <85% of synthetic fibres, mixed 2 2 2 1 8 2 2 4 1 1665211 subgroup 656.1) 65343 with other fibres Terry towelling and similar woven terry fabrics, of 6535 Fabric,artif.filmnt yarn 2 2 4 1 1665212 cotton (other than fa Woven fabrics obtained from high tenacity yarn of 2 2 4 1 16 Other terry towelling and similar woven terry 65351 viscose rayon 2 2 4 1 1665213 fabrics, of cotton (other t Other fabrics, woven, containing 85% or more by 2 2 4 1 16 Pile fabrics, woven, of cotton (other than terry 65352 weight of artificial fila 2 2 4 1 1665214 towelling or similar wov 65359 Fabrics, woven, of artificial filament yarn, n.e.s. 2 2 4 1 16 Other pile and chenille fabrics, woven, of cotton Fabrics, woven, containing 85% or more by weight 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665215 (other than terry towel 6536 of artificial staple fib6522 Cotton fabric,wvn,unblch 6538 Fabric,<85%art.stpl.fibr Woven fabrics containing > 85% cotton, Fabrics, woven, <85% of artificial fibres,mixed 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665221 unbleached, weight < 200 g/m2 65381 with cotton Woven fabrics containing > 85% cotton, Fabrics, woven, <85% of artificial fibres,mixed 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665222 unbleached, weight > 200 g/m2 65382 with wool and animal hair Woven cotton fabrics containing < 85% cotton Fabrics, woven, <85% of artificial fibres,mixed 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665223 unbleached weight < 200 g/m2 65383 with man-made filaments Woven cotton fabrics containing < 85% cotton Fabrics, woven, <85% of artificial fibres,mixed 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665224 unbleached weight > 200 g/m2 65389 with other materials Other woven fabrics of cotton, unbleached, weight 6539 Pile,chnlle.fabrc,m-made 2 2 4 1 1665225 < 200 g/m2 65391 Pile fabrics, woven, uncut, of man-made fibres 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics of cotton, unbleached, weight 65393 Other pile fabrics and chenille fabrics 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665226 > 200 g/m2 654 OTH.TEXTILE FABRIC,WOVEN6523 Oth85%+cottn.fabric<200g 6541 Fabric,of silk,silk wste Other woven fabrics,>85% cotton, weight < 200 65411 Fabrics of noil silk 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665231 g/m2, bleached Other silk fabrics containing 85% or more by 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics,>85% cotton, weight < 200 65413 weight of silk or of silk wa 2 2 4 1 1665232 g/m2, dyed 65419 Other silk fabrics 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics,>85% cotton, weight < 200 6542 Fabric85%+wool,fine hair 2 2 4 1 1665233 g/m2, of yarns of Fabrics, of carded wool or of carded fine animal 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics,>85% cotton, weight < 200 65421 hair, containing 85% or 2 2 4 1 1665234 g/m2, printed Fabrics, of combed wool or fine animal hair, 2 2 4 1 166524 Oth85%+cottn.fabric200g+ 65422 containing 85% or more by we Other woven fabrics,>85% cotton, weighing more 6543 Fabric,wool,fne.hair,nes 2 2 4 1 1665241 than 200 g/m2, bleached Fabrics, woven,of carded wool/animal hair,< 85% 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics,>85% cotton, weighing more 65431 wool m/w man-made filamen 2 2 4 1 1665242 than 200 g/m2, dyed Fabrics, woven,of combed wool/animal hair,< 85% 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics,>85% cotton, weighing more 65432 wool m/w man-made filamen 2 2 4 1 1665243 than 200 g/m2, denim Fabrics, woven,of carded wool/animal hair,< 85% 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics,>85% cotton, weighing more 65433 wool m/w other materials 2 2 4 1 1665244 than 200 g/m2, of yarns of Fabrics, woven,of combed wool/animal hair,< 85% 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics,>85% cotton, weighing more 65434 wool m/w other materials 2 2 4 1 1665245 than 200 g/m2, printed Pile fabrics and chenille fabrics, woven, of wool or 2 2 4 1 166525 Oth<85%cottn.fabric<200g 65435 of fine animal hair Other woven cotton fabrics,<85% of 6544 Fabrics, woven, of flax 2 2 4 1 1665251 cotton,bleached Fabrics, woven, of flax, containing 85% or more by 2 2 4 1 1665252 Other woven cotton fabrics,<85% of cotton,dyed 2 2 4 1 16 65441 weight of flax Other woven cotton fabrics,<85% of cotton,of Fabrics, woven, of flax, containing less than 85% 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665253 different colours 65442 by weight of flax65254 Other woven cotton fabrics,<85% of cotton,printed 2 2 4 1 16 Fabrics, woven, of jute or of other textile bast fibres 2 2 4 1 166526 Oth<85%cottn.fabric200g+ 6545 of group 264 Other woven cotton fabrics,<85% of Fabrics, woven, of glass fibres (including narrow 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665261 cotton,bleached 6546 fabrics)65262 Other woven cotton fabrics,<85% of cotton,dyed 2 2 4 1 16 6549 Fabrics, woven, nes65263 Other woven cotton fabrics,<85% of cotton,denim 2 2 4 1 16 Fabrics, woven, of metal thread or of metallized 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven cotton fabrics,<85% of cotton,of 65491 yarn of heading 651.91, 2 2 4 1 1665264 different colours Fabrics, woven, of coarse animal hair or of 2 2 4 1 1665265 Other woven cotton fabrics,<85% of cotton,printed 2 2 4 1 16 65492 horsehair6529 Oth.woven fabrics,cotton Fabrics, woven, of vegetable textile fibres, n.e.s.; 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics of cotton, bleached, < 200 65493 woven fabrics of pap 2 2 4 1 1665291 g/m2 Gauze (other than narrow fabrics), of textile 2 2 4 1 1665292 Other woven fabrics of cotton, dyed, < 200 g/m2 2 2 4 1 16 65494 materials (other than cotto Other woven fabrics of cotton, of yarns of different Pile and chenille fabrics, n.e.s., of textile materials 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665293 colours, < 200 g/m2 65495 (other than wool,65294 Other woven fabrics of cotton, printed, < 200 g/m2 2 2 4 1 16 Terry towelling and similar woven terry fabrics of 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics of cotton, bleached, weighing 65496 textile materials (oth 2 2 4 1 1665295 more than 200 g/m2 65497 Tufted textile fabrics 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics of cotton, dyed, weighing more 655 KNIT.CROCHET.FABRIC NES 2 2 4 1 1665296 than 200 g/m2 6551 Pile fabric,knit,crochet Other woven fabrics of cotton, of yarns of different 65511 "Long pile" fabrics 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665297 colours, weighing mo 65512 Looped pile fabrics 2 2 4 1 16 Other woven fabrics of cotton, printed, weighing 65519 Other pile fabrics, knitted or crocheted 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665298 more than 200 g/m2 6552 Oth.knit.crochet.fabrics653 FABRICS,MAN-MADE FIBRES Other knitted or crocheted fabrics, not impregnated, 2 2 4 1 166531 Fabric,synth.filmnt.yarn 65521 width < 30 cm Woven fabrics obtained from high tenacity yarn of Other knitted or crocheted fabrics, not impregnated, 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665311 nylon or other polyamid 65522 width > 30 cm 41
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product Other fabrics, warp knit (including those made on Table linen, not knitted or crocheted, of other textile 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 1 1665523 galloon-knitting-machin 65846 materials65529 Knitted or crocheted fabrics, n.e.s. 2 2 4 1 16 65847 Toilet and kitchen linen of cotton 2 2 4 1 16656 TULLE,LACE,EMBROIDRY.ETC 65848 Toilet and kitchen linen of other fibres 2 2 4 1 166561 Narrow fabric,woven,othr 6585 Curtains,oth.furnishings Narrow woven pile fabrics (including terry Curtains (including drapes) and interior blinds; 2 2 4 1 16 2 2 4 2 3265611 towelling and similar woven te 65851 curtain or bed valances Other narrow woven fabrics, containing by weight 65852 Bedspreads 2 2 4 2 32 2 2 4 1 1665612 5% or more of elastomeri 65859 Furnishing articles, n.e.s. 2 2 4 2 3265613 Other narrow woven fabrics 2 2 4 1 16 6589 Made-up articls,txtl.nes Fabrics consisting of warp without weft assembled Tapestries, handwoven, of the Gobelins, Flanders, 2 2 4 1 16 4 2 4 8 25665614 by means of an adhesive 65891 Aubusson, or Beauvais t6562 Labels,badge etc.not emb Floorcloths, dishcloths, dusters and similar cleaning 2 1 2 1 4 Labels, badges of textile, cut to shape, woven, not 65892 cloths 2 2 4 1 1665621 embroidered Life-jackets and lifebelts and other made-up 4 2 4 2 64 Labels, badges of textile, cut to shape, not woven, 65893 articles, including dress pa 2 2 4 1 1665629 not embroidered Sets consisting of woven fabric and yarn, with or 2 1 2 1 46563 Gimped yarn, etc. 65899 without accessories, fo Gimped yarn, and strip and the like of heading 659 FLOOR COVERINGS, ETC. 2 2 4 1 1665631 651.77 or 651.88, gimped ( 6591 Linoleum etc. Braids in the piece; ornamental trimmings in the Floor coverings on a base of paper or of paperboard, 2 2 4 1 16 4 2 4 8 25665632 piece, without embroider 65911 whether or not cut t6564 Tulles,net fabric, lace Linoleum, whether or not cut to shape; floor 4 2 4 8 25665641 Tulles and other net fabrics 2 2 4 1 16 65912 coverings consisting of a co65642 Lace, mechanically made 2 2 4 1 16 6592 Carpets etc.knotted65643 Lace, handmade 2 2 4 4 64 Carpets and other textile floor coverings, knotted, 4 2 4 8 2566565 Embroidery 65921 whether or not made u65651 Embroidery without visible ground 2 2 4 2 32 Carpets and other textile floor coverings, knotted, 4 2 4 8 25665659 Other embroidery 2 2 4 2 32 65929 whether or not made u657 SPECIAL YARN,TXTL.FABRIC "Kelem", "Schumacks", "Karamanie" and similar 4 2 4 8 2566571 Felt 6593 hand-woven rugs65711 Needleloom felt and stitch-bonded fibre fabrics 2 1 4 1 8 6594 Carpets etc.tufted Other felt, not impregnated, coated, covered or Carpets, tufted, whether or not made up, of wool or 2 1 4 1 8 4 2 4 8 25665712 laminated 65941 fine animal hair Felt, impregnated, coated, covered or laminated, Carpets, tufted, whether or not made up, of nylon or 2 1 4 1 8 4 2 4 8 25665719 n.e.s. 65942 other polyamides Non-wovens, whether or not impregnated, coated, Carpets, tufted, whether or not made up, of other 2 1 4 1 8 4 2 4 8 2566572 covered or laminated, n.e 65943 man-made textile fibres6573 Coated,imprgtd txtls.nes Carpets, tufted, whether or not made up, of other 4 2 4 8 256 Textile fabrics coated with gum or amylaceous 65949 textile materials 2 1 4 1 865731 substances, of a kind used 6595 Carpets,etc.woven Textile fabrics impregnated, coated, covered or Carpets, woven, not tufted or flocked, of wool or 2 1 4 1 8 4 2 4 8 25665732 laminated with plastics, 65951 fine animal hair, n.e.s65733 Rubberized textile fabrics, not of 657.93 2 1 4 1 8 Carpets, woven, not tufted or flocked, of man-made 4 2 4 8 256 Textile fabrics otherwise impregnated, coated or 65952 textile materials, 2 1 4 1 865734 covered; painted canvas Carpets, woven, not tufted or flocked, of other 4 2 4 8 25665735 Textile wall coverings 2 1 4 1 8 65959 textile materials, n.e.s. Quilted textile products in the piece, composed of 6596 Carpets,etc.nes 2 1 4 1 86574 one or more layers of Carpets, of felt, not tufted or flocked, whether or not 4 2 4 8 2566575 Twine,cordage,etc.prdcts 65961 made up Twine, cordage, ropes and cables, whether or not 65969 Other carpets, whether or not made up 4 2 4 8 256 2 1 4 1 865751 plaited or braided and w 66 NON-METAL.MINERAL MANFCT Knotted netting of twine, cordage or rope; made-up 661 LIME,CEMENT,CONSTR.MATRL 2 1 4 1 865752 fishing nets and other 6611 Quicklime etc.excl.522.6 Articles of yarn, strip or the like of heading 651.77 66111 Quicklime 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 865759 or 651.88, twine, c 66112 Slaked lime 1 1 1 1 16576 Hat-shapes,forms,bodies 66113 Hydraulic lime 1 1 1 1 1 Hat forms, hat bodies and hoods of felt, neither 6612 Portland cement, etc. 2 1 4 1 865761 blocked to shape nor wit 66121 Cement clinkers 1 1 1 1 1 Hat shapes, plaited or made by assembling strips of 66122 Portland cement 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 865762 any material, neither 66123 Aluminous cement 1 1 1 1 16577 Wadding,etc.machine use 66129 Other hydraulic cements 1 1 1 1 1 Wadding of textile materials and articles thereof; 6613 Building stone,workd.etc 2 1 2 1 465771 textile fibres not exc Setts, kerbstones and flagstones, of natural stone 2 2 1 2 8 Textile wicks, woven, plaited or knitted, for lamps, 66131 (except slate) 2 1 2 1 465772 stoves, lighters, ca Slate, worked, and articles of slate or of 2 2 1 2 865773 Textile products and articles, for technical uses 2 1 4 1 8 66132 agglomerated slate6578 Rubbr,txtl.yarn,cord etc Tiles, cubes and similar articles of natural stone, 2 2 1 2 865781 Rubber thread and cord, textile-covered 2 1 2 1 4 66133 whether or not rectan High tenacity yarn of polyesters, of nylon or other Marble, travertine and alabaster and articles thereof, 2 1 2 1 4 2 2 1 2 865785 polyamides or of visc 66134 simply cut or sawn Other impregnated, coated, covered or sheathed Monumental or building stone (except slate) and 2 1 2 1 4 2 2 1 4 1665789 thread, cord or yarn 66135 articles thereof, n.e.s.,6579 Special textile products Marble, travertine and alabaster and articles thereof, 2 2 1 2 8 Textile hose-piping and similar textile tubing, with 66136 moulded, turned, p 2 1 4 1 865791 or without lining, a Other monumental or building stone and articles 2 2 1 4 16 Transmission or conveyor belts or belting, of textile 66139 thereof (other than goods 2 1 4 1 865792 material, whether o 6618 Asbestos-cemnt.matrl.etc Tyre cord fabric of high tenacity yarn of nylon or Articles of asphalt or of similar material (e.g., 2 1 4 1 8 1 1 1 1 165793 other polyamides, poly 66181 petroleum bitumen or co658 TEXTILE ARTICLES NES Panels, boards, tiles, blocks and similar articles of 1 1 1 1 16581 Sacks,bags,txtl.material 66182 vegetable fibre, of Sacks and bags, of textile for packing of goods, of Articles of asbestos-cement, of cellulose fibre- 4 2 4 1 32 1 1 1 1 165811 jute or of other text 66183 cement or the like Sacks and bags, of textile for packing of goods, of 662 CLAY,REFRCT.CONSTR.MATRL 4 2 4 1 3265812 cotton 6623 Refractory bricks etc. Sacks and bags, of textile for packing of goods, of Bricks, blocks, tiles and other ceramic goods, of 4 2 4 1 32 2 1 1 1 265813 man-made textile mate 66231 siliceous fossil meals Sacks and bags, of textile for packing of goods, of Refractory bricks, blocks, tiles and similar 4 2 4 1 32 2 1 1 1 265819 other textile materia 66232 refractory ceramic construct6582 Tarpaulins,sails,awnings Refractory cements, mortars, concretes and similar 2 1 1 1 265821 Tarpaulins, awnings and sun-blinds 4 4 4 4 256 66233 compositions, n.e.s.65822 Tents 4 2 4 1 32 6624 Non-refractory brick,etc65823 Sails 4 4 4 2 128 Ceramic building bricks, flooring blocks, support or 2 1 1 1 265824 Pneumatic mattresses 2 2 4 2 32 66241 filler tiles and the65829 Camping goods, n.e.s. 2 2 4 1 16 Roofing tiles, chimney-pots, cowls, chimney liners, 2 1 1 1 26583 Blankets,travelling rugs 66242 architectural ornamen Blankets and travelling rugs (other than electric), of 66243 Ceramic pipes, conduits, guttering and pipe fittings 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 1 1665831 wool or fine anima Unglazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth or wall 2 1 1 1 2 Blankets and travelling rugs (other than electric), of 66244 tiles; unglazed ceramic 2 2 4 1 1665832 cotton Glazed ceramic flags and paving, hearth or wall 2 1 1 1 2 Blankets and travelling rugs (other than electric), of 66245 tiles; glazed ceramic mos 2 2 4 1 1665833 synthetic fibres 663 MINERAL MANUFACTURES,NES Blankets and travelling rugs (other than electric), of 6631 Mill,grindstones,etc. 2 2 4 1 1665839 other textile mate Millstones and grindstones for milling, grinding or 1 1 1 2 26584 Household linens 66311 pulping65841 Bedlinen, knitted or crocheted 2 2 4 1 16 Other millstones, grindstones, grinding wheels and 1 1 1 2 265842 Bedlinen, not knitted or crocheted, of cotton 2 2 4 1 16 66312 the like Bedlinen, not knitted or crocheted, of other textile 66313 Hand sharpening or polishing stones 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 1 1665843 materials 6632 Abrasive cloths,etc.65844 Table linen, knitted or crocheted 2 2 4 1 16 Natural or artificial abrasive powder or grain, on a 1 1 1 1 165845 Table linen, not knitted or crocheted, of cotton 2 2 4 1 16 66321 base of woven textil 42
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product Natural or artificial abrasive powder or grain, on a Synthetic precious or semiprecious stones, other 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 866322 base of paper or pap 66742 than piezoelectric quart Natural or artificial abrasive powder or grain, on a 66749 Synthetic precious or semiprecious stones, n.e.s. 4 2 1 1 8 1 1 1 1 166329 base of other than w 67 IRON AND STEEL6633 Non-ceramic mineral manf 671 PIG IRON,SPIEGELEISN,ETC Articles of plaster or of compositions based on 6712 Pig iron,etc.primry.form 2 1 2 4 1666331 plaster n/a pig-iron containing by weight 0.5% or less of 1 1 1 1 1 Building blocks and bricks, tiles, flagstones and 67121 phosphorus 2 2 1 2 866332 similar articles n/a pig-iron containing by weight more than 0.5% 1 1 1 1 1 Prefabricated structural components for building or 67122 of phosphorus 4 2 4 2 6466333 civil engineering 67123 Alloy pig-iron and spiegeleisen 1 1 1 1 1 Other articles of cement, of concrete or of artificial 6713 Pellets,etc.pig iron,etc 1 1 2 8 1666334 stone, reinforced 67131 Granules of pig-iron, spiegeleisen, iron or steel 1 1 1 1 1 Mica, worked, and articles of mica (including 67132 Powders of pig-iron, spiegeleisen, iron or steel 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 866335 agglomerated or reconstitut Ferrous products obtained by direct reduction of 1 1 1 1 166336 Non-electrical articles of graphite or other carbon 1 1 1 2 2 67133 iron ore and other spong66337 Articles of peat 1 1 1 2 2 6714 Ferro-manganese Articles of other mineral substances containing Ferromanganese containing by weight more than 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 166338 magnesite, dolomite or ch 67141 2% of carbon66339 Articles of stone or other mineral substances, n.e.s. 1 1 1 2 2 67149 Other ferromanganese 1 1 1 1 16635 Minerl.insulat.prod.nes 6715 Other ferro-alloys Slag wool, rock wool and similar mineral wools 67151 Ferrosilicon 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 266351 (including intermixtures t 67152 Ferrosilico-manganese 1 1 1 1 1 Exfoliated vermiculite, expanded clays, foamed slag 67153 Ferrochromium 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 266352 and similar expanded 67154 Ferro-silico-chromium 1 1 1 1 1 Mixtures and articles of heat-insulating, sound- 67155 Ferronickel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 266353 insulating or sound-absor 67159 Ferro-alloys, n.e.s. 1 1 1 1 1 Refractory ceramic goods (e.g., retorts, crucibles, 672 INGOTS ETC.IRON OR STEEL 1 1 2 1 26637 muffles, nozzles, plu 6724 Ingots of iron or steel6638 Asbestos manf,frict.mtrl Ingots of iron (other than iron of heading 671.33) or 1 1 1 1 1 Fabricated asbestos fibres; mixtures with a basis of 67241 n/a steel 1 1 1 1 166381 asbestos or with a b Other primary forms of iron (other than iron of 1 1 1 1 1 Friction material and articles thereof (e.g., sheets, 67245 heading 671.33) or n/a st 1 1 1 1 166382 rolls, strips, segm 67247 Ingots and other primary forms of stnls steel 1 1 1 1 16639 Artcls.ceramic matrl,nes 67249 Ingots and other primary forms of other alloy steel 1 1 1 1 1 Laboratory, chemical or industrial ceramic wares, 6726 Semi-finish.iron,steel 1 1 1 1 166391 non-refractory; ceramic Semi-fin. prod. of iron or n/a steel< 0.25% of 1 1 1 1 166399 Ceramic articles, n.e.s. 1 1 1 1 1 67261 carbon, spec. rectangular664 GLASS Semi-fin. prod. of iron or n/a steel< 0.25% of 1 1 1 1 16641 Glass,bulk,unwrkd,waste 67262 carbon, other rectangular Glass in the mass; cullet and other waste and scrap Semi-fin. prod. of iron or n/a steel< 0.25% of 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 166411 of glass 67269 carbon, of other shapes Glass in balls (other than microspheres of heading Semi-fin. prod. of iron or n/a steel> 0.25% or more 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 166412 665.93), rods or tubes 6727 of carbon6643 Drawn,blown glass,sheets 6728 Semi-fin.alloy stl.25%+c Glass, drawn or blown, coloured throughout the 67281 Semi-finished products of stnls steel 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 466431 mass (body tinted), opacif Semi-finished products of alloy steel other than 1 1 1 1 166439 Other drawn or blown glass 2 1 2 1 4 67282 stnls steel6644 Float,ground,plshd.glass 673 FLAT-ROLLED IRON ETC. Non-wired float glass and surface ground or 6731 Flat,hot-rolld.prod.iron 1 1 1 2 266441 polished glass Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, w>600mm, 1 1 1 1 1 Wired float glass and surface ground or polished 67311 th>4.75mm, 355mpa 1 1 1 2 266442 glass Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, w>600mm, 1 1 1 1 16645 Cast,rolled glass,sheets 67312 th<4.75mm, 275mpa66451 Cast glass and rolled glass, in non-wired sheets 1 1 1 1 1 Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, 1 1 1 1 166452 Cast glass and rolled glass, in wired sheets 1 1 1 1 1 67313 hotrld,600mm<w<1250mm,th>4mm,355mpa66453 Cast glass and rolled glass, in profiles 1 1 1 1 1 Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, hotrld, 1 1 1 1 16647 Safety glass 67314 w>600mm,th<4.75mm,355mpa66471 Toughened (tempered) safety glass 2 1 1 2 4 Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, hotrld, 1 1 1 1 166472 Laminated safety glass 2 1 1 2 4 67315 w>600mm,th<4.75mm,275mpa6648 Glass mirrors Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, hotrld, 1 1 1 1 166481 Rear-view mirrors for vehicles 2 2 4 1 16 67316 150<w<600mm,th>4mm,355mpa66489 Other glass mirrors, whether or not framed 2 2 4 1 16 Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, hotrld, 1 1 1 1 16649 Glass, nes 67317 w<600mm,th>4.75,355mpa Glass of subgroup 664.3, 664.4 or 664.5, bent, Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, hotrld, 4 1 2 2 16 1 1 1 1 166491 edge-worked, engraved, dri 67319 w<600mm,th<4.75,275mpa66492 Multiple-walled insulating units of glass 2 1 2 4 16 6732 Flat,hot-rolld,prod.iron Glass envelopes (including bulbs and tubes), open, Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, not 673.11, 2 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 1 166493 and glass parts thereo 67321 w>600mm,th>4.75mm Clock and watch-glasses and similar glasses, glass Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, not 673.12, 4 2 2 2 32 1 1 1 1 166494 for non-corrective or 67322 w>600mm,th<4.75mm Thin sheets (voiles), webs, mats, mattresses, boards Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, not 671.13, 2 1 2 2 8 1 1 1 1 166495 and similar non-wove 67323 600<w<1250mm,th>4mm Paving blocks, slabs, bricks, squares, tiles and other Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, not coated, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 166496 articles of presse 67324 hotrld,w>600mm,th>4.75mm665 GLASSWARE Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, not coated, 1 1 1 1 16651 Containers, of glass 67325 hotrld,w>600mm,th<4.75mm Carboys, bottles, flasks, jars, pots, phials and other Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, not coated, 4 2 2 1 16 1 1 1 1 166511 containers, of gla 67326 hotrld,150<w<600mm,th>4m Glass inners for vacuum flasks or for other vacuum Flat-rld prod. of iron or n/a steel, not coated, 4 2 2 1 16 1 1 1 1 166512 vessels 67327 hotrld,w<600mm,th>4.75mm6652 Glassware,household etc. Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, not coated, 1 1 1 1 166521 Glassware of glass-ceramics 4 2 2 1 16 67329 hotrld,w<600mm,th<4.75mm66522 Drinking glasses other than of glass-ceramics 4 2 2 2 32 6733 Flat,cold-rolld,prod.irn Glassware of a kind used for table (other than Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,in 4 2 2 2 32 1 1 1 1 166523 drinking glasses) or kitch 67331 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,th>3mm,355mpa66529 Other glassware, other than of glass-ceramics 4 2 2 1 16 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,in 1 1 1 1 16659 Glass articles, nes 67332 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,1<th<3mm,275mpa Laboratory, hygienic or pharmaceutical glassware, Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,in 1 1 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 166591 whether or not graduate 67333 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,0.5<th<1mm,275mpa66592 Glass ampoules 2 1 2 1 4 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,in 1 1 1 1 1 Glass beads, imitation pearls, imitation precious or 67334 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,th<0.5mm,275mpa 4 2 1 1 866593 semiprecious stones Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,not in 1 1 1 1 1 Glass cubes and other glass smallwares, whether or 67335 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,th>3mm,355mpa 2 1 1 1 266594 not on a backing, for Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,not in 1 1 1 1 1 Signalling glassware and optical elements of glass 67336 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,1<th<3mm,275mp 2 1 2 2 866595 (not of 664.94), not o Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,not in 1 1 1 1 166599 Other articles of glass 2 1 2 2 8 67337 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,0.5<th<1mm,275666 POTTERY Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,not in 1 1 1 1 16661 Ceramic household artcls 67338 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,th<0.5mm,275mp66611 Tableware and kitchenware of porcelain or china 4 2 2 2 32 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, not coated, coldrld, 1 1 1 1 1 Other household or toilet articles of porcelain or 67339 other 4 2 2 2 3266612 china 6734 Flat,cold-rolld,prod.irn Ceramic tableware, kitchenware, other household Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,in 4 2 2 2 32 1 1 1 1 166613 articles and toilet artic 67341 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,th>3mm,oth.mpa6662 Ornamental ceramic artcl Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,in 1 1 1 1 1 Statuettes and other ornamental ceramic articles, of 67342 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,1<th<3mm,oth.mpa 4 4 2 4 12866621 porcelain or china Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,in 1 1 1 1 1 Statuettes and other ornamental ceramic articles, 67343 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,0.5<th<1mm,oth.mpa 4 4 2 4 12866629 other than of porcelain Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,in 1 1 1 1 16674 Synth.etc.prec.stones 67344 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,th<0.5mm,oth.mpa66741 Piezoelectric quartz 4 2 1 1 8 43
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,not in Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in ir. wound coils, other, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167345 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,th>3mm,oth.mpa 67613 iron,n/a steel, con Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,not in Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in ir. wound coils, other, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167346 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,1<th<3mm,oth.m 67614 iron,n/a steel, con Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,not in Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in ir. wound coils, of stnls 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167347 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,0.5<th<1mm,oth 67615 steel Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,not in Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in ir. wound coils, of high 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167348 coils,coldrld,w>600mm,th<0.5mm,oth.m 67617 speed steel67349 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel,coldrld,other 1 1 1 1 1 Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in ir. wound coils, of 1 1 1 1 16735 Flat-rolld.prod.iron nes 67619 other alloy steel Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, not coated, n.e.s., of a 6762 Bar,rod iron,stl.hot-fd 1 1 1 1 167351 width of 600 mm o 67621 Bars and rods (not of 676.1) iron,n/a steel 1 1 1 1 1 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, not coated, n.e.s., of a Bars and rods (not of 676.1) of free-cutting steel, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167352 width of 600 mm o 67622 hotrld, Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, not coated, n.e.s., of a 67623 Bars and rods (not of 676.1) iron,n/a steel < 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167353 width of less tha Bars and rods (not of 676.1) iron,n/a steel, 1 1 1 1 1674 FLAT-ROLLED PLATED IRON 67624 containing by weight 0.6% or6741 Flat-rolld.iron,zinc plt 67625 Bars and rods (not of 676.1) of stnls steel, hotrld, 1 1 1 1 1 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, electr. coated with zinc, Bars and rods (not of 676.1) of other alloy steel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167411 of a width of 67629 (excluding high speed s Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, electr. coated with zinc, 6763 Bar,rod iron,stl.cold-fd 1 1 1 1 167412 of a width of Bars and rods (not of 676.1) of n/a free-cutting 1 1 1 1 1 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, otherw. coated with 67631 steel, 1 1 1 1 167413 zinc, of a width of 60 67632 Bars and rods (not of 676.1) iron,n/a steel, coldrld 1 1 1 1 1 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, otherw. coated with 67633 Bars and rods (not of 676.1) iron,n/a steel, coldrld 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167414 zinc, of a width of le 67634 Bars and rods (not of 676.1) of stnls steel, coldrld 1 1 1 1 16742 Flat-rolld.iron,tin pltd 67639 Bars and rods (not of 676.1) of other alloy steel 1 1 1 1 1 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, coated with tin, of a 6764 Oth.bar,rod iron,steel 1 1 1 1 167421 width of 600 mm or m 67641 Other bars and rods of high speed steel 1 1 1 1 1 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, coated with tin, of a 67642 Other bars and rods of silico-manganese steel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167422 width of less than 6 Other bars and rods of iron and steel, iron,n/a steel, 1 1 1 1 16743 Flat-rolld.iron,pntd,etc 67643 forged Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, coated with plastics, of 67644 Other bars and rods of other iron or other n/a steel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167431 a width of 67645 Other bars and rods of stnls steel 1 1 1 1 1 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, coated with plastics, of Other bars and rods of other alloy steel (except high 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167432 a width of 67646 speed or silico-man6744 Flat-rolld.irn600+mm,plt 67647 Bars and rods of alloy steel, n.e.s. 1 1 1 1 1 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, coated with lead, 67648 Hollow drill bars and rods of alloy or n/a steel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167441 including terne-plate, o 6768 Angles,shaped,iron,steel Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, coated with chromium U, I, H, L or T sections, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 467442 oxides or with chromi 67681 extruded, of a height Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, coated with aluminium, U, I, H, L or T sections, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 467443 of a width of 600 m 67682 extruded, of a height Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, coated, of a width of Other angles, shapes and sections, hot-rolled, hot- 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 467444 600 mm or more, othe 67683 drawn or extruded, of6745 Flat-rolld.irn<600mm,plt Angles, shapes and sections, cold-formed or cold- 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, coated not by electr., 67684 finished, of iron or n/a 1 1 1 1 167451 width > 600 mm Other angles, shapes and sections, of iron or n/a 4 1 1 1 467452 Flat-rld prod. iron,n/a steel, clad, width < 600 mm 1 1 1 1 1 67685 steel675 FLAT-ROLLED, ALLOY STEEL Sheet piling of iron or steel, whether or not drilled, 1 1 1 1 16751 Flat-rolld.silc-elec.stl 67686 punched or made fr Flat-rld prod. of silicon-electrical steel, width > 600 67687 Angles, shapes and sections, of stnls steel 4 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 167511 mm 67688 Angles, shapes and sections, of other alloy steel 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of silicon-electrical steel, width < 600 677 RAILWAY TRACK IRON,STEEL 1 1 1 1 167512 mm 6770 Railway constr.matrl.irn6752 Flat-rolled.hi-speed stl Rails (including check rails and rack-rails), of iron 4 1 1 1 467521 Flat-rld prod. of high speed steel, width > 600 mm 1 1 1 1 1 67701 or steel67522 Flat-rld prod. of high speed steel, width < 600 mm 1 1 1 1 1 Other railway or tramway track construction 4 1 1 1 46753 Flat,hot-rolled s.steel 67709 material of iron or steel (i. Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, hotrld, of a width of 600 678 WIRE OF IRON OR STEEL 1 1 1 1 167531 mm or more and 6781 Wire,iron,n/a stl Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, hotrld, of a width of 600 Wire of iron or n/a steel, containing by weight less 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167532 mm or more and 67811 than 0.25% of carbon Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, hotrld, of a width of 600 Wire of iron or n/a steel, containing by weight 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167533 mm or more and 67812 0.25% or more but less th Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, hotrld, of a width of 600 Wire of iron or n/a steel, containing by weight 0.6% 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167534 mm or more and 67813 or more of carbon Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, hotrld, of a width of 600 6782 Wire,s.stl,oth.alloy stl 1 1 1 1 167535 mm or more and 67821 Wire of stnls steel 1 1 1 1 1 Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, hotrld, of a width of 600 67829 Wire of other alloy steel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 167536 mm or more 679 TUBES,PIPES,ETC.IRON,STL Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, hotrld, of a width of less 6791 Tube,etc.seamless,irn.st 1 1 1 1 167537 than 600 mm 67911 Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, of cast iron 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, hotrld, of a width of less Line pipe of a kind used for oil or gas pipelines, 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 467538 than 600 mm 67912 seamless, of iron (oth6754 Flat,hot-rolld.alloy stl Casing, tubing and drill pipe of a kind used in 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of other alloy steel, hotrld, of a width 67913 drilling for oil or gas, 1 1 1 1 167541 of 600 mm or more Other tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, of circular 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of other alloy steel, hotrld, of a width 67914 cross-section, seamle 1 1 1 1 167542 of 600 mm or more Other tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, of circular 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of other alloy steel, hotrld, of a width 67915 cross-section, seamle 1 1 1 1 167543 of less than 600 Other tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, of circular 4 1 1 1 46755 Flat,cold-rolled s.steel 67916 cross-section, seamle Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, Other seamless tubes, pipes and hollow profiles of 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 467551 coldrld,w>600mm,th>4.75mm 67917 iron (other than cast Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, 6793 Oth.tube,d406.4mm+,ir,st 1 1 1 1 167552 coldrld,w>600mm,3<th<4.75mm Line pipe of a kind used for oil or gas pipelines, 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, 67931 welded, riveted or sim 1 1 1 1 167553 coldrld,w>600mm,1<th<3mm Casing of a kind used in drilling for oil or gas, 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, 67932 having internal and ext 1 1 1 1 167554 coldrld,w>600mm,0.5<th<1mm Other tubes and pipes, having internal and external 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, 67933 circular cross-sectio 1 1 1 1 167555 coldrld,w>600mm,th<0.5mm Other tubes and pipes, having internal and external 4 1 1 1 467556 Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, coldrld,w<600mm 1 1 1 1 1 67939 circular cross-sectio6756 Flt,cold-rolld.alloy stl 6794 Oth.tube,pipe,iron,steel67561 Flat-rld prod. of other alloy steel, coldrld,w>600mm 1 1 1 1 1 Line pipe of a kind used for oil or gas pipelines, 4 1 1 1 467562 Flat-rld prod. of other alloy steel, coldrld,w<600mm 1 1 1 1 1 67941 other than that of hea6757 Flat-rolld,alloy stl.nes Casing and tubing, of a kind used in drilling for oil 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, n.e.s., of a width of 600 67942 or gas, other than 1 1 1 1 167571 mm or more Other tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, of iron or 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of stnls steel, of a width of less than 67943 steel, welded, of circ 1 1 1 1 167572 600 mm Other tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, of iron or 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of other alloy steel, of a width of 600 67944 steel, welded, of non- 1 1 1 1 167573 mm or more Other tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, of iron or 4 1 1 1 4 Flat-rld prod. of alloy steel, n.e.s., of other alloy 67949 steel 1 1 1 1 167574 steel, of a width o 6795 Tube,pipe fttngs,irn.stl676 IRON,STL.BAR,SHAPES ETC. 67951 Cast fittings of non-malleable cast iron 4 1 2 1 86761 Bar,rod iron,hot-fd,coil 67952 Other cast fittings 4 1 2 1 8 Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in irregularly wound 67953 Flanges of stnls steel 4 1 2 1 8 1 1 1 1 167611 coils, iron,n/a steel, co 67954 Threaded elbows, bends and sleeves of stnls steel 4 1 2 1 8 Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in ir. wound coils, of n/a 67955 Butt welding fittings of stnls steel 4 1 2 1 8 1 1 1 1 167612 free-cutting steel 67956 Other tube and pipe fittings of stnls steel 4 1 2 1 8 44
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product67959 Tube and pipe fittings of iron or steel, n.e.s. 4 1 2 1 8 Cobalt mattes and other intermediate products of 1 1 1 1 168 NON-FERROUS METALS 68981 cobalt metallurgy; cobal681 SILVER,PLATINUM,ETC. Cadmium, unwrought; cadmium waste and scrap; 1 1 1 1 16811 Silver 68982 powders68112 Base metals clad with silver, semi-manufactured 1 1 1 1 1 Titanium, unwrought; titanium waste and scrap; 1 1 1 1 1 Silver (including silver plated with gold or 68983 powders 1 1 1 1 168113 platinum), unwrought Zirconium, unwrought; zirconium waste and scrap; 1 1 1 1 1 Silver (including silver plated with gold or 68984 powders 1 1 1 1 168114 platinum), in semi-manufactu 6899 Base metal nes,wst,scrap6812 Platinum Beryllium, unwrought; beryllium waste and scrap; 1 1 1 1 1 Base metals, silver or gold, clad with platinum or 68991 powders 1 1 1 1 168122 other metals of the pl Bismuth and articles thereof (including waste and 1 1 1 1 1 Platinum and platinum alloys, unwrought or in 68992 scrap) 1 1 1 1 168123 powder form Antimony and articles thereof (including waste and 1 1 1 1 1 Other metals of the platinum group and alloys 68993 scrap) 1 1 1 1 168124 thereof, unwrought or in po Manganese and articles thereof (including waste 1 1 1 1 1 Platinum and other metals of the platinum group 68994 and scrap) 1 1 1 1 168125 and alloys thereof, in se Chromium and articles thereof (including waste and 1 1 1 1 1682 COPPER 68995 scrap)6821 Copper;anodes;alloys Germanium and articles thereof (including waste 1 1 1 1 1 Unrefined copper (including blister copper but 68996 and scrap) 1 1 1 1 168211 excluding cement copper); Vanadium and articles thereof (including waste and 1 1 1 1 168212 Refined copper 1 1 1 1 1 68997 scrap)68213 Master alloys of copper 1 1 1 1 1 Other base metals, unwrought; waste and scrap; 1 1 1 1 168214 Copper alloys (other than master alloys) 1 1 1 1 1 68998 powders6823 Copper bars,rods,profils Cermets and articles thereof (including waste and 1 1 1 1 168231 Bars, rods and profiles, of refined copper 1 1 1 1 1 68999 scrap)68232 Bars, rods and profiles, of copper alloys 1 1 1 1 1 69 METALS MANUFACTURES,NES6824 Copper wire 691 METALLIC STRUCTURES NES68241 Wire, of refined copper 1 1 1 1 1 6911 Metal structures,parts68242 Wire, of copper alloys 1 1 1 1 1 69111 Bridges and bridge sections, of iron or steel 4 1 8 8 2566825 Copper plate,etc.15mm+th 69112 Towers and lattice masts, of iron or steel 4 1 8 8 256 Plates, sheets and strip, of a thickness exceeding Doors, windows and their frames and thresholds for 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 2 6468251 0.15 mm, of refined co 69113 doors, of iron or stee Plates, sheets and strip, of a thickness exceeding Equipment for scaffolding, shuttering, propping or 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 868252 0.15 mm, of copper all 69114 pit-propping, of iron6826 Copper foil,powdr,flakes Other structures and parts of structures, of iron or 1 1 4 2 8 Copper foil (whether or not printed or backed with 69119 steel 1 1 1 1 168261 paper, paperboard, pla 6912 Aluminium structure,prts68262 Copper powders and flakes 1 1 1 1 1 Doors, windows and their frames and thresholds for 4 2 4 2 646827 Copper tube,pipe,fittngs 69121 doors, of aluminium68271 Copper tubes and pipes 1 1 1 1 1 Aluminium structures and parts of structures, n.e.s.; 1 1 4 2 868272 Copper tube or pipe fittings 2 1 2 1 4 69129 aluminium plates, r683 NICKEL 692 CONTAINERS,STORAGE,TRNSP6831 Nickel,nckl.alloy,unwrgt 6921 Reservoir,tanks,vats,etc68311 Nickel, not alloyed 1 1 1 1 1 Reservoirs, tanks, vats and similar containers, for 1 1 1 4 468312 Nickel alloys 1 1 1 1 1 69211 any material (other t6832 Nickel,nickel alloy,wrkd Reservoirs, tanks, vats and similar containers, for 1 1 1 4 468321 Nickel bars, rods, profiles and wire 1 1 1 1 1 69212 any material (other t Nickel tubes, pipes and tube or pipe fittings (e.g., 6924 Tanks,casks,drums,etc. 2 1 2 1 468322 couplings, elbows, s Tanks, casks, drums, cans, boxes and similar 1 1 1 1 168323 Nickel powders and flakes 1 1 1 1 1 69241 containers, for any material68324 Nickel plates, sheets, strip and foil 1 1 1 1 1 Aluminium casks, drums, cans, boxes and similar 1 1 1 1 1684 ALUMINIUM 69242 containers (including rig6841 Alum.,alum.alloy,unwrght Containers of iron or steel for compressed or 1 1 1 1 168411 Aluminium, not alloyed 1 1 1 1 1 69243 liquefied gas68412 Aluminium alloys 1 1 1 1 1 Containers of aluminium for compressed or 1 1 1 1 16842 Aluminium,alum.alloy,wrk 69244 liquefied gas68421 Aluminium bars, rods and profiles 1 1 1 1 1 693 WIRE PRODUCTS EXCL.ELECT68422 Aluminium wire 1 1 1 1 1 6931 Stranded wire,cable,etc. Aluminium plates, sheets and strip, of a thickness Stranded wire, ropes, cables, plaited bands, slings 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 268423 exceeding 0.2 mm 69311 and the like, of iron Aluminium foil (whether or not printed or backed Stranded wire, ropes, cables, plaited bands, slings 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 268424 with paper, paperboard, 69312 and the like, of copp68425 Aluminium powders and flakes 1 1 1 1 1 Stranded wire, ropes, cables, plaited bands, slings 1 1 2 1 268426 Aluminium tubes and pipes 1 1 1 1 1 69313 and the like, of alum Aluminium tube and pipe fittings (e.g., couplings, Barbwire of iron or steel; twisted hoop or single flat 2 1 2 1 4 1 1 2 1 268427 elbows, sleeves) 6932 wire, barbed or no685 LEAD 6935 Metal fencing,gauze etc.6851 Lead,lead alloy,unwrght. Cloth (including endless bands), grill, netting and 1 1 4 1 468511 Unrefined lead and lead alloys 1 1 1 1 1 69351 fencing, of iron or s68512 Refined lead 1 1 1 1 1 Cloth (including endless bands), grill, netting and 1 1 4 1 46852 Lead,lead alloys, worked 69352 fencing, of copper wi68521 Lead bars, rods, profiles and wire 1 1 1 1 1 694 NAILS,SCREWS,NUTS,ETC. Lead plates, sheets, strip and foil; lead powders and Nails, tacks, drawing-pins, corrugated nails, staples 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 268522 flakes 6941 (not of 895.12) and Lead tubes, pipes and tube or pipe fittings (e.g., 6942 Screws,bolts,nuts,irn.st 2 1 2 1 468524 couplings, elbows, sle Screws, bolts, nuts, coach screws, screw hooks, 2 1 1 1 2686 ZINC 69421 rivets and similar articl6861 Zinc,zinc alloy,unwrght. Rivets, cotters, cotter pins, washers (including 2 1 1 1 268611 Zinc, not alloyed 1 1 1 1 1 69422 spring washers) and simi68612 Zinc alloys 1 1 1 1 1 6943 Nails,tacks,etc.copper6863 Zinc,zinc alloys, worked Nails, tacks, drawing-pins, staples and similar 2 1 1 1 268631 Zinc bars, rods, profiles and wire 1 1 1 1 1 69431 articles, of copper or of68632 Zinc plates, sheets, strip and foil 1 1 1 1 1 Washers (including spring washers) and similar 2 1 1 1 268633 Zinc dust (blue powder), powders and flakes 1 1 1 1 1 69432 articles of copper, not th Zinc tubes, pipes and tube or pipe fittings (e.g., Screws, bolts and nuts and similar articles of 2 1 2 1 4 2 1 1 1 268634 couplings, elbows, sle 69433 copper, threaded687 TIN Nails, tacks, staples (not of 895.12), screws, bolts, 2 1 1 1 26871 Tin,tin alloys,unwrought 6944 nuts, screw hooks,68711 Tin, not alloyed 1 1 1 1 1 695 TOOLS68712 Tin alloys 1 1 1 1 1 Hand tools, the following: spades, shovels, 4 1 2 1 86872 Tin, tin alloys, worked 6951 mattocks, picks, hoes, forks68721 Tin bars, rods, profiles and wire 1 1 1 1 1 6952 Hand saw,file,rasp,etc. Tin plates, sheets and strip, of a thickness exceeding 69521 Handsaws 4 1 2 2 16 1 1 1 1 168722 0.2 mm 69522 Files, rasps and similar tools 4 1 2 1 8 Tin foil (whether or not printed or backed with Pliers (including cutting pliers), pincers, tweezers, 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 868723 paper, paperboard, plasti 69523 metal-cutting shear Tin tubes, pipes and tube or pipe fittings (e.g., Spanners and wrenches, hand-operated (including 2 1 2 1 4 4 1 1 1 468724 couplings, elbows, slee 6953 torque meter wrenches but689 MISC.NON-FERR.BASE METAL 6954 Hand tools,etc. nes6891 Tungsten,etc. unwrought 69541 Drilling, threading and tapping tools 4 1 4 2 32 Tungsten (wolfram), unwrought; tungsten waste and 69542 Hammers and sledgehammers 4 1 2 1 8 1 1 1 1 168911 scrap Planes, chisels, gouges and similar cutting tools for 4 1 2 2 16 Molybdenum, unwrought; molybdenum waste and 69543 working wood 1 1 1 1 168912 scrap 69544 Screwdrivers 4 1 2 1 8 Tantalum, unwrought (including bars and rods 69545 Household tools, n.e.s. 4 1 2 1 8 1 1 1 1 168913 obtained simply by sintering Other hand tools (including glaziers diamonds); 4 1 2 1 868914 Magnesium waste and scrap 1 1 1 1 1 69546 blowlamps68915 Magnesium, unwrought 1 1 1 1 1 69547 Vices, clamps and the like 4 1 4 2 326898 Cobalt,cadmium,etc.unwrt Anvils; portable forges; hand or pedal-operated 2 1 1 2 4 69548 grinding wheels with fram 45
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product Sets of articles of two or more of the headings of Flexible tubing of base metal, with or without 2 1 4 1 8 2 1 2 1 469549 subgroup 695.4 69951 fittings6955 Saw blades Bells, gongs and the like, non-electric, and parts 2 2 2 8 6469551 Band-saw blades 1 1 1 2 2 69952 thereof, of base metal Circular saw blades (including slitting or slotting Stoppers, caps and lids (including crown corks, 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 869552 saw blades) with work 69953 screw caps and pouring st Circular saw blades (including slitting or slotting Sign-plates, name-plates, address-plates and similar 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 1 2 1669553 saw blades) with work 69954 plates, numbers, let69554 Chain-saw blades 1 1 4 2 8 Wire, rods, tubes, plates, electrodes and similar 2 1 2 1 469555 Straight saw blades, for working metal 1 1 1 2 2 69955 products, of base metal69559 Other saw blades 1 1 1 2 2 6996 Articles iron,steel,nes6956 Knives,cutting blades 69961 Anchors, grapnels and parts thereof, of iron or steel 1 1 2 4 8 Knives and cutting blades, for machines or for 69962 Cast articles of non-malleable cast iron, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 269561 mechanical appliances 69963 Cast articles of other iron or steel, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 4 Plates, sticks, tips and the like for tools, unmounted, Articles of iron or steel, forged or stamped, but not 2 1 1 2 4 4 1 1 1 469562 of sintered metal 69965 further worked, n.e69563 Rock-drilling or earth-boring tools 2 1 1 2 4 69967 Articles of iron or steel wire, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 4 Interchangeable tools for hand tools, whether or not 69969 Articles of iron or steel, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 2 469564 power-operated, or f 6997 Articles nes,copper,etc. Tools of two or more of the headings of subgroups 69971 Chain of copper and parts thereof 2 1 4 1 8 4 1 4 2 326957 695.2 through 695.5, pu 69973 Articles of copper, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 4696 CUTLERY 69975 Articles of nickel, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 46963 Razors,razor blades 69976 Articles of lead, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 469631 Razors, non-electric 2 1 4 1 8 69977 Articles of zinc, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 4 Safety razor blades (including razor-blade blanks in 69978 Articles of tin, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 169635 strips) 69979 Articles of aluminium, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 4 Parts, n.e.s., of non-electric razors, other than 6998 Articles cobalt,etc.,nes 2 8 1 1 1669638 plastic 69981 Cobalt, wrought, and articles of cobalt, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 4 Scissors, tailors shears and similar shears, and 69983 Cadmium, wrought, and articles of cadmium, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 4 2 1 4 1 86964 blades therefor 69985 Titanium, wrought, and articles of titanium, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 46965 Oth.articles of cutlery Zirconium, wrought, and articles of zirconium, 4 1 1 1 4 Paper-knives, letter openers, erasing knives, pencil- 69987 n.e.s. 2 1 1 1 269651 sharpeners and blade 6999 Articls.tungsten,etc.nes Manicure or pedicure sets and instruments Molybdenum, wrought, and articles of 2 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 469655 (including nail-files) 69992 molybdenum, n.e.s.69659 Articles of cutlery, n.e.s. 2 1 2 1 4 69993 Tantalum, wrought, and articles of tantalum, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 46966 Knives,forks,spoons,etc. Magnesium, wrought, and articles of magnesium, 4 1 1 1 4 Sets of assorted articles containing at least one 69994 n.e.s. 2 2 1 1 469661 article plated with precious metal 69995 Beryllium, wrought, and articles of beryllium, n.e.s. 4 1 1 1 4 Other sets of assorted articles of kitchen and Base metals, wrought, n.e.s., and articles of these 2 2 1 1 4 4 1 1 1 469662 tableware 69999 metals, n.e.s.69663 Articles, not in sets, plated with precious metal 2 2 2 1 8 7 MACHINES,TRANSPORT EQUIP69669 Other articles of kitchen and tableware, not in sets 2 2 2 1 8 71 POWER GENERATNG.MACHINES Knives with cutting blades, serrated or not 711 STEAM GENER.BOILERS,ETC. 2 2 4 1 166968 (including pruning knives), o 7111 Steam,super-heat boilers697 HOUSEHOLD EQUIPMENT,NES Steam or other vapour-generating boilers (excluding 1 1 8 2 166973 Dom.cook.heat.app,n-elec 71111 central heating hot w Domestic cooking appliances (e.g., kitchen stoves, 71112 Superheated water boilers 1 1 8 2 16 ranges, cookers, barbecues, braziers, gas rings) and 2 2 8 1 32 7112 Aux.boilr plant,condensr69731 plate warmers, non-electric, of iron or steel Auxiliary plant for use with boilers of subgroup 1 1 8 2 16 Domestic stoves (other than cooking appliances), 71121 711.1 or 812.1 grates and similar non-electric space heaters 71122 Condensers for steam or other vapour power units 1 1 4 2 8 2 2 8 1 32 (including those with subsidiary boilers for central 7119 Parts for steam boilers69732 heating), of iron or steel 71191 Parts for the boilers of subgroup 711.1 1 8 4 2 64 Parts, of iron or steel, of the appliances of headings Parts for the apparatus and appliances of subgroup 2 8 2 2 64 1 8 4 2 6469733 697.31 and 697.32 71192 711.2 Cooking or heating apparatus of a kind used for 712 STEAM TURBINES domestic purposes, non-electric, and parts thereof, 2 2 8 1 32 7121 Steam,vapour turbines69734 of copper Steam turbines and other vapour turbines for marine 1 1 8 2 16 Table, kitchen or other household articles, and parts 71211 propulsion thereof, n.e.s., of iron, steel, copper or aluminium; Steam turbines and other vapour turbines for other 1 1 8 2 16 iron or steel wool; pot scourers and scouring or 71219 than marine propulsion polishing pads, gloves and the like, of iron, steel, 7128 Parts for the turbines of subgroup 712.1 1 8 4 2 646974 copper or aluminium 713 INTRNL COMBUS PSTN ENGIN Household articles and parts thereof, n.e.s., of iron 7131 Aircraft piston engines 4 2 4 1 3269741 or steel Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal 1 1 8 4 32 Household articles and parts thereof, n.e.s., of 71311 combustion piston engines 4 2 4 1 3269742 copper Parts, n.e.s., of the aircraft engines of heading 1 8 4 4 128 Household articles and parts thereof, n.e.s., of 71319 713.11 4 2 4 1 3269743 aluminium 7132 Intrnl comb.engine vehcl Iron or steel wool; pot scourers and scouring or Reciprocating internal combustion piston engines 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 8 1 869744 polishing pads, gloves a 71321 for propelling vehicles, not exceeding 1,000 cc6975 Sanitary ware,parts nes Reciprocating internal combustion piston engines 1 1 8 1 8 Sanitary ware and parts thereof, n.e.s., of iron or 71322 for propelling vehicles, exceeding 1,000 cc 2 1 1 1 269751 steel Compression-ignition internal combustion piston 1 1 8 1 869752 Sanitary ware and parts thereof, n.e.s., of copper 2 1 1 1 2 71323 engines (diesel or semi-d69753 Sanitary ware and parts thereof, n.e.s., of aluminium 2 1 1 1 2 7133 Marine piston engines6978 H.hold appliancs,etc.nes 71331 Outboard motors 1 1 8 2 16 Mechanical appliances, hand-operated, weighing 10 Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal 2 2 8 1 32 1 1 8 2 1669781 kg or less, used in the 71332 combustion piston marine Statuettes and other ornaments, of base metal; Compression-ignition internal combustion piston 4 4 2 4 128 1 1 8 2 1669782 photograph, picture or sim 71333 marine propulsion engines699 MANUFACTS.BASE METAL,NES 7138 Piston engines, nes6991 Locks,safes,strong boxes Other spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal 1 1 8 1 8 Padlocks and locks (key, combination or electrically 71381 combustion piston e 4 1 4 1 1669911 operated), of base m Other compression-ignition internal combustion 1 1 8 1 8 Armoured or reinforced safes, strongboxes and 71382 piston engines (diesel or 2 1 4 2 1669912 doors and safe deposit lock 7139 Parts,nes.IC.piston engs69913 Hinges 1 1 4 1 4 Parts, n.e.s., for the engines of subgroups 713.2,69914 Castors 1 1 4 1 4 713.3 and 713.8, suitable for use solely or 1 8 4 1 32 Other mountings, fittings and similar articles principally with spark-ignition internal combustion 2 2 4 1 1669915 suitable for motor vehicle 71391 piston engines Other mountings, fittings and similar articles Parts, n.e.s., for the engines of subgroups 713.2, 2 2 4 1 1669916 suitable for buildings 713.3 and 713.8, suitable for use solely or 1 8 4 1 32 Other mountings, fittings and similar articles principally with compression-ignition internal 2 2 4 1 1669917 suitable for furniture 71392 combustion piston engines Other mountings, fittings and similar articles; base 714 ENGINES,MOTORS NON-ELECT 2 2 4 1 1669919 metal hat-racks, hat 7144 Reaction engines6992 Chain,iron,steel 71441 Turbojets 1 1 8 4 3269921 Skid chain 2 1 4 1 8 71449 Reaction engines other than turbojets 1 1 8 4 3269922 Other chain 2 1 4 1 8 7148 Gas turbines, nes6993 Pins,needles,irn.stl,etc 71481 Turbopropellers 1 1 8 4 32 Sewing needles, knitting-needles, bodkins, crochet 71489 Other gas turbines 1 1 8 4 32 1 1 1 1 169931 hooks, embroidery stil 7149 Parts,jet,gasturbine eng69932 Safety pins and other pins, of iron or steel, n.e.s. 1 1 1 1 1 71491 Parts for turbojets or turbopropellers 1 8 4 4 128 Clasps, frames with clasps, buckles, buckle clasps, 71499 Parts for the gas turbines of heading 714.89 1 8 4 4 128 4 2 1 1 869933 hooks, eyes, eyelets 716 ROTATING ELECTRIC PLANT6994 Springs,leaves,metal 7161 Electric motors of an output not exceeding 37.5 W 1 1 8 1 869941 Springs and leaves for springs, of iron or steel 1 1 1 1 1 Motors (other than motors of an output < 37.5 W) 1 1 8 1 869942 Copper springs 1 1 1 1 1 7162 and generators, DC6995 Misc.articles,base metal 7163 Elec.motors,genrators.AC 46
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product AC motors (including universal (AC/DC) motors, Sewing-machine needles; furniture, bases and 1 1 8 1 8 2 1 8 1 1671631 but excluding motors of an 72439 covers specially designed fo71632 Generators, alternating current 1 1 8 1 8 7244 Spinning,extrud.mach.etc7164 Electric rotary converters 1 1 8 1 8 Machines for extruding, drawing, texturing or 1 1 8 1 87165 Generating sets 72441 cutting man-made textile ma Electric generating sets with compression-ignition 72442 Machines for preparing textile fibres 1 1 8 1 8 1 1 8 1 871651 internal combustion pi Textile-spinning, doubling or twisting machines; 1 1 8 1 871652 Other generating sets 1 1 8 1 8 72443 textile-winding (includi Parts, n.e.s., suitable for use with the machines of Parts and accessories of machines of subgroup 1 8 8 1 64 1 8 8 1 647169 group 716 72449 724.4 or heading 724.54 or718 OTH.POWR.GENRTNG.MACHNRY 7245 Weavng,felt mfg,mach.etc7181 Hydrlc.turbine,wtr.wheel 72451 Weaving machines (looms) 1 1 8 1 871811 Hydraulic turbines and water-wheels 4 1 8 8 256 72452 Knitting-machines and stitch-bonding machines 1 1 8 1 8 Parts, including regulators, of hydraulic turbines Machines for making gimped yarn, tulle, lace, 1 8 8 8 512 1 1 8 1 871819 and water-wheels 72453 embroidery, trimmings, brai7187 Nuclear reactors,pts nes Machines for preparing textile yarns for use on the 1 1 8 1 871871 Nuclear reactors 4 1 8 8 256 72454 machines of headings71877 Fuel elements (cartridges), non-irradiated 1 1 8 8 64 Machinery for the manufacture or finishing of felt 1 1 8 1 871878 Parts of nuclear reactors 1 8 8 8 512 72455 or non-wovens in the p7189 Engines,motors nes,parts 7246 Aux.txtl.machs,parts,etc Linear-acting hydraulic power engines and motors Auxiliary machinery for machines of headings 1 1 8 1 8 1 1 8 1 871891 (cylinders) 72461 724.41, 724.42, 724.43, 724. Linear-acting pneumatic power engines and motors Parts and accessories of weaving machines (looms) 1 1 8 1 8 1 8 8 1 6471892 (cylinders) 72467 of heading 724.51 or of71893 Other engines and motors 1 1 8 1 8 Parts and accessories of machines of headings 1 8 8 1 64 Parts of the engines and motors of headings 714.49, 72468 724.52 and 724.53 or of the 1 8 8 1 6471899 718.91, 718.92 and 71 7247 Oth.textile machnery nes72 SPECIAL.INDUST.MACHINERY Household or laundry-type washing machines 2 2 8 1 32721 AGRIC.MACHINES,EX.TRACTR 72471 (including machines which both7211 Cultivating machnery.etc 72472 Dry-cleaning machines 1 1 8 2 1672111 Ploughs 1 1 8 2 16 Drying machines, each of dry linen capacity 1 1 8 2 16 Seeders, planters, transplanters; fertilizer 72473 exceeding 10 kg (excluding th 1 1 8 2 1672112 distributors and manure spre Machinery for washing (other than household or 1 1 8 1 8 Scarifiers, cultivators, weeders, hoes and harrows 72474 laundry-type machines), cl 1 1 8 2 1672113 (other than hand tools 7248 Skin,leather workng mach Other agricultural and horticultural or forestry Machinery for preparing, tanning or working hides, 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 2 1672118 machinery for soil prepa 72481 skins or leather72119 Parts of the machinery of subgroup 721.1 1 8 4 2 64 72483 Machinery for making or repairing footwear 1 1 8 2 167212 Harvesting etc.machines Machinery for making or repairing articles of hides, 1 1 8 2 1672121 Mowers for lawns, parks or sports grounds 2 2 8 1 32 72485 skins or leather, ot72122 Combine harvester-threshers 1 1 8 2 16 72488 Parts for the machinery of subgroup 724.8 1 8 8 2 128 Other harvesting and threshing machinery; mowers 7249 Pts,txtle,dom washng mch 2 2 8 1 3272123 (not of 721.21) Parts for the household or laundry-type washing 1 8 4 2 64 Machines for cleaning, sorting or grading eggs, fruit 72491 machines of headings 724. 1 1 8 2 1672126 or other agricultur Parts for the machines of headings 724.72, 724.73, 1 8 4 2 64 Machines for cleaning, sorting or grading seed, 72492 724.74 and 775.12 1 1 8 2 1672127 grain or dried leguminous 725 PAPER,PULP MILL MACHINES Parts of the machines of headings 721.21 through 7251 Paper,pulp,making machry 1 8 4 2 6472129 721.26 Machinery for making pulp of fibrous cellulosic 1 1 8 2 167213 Dairy machinery etc.prts 72511 material72131 Milking machines 1 1 8 2 16 Machinery for making or finishing paper or 1 1 8 2 1672138 Dairy machinery 1 1 8 2 16 72512 paperboard72139 Parts for milking machines and dairy machinery 1 8 8 2 128 7252 Oth.pulp,paper,makng mch7219 Agric.hort.etc.machs.nes 72521 Cutting machines 1 1 8 2 16 Presses, crushers and similar machinery used in the 72523 Machines for making bags, sacks or envelopes 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 2 1672191 manufacture of wine, Machines for making cartons, boxes, cases, tubes, 1 1 8 2 16 Poultry-keeping machinery; poultry incubators and 72525 drums or similar contai 1 1 8 2 1672195 brooders Machines for moulding articles in paper pulp, paper 1 1 8 2 16 Other agricultural, horticultural, forestry or bee- 72527 or paperboard 1 1 8 2 1672196 keeping machinery (inc Other machinery for making up paper pulp, paper or 1 1 8 2 1672198 Parts of the machinery of heading 721.91 1 8 8 2 128 72529 paperboard Parts of the machinery and appliances of headings 7259 Parts,paper mill etc.mch 1 8 8 2 12872199 721.95 and 721.96 72591 Parts of the machines of subgroup 725.1 1 8 8 2 128722 TRACTORS 72599 Parts of the machines of subgroup 725.2 1 8 8 2 1287223 Track-laying tractors 1 1 8 4 32 726 PRINTNG,BOOKBINDNG MACHS7224 Wheeled tractors nes 7263 Typesetting,mch,type etc72241 Pedestrian-controlled tractors 1 1 8 2 16 Machinery, apparatus and equipment (other than the 1 1 8 2 1672249 Other wheeled tractors 1 1 8 2 16 72631 machine tools of subgr723 CIVIL ENGINEERING EQUIPT Printing type, blocks, plates, cylinders and other 1 1 4 1 47231 Self-propelld.dozers etc 72635 printing components; b72311 Bulldozers and angledozers, self-propelled 1 1 8 2 16 7265 Offset printing machnery72312 Graders and levellers, self-propelled 1 1 8 2 16 72651 Reel-fed offset printing machinery 1 1 8 2 167232 Mech.shovel etc.s-propld Sheet-fed office-type offset printing machinery 1 1 8 2 1672321 Front-end shovel-loaders, self-propelled 1 1 8 2 16 72655 (sheet size not exceeding Mechanical shovels, excavators and shovel-loaders 72659 Other offset printing machinery 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 2 1672322 with a 360 degree revol 7266 Oth.printng,ancill.machs Other self-propelled mechanical shovels, excavators Letterpress printing machinery (excluding 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 2 1672329 and shovel-loaders 72661 flexographic printing)7233 Constr,minng machnry etc 72663 Flexographic printing machinery 1 1 8 2 1672331 Scrapers, self-propelled 1 1 8 2 16 72665 Gravure printing machinery 1 1 8 2 1672333 Tamping machines and roadrollers, self-propelled 1 1 8 2 16 72667 Other printing machinery 1 1 8 2 16 Coal or rock cutters and tunnelling machinery, self- 72668 Machines for uses ancillary to printing 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 2 1672335 propelled 7268 Bookbinding machnery,prt72337 Other boring or sinking machinery, self-propelled 1 1 8 2 16 Bookbinding machinery (including book-sewing 1 1 8 2 16 Other moving, grading, levelling, scraping, 72681 machines) 1 1 8 2 1672339 excavating, compacting or ext 72689 Parts for bookbinding machinery 1 8 8 2 1287234 Const.& mining machs.nes 7269 Part,type,offst,prnt mch72341 Pile-drivers and pile-extractors 1 1 8 2 16 72691 Parts for the machines of heading 726.31 1 8 8 2 12872342 Snowploughs and snowblowers 1 1 8 2 16 Parts for the machines of subgroups 726.5 and 1 8 8 2 128 Coal or rock cutters and tunnelling machinery, not 72699 726.6 1 1 8 2 1672343 self-propelled 727 FOOD-PROCESS.MCH.NON DOM Other boring or sinking machinery, not self- 7271 Grain workng machs,parts 1 1 8 2 1672344 propelled Machinery used in the milling industry or for the 1 1 8 2 16 Tamping or compacting machinery, not self- 72711 working of cereals or d 1 1 8 2 1672345 propelled Parts for the machines of headings 721.27 and 1 8 8 2 12872346 Scrapers, not self-propelled 1 1 8 2 16 72719 727.11 Other moving, grading, levelling, scraping, 7272 Oth.food-proc.mach parts 1 1 8 2 1672347 excavating, compacting or ext Machinery for the extraction or preparation of 1 1 8 2 16 Machinery for public works, building or the like, 72721 animal or fixed vegetable 1 1 8 2 1672348 n.e.s. Machinery, n.e.s., for the industrial preparation or 1 1 8 2 167239 Pts nes,cvl.enginrg.mach 72722 manufacture of food72391 Buckets, shovels, grabs and grips 1 1 4 2 8 Parts for the food-processing machinery of heading 1 1 8 2 1672392 Bulldozer or angledozer blades 1 1 4 2 8 72729 727.22 Parts for boring or sinking machinery of heading 728 OTH.MACH,PTS,SPCL INDUST 1 1 8 2 1672393 723.37 or 723.44 7281 Mch-tools,special.indust Other parts for the machinery of group 723 Machine tools for working stone, ceramics, 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 4 2 872399 (excluding heading 723.48) and 72811 concrete, asbestos-cement or l724 TEXTILE,LEATHER MACHINES Machine tools (including machines for nailing, 1 1 8 2 167243 Sewing machines, parts 72812 stapling, glueing or other72433 Sewing-machines of the household type 2 1 8 1 16 Parts and accessories suitable for use solely or 1 1 8 2 1672435 Other sewing-machines 2 1 8 1 16 72819 principally with the mac 7283 Oth.mineral working mach 47
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product Machinery for sorting, screening, separating or 73395 Machines for working wire 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 2 1672831 washing earth, stone, ore Machine tools for working metals, sintered metal 1 1 8 2 16 Machinery for crushing or grinding earth, stone, 73399 carbides or cermets, wit 1 1 8 2 1672832 ores or other mineral su 735 PARTS,NES,FOR MACH-TOOLS Machinery for mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores 7351 Work-holders,tool holder 1 1 8 2 1672833 or other mineral subs 73511 Tool holders and self-opening die-heads 4 1 4 2 32 Machinery for agglomerating, shaping or moulding 73513 Work holders 4 1 4 2 32 1 1 8 2 1672834 solid mineral fuels, cer Dividing heads and other special attachments for 4 1 4 2 3272839 Parts of the machinery of subgroup 728.3 1 8 8 2 128 73515 machine tools7284 Mach.appl.spcl indus nes 7359 Parts,nes,mch-tool w.mtl Machines for assembling electric or electronic Parts, n.e.s., and accessories for machines of group 1 1 8 2 16 1 8 4 2 6472841 lamps, tubes or valves or 73591 731 Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for the Parts, n.e.s., and accessories for machines of group 1 1 8 2 16 1 8 4 2 6472842 manufacture of produc 73595 733 Machinery for preparing or making up tobacco, 737 METALWORKING MACHNRY NES 1 1 8 2 1672843 n.e.s. 7371 Foundry equipmnt pts nes Presses for the manufacture of particle board or 73711 Converters, ingot moulds and ladles 4 1 4 4 64 1 1 8 2 1672844 fibre building board of 73712 Casting machines 1 4 4 4 64 Machinery for treating metal (including electric Parts of the metalworking machinery of subgroup 1 1 8 2 16 1 8 2 4 6472846 wire coil-winders), n.e. 73719 737.1 Machinery and apparatus for isotopic separation, 7372 Mtl-rolling mills,rolls 1 1 8 2 1672847 and parts thereof, n.e.s 73721 Metal-rolling mills 1 1 8 2 1672849 Machinery having individual functions, n.e.s. 1 1 8 2 16 73729 Rolls and other parts for metal-rolling mills 1 1 8 2 167285 Parts publc wrk mach etc 7373 Welding,brazing etc.mach72851 Parts for the machines of heading 728.41 1 8 8 2 128 73731 Soldering irons and guns 1 1 8 1 872852 Parts for the machines of heading 728.42 1 8 8 2 128 73732 Other brazing or soldering machines and apparatus 1 1 8 1 872853 Parts for the machines of heading 728.43 1 8 8 2 128 Machines and apparatus for resistance welding of 1 1 8 2 16 Parts, n.e.s., for the machines of headings 723.48, 73733 metal, fully or partly a 1 8 8 2 12872855 727.21, 728.44, 727.4 Other machines and apparatus for resistance 1 1 8 2 1673 METALWORKING MACHINERY 73734 welding of metal731 METAL REMOVAL WORK TOOLS Machines and apparatus for arc (including plasma- 1 1 8 2 167311 Mach.tools,metal removal 73735 arc) welding of metals, Machine tools for working any material by removal Other machines and apparatus for arc welding of 1 1 8 2 16 of material, operated by laser or other light or 1 1 8 2 16 73736 metal73111 photon beam processes 73737 Other machines and apparatus 1 1 8 2 16 Machine tools for working any material by removal Parts for the machines and apparatus of subgroup 1 1 8 2 16 1 8 8 2 12873112 of material, operated by ultrasonic processes 73739 737.3 Machine tools for working any material by removal 7374 Soldering machines etc. 1 1 8 2 1673113 of material, operated by electrodischarge processes 73741 Hand-held gas-operated blowpipes 1 1 8 2 16 Machine tools for working any material by removal 73742 Other gas-operated machinery and apparatus 1 1 8 2 16 of material, operated by electrochemical, electron 1 1 8 2 16 73743 Other machinery and apparatus 1 1 8 2 1673114 beam, ionic beam or plasma-arc processes Parts for the machinery and apparatus of subgroup 1 8 8 2 1287312 Mch-tl,wrkng mtl,nolaths 73749 737.473121 Machining centres 1 1 8 2 16 74 GENERAL INDUSTL.MACH.NES73122 Unit construction machines (single station) 1 1 8 2 16 741 HEATNG,COOLNG EQUIP,PART73123 Multi-station transfer machines 1 1 8 2 16 7412 Burners,mech.stokers etc7313 Lathes,metal-working 74121 Furnace burners for liquid fuel 1 1 8 1 873131 Horizontal lathes, numerically controlled 1 1 8 2 16 Other furnace burners (including combination 1 1 8 1 873135 Other lathes, numerically controlled 1 1 8 2 16 74123 burners)73137 Other horizontal lathes 1 1 8 2 16 Mechanical stokers, including their mechanical 1 1 8 1 873139 Lathes, n.e.s. 1 1 8 2 16 74125 grates, mechanical ash dis7314 Unit head,drill,etc.mach Parts for the burners and other articles of subgroup 1 8 8 1 6473141 Way-type unit head machines 1 1 8 2 16 74128 741.273142 Other drilling machines, numerically controlled 1 1 8 2 16 7413 Indus.furnaces etc.parts73143 Drilling machines, n.e.s. 1 1 8 2 16 74131 Resistance-heated furnaces and ovens, electric 1 1 8 1 8 Other boring-milling machines, numerically 74132 Induction or dielectric furnaces and ovens 1 1 8 1 8 1 1 8 2 1673144 controlled 74133 Other electric furnaces and ovens 1 1 8 1 873145 Boring-milling machines, n.e.s. 1 1 8 2 16 74134 Other induction or dielectric heating equipment 1 1 8 1 873146 Other boring machines 1 1 8 2 16 Parts for the equipment of headings 741.31 through 1 8 8 1 647315 Metal milling machns,etc 74135 741.34 Milling machines, knee-type, numerically Furnaces and ovens for the roasting, melting or 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 1 873151 controlled 74136 other heat-treatment of o73152 Other knee-type milling machines 1 1 8 2 16 74137 Bakery ovens (including biscuit ovens), non-electric 1 1 8 1 873153 Other milling machines, numerically controlled 1 1 8 2 16 Other non-electric furnaces and ovens (including 1 1 8 1 873154 Milling machines, n.e.s. 1 1 8 2 16 74138 incinerators)73157 Other threading or tapping machines 1 1 8 2 16 Parts for the furnaces and ovens of headings 741.36 1 8 8 1 647316 Mtl.surfc.finishng tools 74139 through 741.38 Flat-surface grinding machines, numerically 7414 Commrc.refrig equip,part 1 1 8 2 1673161 controlled, in which the posi Refrigerating or freezing chests (other than 1 1 8 1 8 Non-numerically controlled flat-surface grinding 74143 household-type), cabinets, d 1 1 8 2 1673162 machines, in which the p Other refrigerating or freezing equipment; heat 4 1 8 1 32 Other grinding machines, numerically controlled, in 74145 pumps 1 1 8 2 1673163 which the positioning Parts of refrigerators, freezers and other 2 8 8 1 128 Grinding machines, n.e.s., in which the positioning 74149 refrigerating or freezing equi 1 1 8 2 1673164 in any one axis can b 7415 Air conditioning mch,pts Sharpening (tool- or cutter-grinding) machines, Air-conditioning machines comprising a motor- 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 1 873165 numerically controlled 74151 driven fan and elements for Other sharpening (tool- or cutter-grinding) Other air-conditioning machines comprising a 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 1 873166 machines 74155 motor-driven fan and element73167 Honing or lapping machines 1 1 8 2 16 Parts for the air-conditioning machines of heading 1 8 8 1 64 Machine tools for deburring, polishing, or otherwise 74159 741.5 1 1 8 2 1673169 finishing metal, sin 7417 Gas genrtr,air liquefier7317 Mtl.shaping,cuttng.tools Producer gas or water gas generators, with or 1 1 8 1 873171 Shaping or slotting machines 1 1 8 2 16 74171 without their purifiers; ac73173 Broaching machines 1 1 8 2 16 74172 Parts for the generators of heading 741.71 1 8 8 1 64 Gear-cutting, gear-grinding or gear-finishing 74173 Distilling or rectifying plant 1 1 8 1 8 1 1 8 2 1673175 machines 74174 Heat-exchange units 1 1 8 1 873177 Sawing or cutting-off machines 1 1 8 2 16 74175 Machinery for liquefying air or other gases 1 1 8 1 873178 Planing machines, metalworking 1 1 8 2 16 7418 Oth.temp.change mach etc Machine tools working by removing metal, sintered 74181 Instantaneous gas water-heaters 1 1 8 1 8 1 1 8 2 1673179 metal carbides or cerme Other instantaneous or storage water-heaters, non- 1 1 8 1 8733 MACH-TOOLS,METAL-WORKING 74182 electric7331 Metal forming mach.tools 74183 Medical, surgical or laboratory sterilizers 1 1 8 2 16 Forging or die-stamping machines (including 74184 Driers for agricultural products 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 2 1673311 presses) and hammers 74185 Driers for wood, paper pulp, paper or paperboard 1 1 8 2 16 Bending, folding, straightening or flattening 74186 Driers, n.e.s. 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 2 1673312 machines (including presses Machinery for making hot drinks or for cooking or 2 2 8 1 32 Non-numerically controlled bending, folding, 74187 heating food 1 1 8 2 1673313 straightening or flattening 74189 Other machinery, plant or equipment 1 1 8 1 8 Shearing machines (including presses), numerically Parts, n.e.s., for the machinery of headings 741.73 1 1 8 2 16 1 8 8 1 6473314 controlled, other than 7419 through 741.89 Shearing machines (including presses), other than 742 PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS,PARTS 1 1 8 2 1673315 combined punching and s 7421 Pumps w.measuring device Punching or notching machines (including presses), Pumps for dispensing fuel or lubricants, of the type 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 2 1673316 including combined pun 74211 used in filling stat Punching or notching machines, n.e.s. (including Other pumps fitted or designed to be fitted with a 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 1 873317 presses), including comb 74219 measuring device73318 Presses for working metal or metal carbides, n.e.s. 1 1 8 2 16 Fuel, lubricating or cooling medium pumps for 1 1 8 1 87339 Oth.mach-tool,metalwrkng 7422 internal combustion piston Draw benches for bars, tubes, profiles, wire or the 7423 Concrete pumps 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 2 1673391 like 7424 Reciprocating positive displacement pumps, n.e.s. 1 1 8 1 873393 Thread-rolling machines 1 1 8 2 16 7425 Rotary positive displacement pumps, n.e.s. 1 1 8 1 8 48
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product7426 Centrifugal pumps, n.e.s. 1 1 8 1 8 Parts of the machinery of subgroup 745.2 and 1 8 8 1 647427 Pumps,liquid elevatr etc 74529 heading 775.374271 Pumps for liquids, n.e.s. 1 1 8 1 8 7453 Weighing mch,weights,pts74275 Liquid elevators 1 1 8 1 8 Weighing machinery (excluding balances of a 2 1 8 1 167429 Parts,pumps,liq.elevator 74531 sensitivity of 5 cg or better74291 Parts of the pumps of group 742 1 8 8 1 64 Personal weighing-machines (including baby 2 1 8 1 1674295 Parts of the liquid elevators of heading 742.75 1 8 8 1 64 74532 scales); household scales743 PUMPS NES,CENTRIFUGS ETC Weighing-machine weights of all kinds; parts of the 2 1 8 1 167431 Air,vacuum pump,compress 74539 weighing machinery of74311 Vacuum pumps 1 1 8 1 8 7456 Spraying machinery etc.74313 Hand- or foot-operated air pumps 2 1 8 1 16 74561 Fire extinguishers, whether or not charged 1 1 8 1 8 Compressors of a kind used in refrigerating 74562 Spray-guns and similar appliances 1 1 8 1 8 1 1 8 1 874315 equipment Steam or sandblasting machines and similar jet- 1 1 8 1 8 Air compressors mounted on a wheeled chassis for 74563 projecting machines 1 1 8 1 874317 towing Agricultural or horticultural appliances for 1 1 8 1 8 Other pumps, compressors, ventilating or recycling 74564 projecting, dispersing or sp 1 1 8 1 874319 hoods Other appliances for projecting, dispersing or 1 1 8 1 87434 Fans,cooker hoods w.fan 74565 spraying liquids or powder Table, floor, wall, window, ceiling or roof fans, 74568 Parts of the appliances of subgroup 745.6 1 8 8 1 64 4 2 8 1 6474341 with a self-contained e 7459 Oth.non-elect mach,parts74343 Other fans 2 2 8 1 32 Calendering or other rolling machines (other than 1 1 8 1 8 Hoods having a maximum horizontal side not 74591 for metals or glass) 2 2 8 1 3274345 exceeding 120 cm Cylinders and other parts for the machines of 1 8 4 1 327435 Centrifuges nes 74593 heading 745.9174351 Cream separators 1 1 8 1 8 Automatic goods-vending machines (e.g., postage 2 1 8 1 1674355 Clothes driers 2 2 8 1 32 74595 stamp, cigarette, food or74359 Other centrifuges 1 1 8 1 8 74597 Parts for the machines of heading 745.95 2 8 8 1 1287436 Machs.filter gas,liquids 746 BALL OR ROLLER BEARINGS Machinery and apparatus for filtering or purifying 7461 Ball-bearings 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 8 1 874361 water Tapered roller bearings (including cone and tapered 1 1 8 1 8 Machinery and apparatus for filtering or purifying 7462 roller assemblies) 1 1 8 1 874362 beverages other than w 7463 Spherical roller bearings 1 1 8 1 874363 Oil or petrol filters for internal combustion engines 1 1 8 1 8 7464 Needle roller bearings 1 1 8 1 874364 Intake air filters for internal combustion engines 1 1 8 1 8 7465 Other cylindrical roller bearings 1 1 8 1 8 Filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus for Other ball- or roller bearings (including combined 1 1 8 1 8 1 1 8 1 874367 liquids, n.e.s. 7468 ball-/roller bearings) Filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus for 7469 Parts,ball,rollr bearing 1 1 8 1 874369 gases, n.e.s. 74691 Balls, needles and rollers 1 8 4 1 32 Parts for the pumps, compressors, fans and hoods of 74699 Other parts of ball- or roller bearings 1 8 4 1 32 1 8 8 1 647438 subgroups 743.1 and 7 747 TAPS,COCKS,VALVES,ETC.7439 Part,centrifuge,filt.etc 7471 Pressure-reducing valves 1 1 8 1 874391 Parts of centrifuges (including centrifugal driers) 1 8 8 1 64 Valves for oleohydraulic or pneumatic 1 1 8 1 8 Parts of filtering or purifying machinery and 7472 transmissions 1 8 8 1 6474395 apparatus 7473 Check valves 1 1 8 1 8744 MECHANICAL HANDLNG EQUIP 7474 Safety- or relief valves 1 1 8 1 87441 Work trucks,tractors,etc 7478 Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances, n.e.s. 1 1 8 1 8 Self-propelled trucks powered by an electric motor, 7479 Parts for the appliances of group 747 1 1 8 1 8 1 1 8 2 1674411 fitted with lifting o 748 TRANSMISSIONS SHAFTS ETC Other self-propelled trucks fitted with lifting or Transmission shafts (including camshafts and 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 1 874412 handling equipment 7481 crankshafts) and cranks Other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling 7482 Bearng housng,shft brngs 1 1 8 2 1674413 equipment Bearing housings, incorporating ball- or roller 1 1 8 1 8 Works trucks, electrical, self-propelled, not fitted 74821 bearings 1 1 8 2 1674414 with lifting or hand Bearing housings, not incorporating ball- or roller 1 1 8 1 8 Other self-propelled works trucks, not fitted with 74822 bearings; plain shaft 1 1 8 2 1674415 lifting or handling eq 7483 Articultd link chain,pts Parts of the trucks and tractors of headings 744.14 74831 Roller chain 1 1 4 1 4 1 8 8 2 12874419 and 744.15 74832 Other articulated chain 1 1 4 1 47442 Pulley tackle,winchs,etc 74839 Parts of articulated link chain 1 1 4 1 4 Pulley tackle and hoists (other than skip hoists or Gears and gearing (excluding toothed wheels, chain 2 1 4 1 8 1 1 4 1 474421 hoists of a kind used 7484 sprockets and other tr Pit-head winding gear; winches specially designed 7485 Flywheels and pulleys (including pulley blocks) 1 1 4 1 4 1 1 4 1 474423 for use underground Clutches and shaft couplings (including universal 1 1 8 1 874425 Other winches; capstans 1 1 4 1 4 7486 joints)7443 Derricks; cranes etc. 7489 Parts, n.e.s., for the articles of group 748 1 8 8 1 6474431 Overhead travelling cranes on fixed support 1 1 8 4 32 749 NON-ELECT MACH.PARTS,ETC74432 Mobile lifting frames on tyres and straddle carriers 1 1 8 4 32 7491 Mouldngs for mtl.foundry Other overhead travelling cranes, transporter cranes, 74911 Moulding boxes for metal foundry 1 4 2 8 64 1 1 8 4 3274433 gantry cranes, brid 74912 Mould bases 1 4 2 8 6474434 Tower cranes 1 1 8 4 32 74913 Moulding patterns 1 4 2 8 6474435 Portal or pedestal jib cranes 1 1 8 4 32 Injection- or compression-types of moulds for 1 4 2 8 6474437 Other machinery, self-propelled 1 1 8 4 32 74914 metals or metal carbides74439 Other machinery, not self-propelled 1 1 8 4 32 74915 Other moulds for metals or metal carbides 1 4 2 8 647444 Jacks,hoists for vehicle 74916 Moulds for glass 1 4 2 8 6474441 Built-in jacking systems of a type used in garages 1 1 8 4 32 74917 Moulds for mineral materials 1 4 2 8 6474443 Other jacks and hoists, hydraulic 1 1 8 4 32 Injection- or compression-types of moulds for 1 4 2 8 6474449 Other jacks and hoists 1 1 8 1 8 74918 rubber or plastics7447 Goods etc.elevators etc. 74919 Other moulds for rubber or plastics 1 4 2 8 6474471 Pneumatic elevators and conveyors 1 1 8 4 32 Gaskets and similar joints of metal sheeting 1 1 1 1 1 Other continuous-action elevators and conveyors, 7492 combined with other material 1 1 8 4 3274472 specially designed for u 7499 Mach parts,non-elect nes Other continuous-action elevators and conveyors, 74991 Ships or boats propellers and blades therefor 1 1 8 8 64 1 1 8 4 3274473 bucket-type Other machinery parts, not containing electrical 1 1 8 4 32 Other continuous-action elevators and conveyors, 74999 connectors, insulators, 1 1 8 4 3274474 belt-type 75 OFFICE MACHINES,ADP MACH Continuous-action elevators and conveyors for 751 OFFICE MACHINES 1 1 8 4 3274479 goods or materials, n.e.s. 7511 Typewritrs,wd-proc machs7448 Lifting etc.machines nes 75113 Automatic typewriters; word processing machines 2 2 8 1 3274481 Lifts and skip hoists 2 1 8 2 32 75115 Other electric typewriters, < 12 kg (excluding case) 2 2 8 1 3274485 Escalators and moving walkways 2 1 8 2 32 75116 Other electric typewriters 2 2 8 1 32 Other lifting, handling, loading or unloading 75118 Non-electric typewriters, < 12 kg (excluding case) 2 2 8 1 32 1 1 8 2 1674489 machinery 75119 Other non-electric typewriters 2 2 8 1 327449 Parts,hoists,lifts equip 7512 Calculatng,acctg,etc.mch Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the Electronic calculators capable of operation without 1 8 8 2 128 2 2 8 1 3274491 machinery of subgro 75121 an external source of Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the 75122 Other calculating machines 2 2 8 1 32 1 8 8 2 12874492 machinery of headin Accounting machines (including bookkeeping 2 2 8 1 3274493 Parts of lifts, skip hoists or escalators 1 8 8 2 128 75123 machines) Parts of other lifting, handling, loading or unloading 75124 Cash registers 2 2 8 1 32 1 8 8 2 12874494 machinery of subgr Postage-franking, ticket-issuing and similar 2 2 8 1 32745 OTH.NONELEC MCH,TOOL,NES 75128 machines, incorporating a ca7451 Non-elec hand tool,parts 7513 Photo,thermocopy apparat74511 Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic 8 1 8 1 64 Electrostatic photocopying apparatus operating by 2 2 8 1 32 Tools for working in the hand, with self-contained 75131 reproducing the origina 8 1 8 1 6474512 non-electric motor Electrostatic photocopying apparatus operating by 2 2 8 1 3274519 Parts of the tools of subgroup 745.1 8 8 8 1 512 75132 reproducing the origina7452 Indus washng,bottlng mch Non-electrostatic photocopying apparatus 2 2 8 1 3274521 Dishwashing machines (other than household-type) 1 1 8 1 8 75133 incorporating an optical system Machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other Non-electrostatic photocopying apparatus of the 1 1 8 1 8 2 2 8 1 3274523 containers 75134 contact type74527 Other packing or wrapping machinery 1 1 8 1 8 75135 Thermocopying apparatus 2 2 8 1 32 7519 Other office machine nes 49
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product75191 Duplicating machines 2 2 8 1 32 7723 Electric resistors,parts Addressing machines and address-plate embossing 77231 Fixed carbon resistors, composition- or film-type 1 1 8 1 8 2 2 8 1 3275192 machines 77232 Other fixed resistors 1 1 8 1 8 Machines for sorting or folding mail or for inserting Wire-wound variable resistors (including rheostats 2 2 8 1 32 1 1 8 1 875193 mail in envelopes o 77233 and potentiometers)75199 Office machines, n.e.s. 2 2 8 1 32 Other variable resistors (including rheostats and 1 1 8 1 8752 AUTOMATC.DATA PROC.EQUIP 77235 potentiometers) Analogue or hybrid (analogue-digital) data 77238 Parts for the electrical resistors of subgroup 772.3 1 8 8 1 64 2 2 8 1 327521 processing machines 7724 Switch.apparatus,1000v+ Digital automatic data processing machines, 77241 Fuses for a voltage exceeding 1,000 V 1 1 8 1 8 2 2 8 1 327522 containing in the same housin Automatic circuit-breakers for a voltage exceeding 1 1 8 1 8 Digital processing units, whether or not presented 77242 1,000 V but less than 2 2 8 1 327523 with the rest of a sys 77243 Other automatic circuit-breakers 1 1 8 1 8 Input or output units for automatic data processing 77244 Isolating switches and make-and-break switches 1 1 8 1 8 2 2 8 1 327526 machines, whether or Lightning arresters, voltage limiters and surge 1 1 8 1 8 Storage units, whether or not presented with the rest 77245 suppressors for a voltage 2 2 8 1 327527 of a data processin Other electrical apparatus for switching or 1 1 8 1 87529 Data processing equipment, n.e.s. 2 2 8 1 32 77249 protecting electrical circuit759 PARTS,FOR OFFICE MACHINS 7725 Switch.apparatus,<1000v Parts and accessories of the photocopying and 77251 Fuses for a voltage not exceeding 1,000 V 1 1 8 1 8 2 8 8 1 1287591 thermocopying apparatus of Automatic circuit-breakers for a voltage not 1 1 8 1 87599 Parts,data proc. etc.mch 77252 exceeding 1,000 V Parts and accessories of the machines of subgroup Other apparatus for protecting electrical circuits, for 2 8 8 1 128 1 1 8 1 875991 751.1 (other than cover 77253 a voltage not exc Parts and accessories of the machines of subgroup 77254 Relays for a voltage not exceeding 1,000 V 1 1 8 1 8 2 8 8 1 12875993 751.9 (other than cover 77255 Other switches for a voltage not exceeding 1,000 V 1 1 8 1 8 Parts and accessories of the electronic calculating 77257 Lamp-holders 1 1 8 1 8 2 8 8 1 12875995 machines of subgroup 77258 Plugs and sockets 1 1 8 1 8 Parts and accessories for the machines of group 752 Other electrical apparatus for switching or 2 8 8 1 128 1 1 8 1 875997 (other than covers, c 77259 protecting electrical circuit76 TELECOMM.SOUND EQUIP ETC 7726 Elec.control panels etc.761 TELEVISION RECEIVERS ETC Boards, panels (including numerical control panels), 1 1 8 1 8 Television receivers, colour (including video 77261 consoles, desks, cab 4 2 8 1 647611 monitors and video projecto Boards, panels (including numerical control panels), 1 1 8 1 8 Television receivers, black and white or other 77262 consoles, desks, cab 4 2 8 2 1287612 monochrome (including vide 7728 Parts,electrc.panels etc762 RADIO-BROADCAST RECEIVER Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and other 1 8 8 1 647621 Motor veh.radio receiver 77281 bases for the goods o Radio-broadcast receivers not capable of operating Other parts suitable for use solely or principally 2 2 8 1 32 1 8 8 1 6476211 without an external so 77282 with the apparatus fal Radio-broadcast receivers not capable of operating 773 ELECTR DISTRIBT.EQPT NES 2 2 8 1 3276212 without an external so 7731 Insultd wire,etc.condctr7622 Portable radio receivers 77311 Winding wire 1 1 1 1 1 Radio-broadcast receivers capable of operating 77312 Co-axial cable and other co-axial conductors 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 8 1 3276221 without an external source Ignition wiring sets and other wiring sets of a kind 1 1 2 1 2 Radio-broadcast receivers capable of operating 77313 used in vehicles, ai 2 2 8 1 3276222 without an external source Other electric conductors, for a voltage not 1 1 1 1 17628 Other radio receivers 77314 exceeding 80 V Other radio-broadcast receivers (including Other electric conductors, for a voltage exceeding 2 2 8 1 32 1 1 1 1 176281 apparatus capable of receiving 77315 80 V but not exceeding Other radio-broadcast receivers (including Other electric conductors, for a voltage exceeding 2 2 8 1 32 1 1 1 1 176282 apparatus capable of receiving 77317 1,000 V Other radio-broadcast receivers (including 77318 Optical fibre cables 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 8 1 3276289 apparatus capable of receiving 7732 Electrc.insulating equip763 SOUND RECORDER,PHONOGRPH 77322 Electrical insulators of glass 1 1 2 1 27633 Turntables,record player 77323 Electrical insulators of ceramics 1 1 2 1 276331 Record-players, coin- or disc-operated 4 2 8 1 64 Electrical insulators of materials other than glass or 1 1 2 1 276333 Other record-players 2 2 8 1 32 77324 ceramics76335 Turntables (record-decks) 2 2 8 1 32 Insulating fittings for electrical machines, 1 1 2 1 27638 Sound,video recordng etc 77326 appliances or equipment, bei Video-recording or reproducing apparatus, whether Insulating fittings for electrical machines, 2 2 8 1 32 1 1 2 1 276381 or not incorporating a 77328 appliances or equipment, bei76382 Transcribing machines 2 2 8 1 32 Insulating fittings for electrical machines, 1 1 2 1 276383 Other sound-reproducing apparatus 2 2 8 1 32 77329 appliances or equipment, bei Sound-recording apparatus, whether or not 774 ELECTRO-MEDCL,XRAY EQUIP 2 2 8 1 3276384 incorporating a sound-reproduci 7741 Electro-medical equipmnt764 TELECOMM.EQUIP.PARTS NES 77411 Electrocardiographs 1 1 8 2 167641 Line telephone etc.equip Other electrodiagnostic apparatus (including 1 1 8 2 1676411 Telephone sets 8 4 8 1 256 77412 apparatus for functional exp76413 Teleprinters 2 2 8 2 64 77413 Ultraviolet or infrared ray apparatus 1 1 8 2 1676415 Telephonic or telegraphic switching apparatus 1 2 8 2 32 7742 X-ray apparatus etc.part76417 Other apparatus, for carrier-current line systems 1 2 8 2 32 Apparatus based on the use of X-rays, whether or 1 1 8 4 3276419 Other telephonic or telegraphic apparatus 1 2 8 2 32 77421 not for medical, surgica7642 Microph.loudspkrs.amplif Apparatus based on the use of alpha, beta or gamma 1 1 8 4 3276421 Microphones and stands therefor 2 2 8 1 32 77422 radiations, whether or76422 Loudspeakers, mounted in their enclosures 2 2 8 1 32 77423 X-ray tubes 1 1 8 4 3276423 Loudspeakers, not mounted in their enclosures 2 2 8 1 32 Other apparatus based on the use of alpha, beta or 1 1 8 4 32 Headphones, earphones and combined 77429 gamma radiations, whet 8 2 8 1 12876424 microphone/speaker sets 775 DOM.ELEC,NON-ELEC.EQUIPT76425 Audio-frequency electric amplifiers 1 1 8 1 8 7751 Household laundry equipt76426 Electric sound amplifier sets 1 1 8 1 8 Household- or laundry-type washing machines 4 2 8 1 647643 TV,radio transmittrs etc 77511 (including machines which bot76431 Transmission apparatus 1 1 8 1 8 Clothes-drying machines, each of a dry linen 4 2 8 1 64 Transmission apparatus incorporating reception 77512 capacity not exceeding 10 kg 1 1 8 1 876432 apparatus 7752 Dom.refrigeratrs,freezrs7648 Telecommun.equipment,nes Refrigerators, household-type (electric or other), 4 2 8 1 64 Reception apparatus for radio-telephony or radio- 77521 whether or not contain 1 1 8 2 1676481 telegraphy, n.e.s. 77522 Deep-freezes, household-type (electric or other) 4 2 8 1 6476482 Television cameras 4 2 8 1 64 7753 Dishwashing machines of the household type 4 2 8 1 64 Radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus 7754 Elec.shavers,clipprs,pts 2 2 8 2 6476483 and radio remote contro 77541 Shavers with self-contained electric motor 4 2 8 1 647649 Parts,telecommun. equipt 77542 Hair clippers with self-contained electric motor 4 2 8 1 64 Parts and accessories suitable for use solely or Parts for shavers and hair clippers with self- 1 8 8 1 64 4 2 8 1 6476491 principally with the app 77549 contained electric motor Parts and accessories suitable for use solely or 7757 Dom.elect-mechanicl appl 1 8 8 1 6476492 principally with apparat Vacuum cleaners and floor-polishers, 4 2 8 1 64 Parts and accessories suitable for use solely or 77571 electromechanical, domestic, with se 1 8 8 1 6476493 principally with the app Food grinders and mixers; fruit or vegetable juice 4 2 8 1 64 Parts and accessories suitable for use solely or 77572 extractors, electromec 1 8 8 1 6476499 principally with the app Other electromechanical domestic appliances, with 4 2 8 1 6477 ELEC MCH APPAR,PARTS,NES 77573 self-contained electric771 ELECT POWER MACHNY.PARTS Parts of the electromechanical domestic appliances 4 8 8 1 2567711 Transformers, electrical 77579 falling within subgrou77111 Liquid dielectric transformers 1 1 8 4 32 7758 Electro-thermic appl nes77119 Other electrical transformers 1 1 8 4 32 Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters and 2 1 8 1 167712 Oth.elec power mach,part 77581 immersion heaters77121 Static converters (e.g., rectifiers) 1 1 8 4 32 Electric space-heating apparatus and electric soil- 2 1 8 1 1677123 Ballasts for discharge lamps or tubes 1 1 8 4 32 77582 heating apparatus77125 Other inductors 1 1 8 4 32 Electrothermic hairdressing or hand-drying 2 1 8 1 1677129 Parts of the electric power machinery of group 771 1 8 8 4 256 77583 apparatus772 ELEC.SWITCH.RELAY.CIRCUT 77584 Electric smoothing-irons 2 1 8 1 167722 Printed circuits 1 1 8 1 8 77585 Electric blankets 2 1 8 1 16 50
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product Microwave ovens; other ovens; cookers, cooking 78229 Other special-purpose motor vehicles 1 1 8 4 32 4 1 8 1 3277586 plates, boiling rings, gri 783 ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES NES77587 Electrothermic domestic appliances, n.e.s. 2 1 8 1 16 7831 Pub-transport pass vehcl77588 Electric heating resistors (other than of carbon) 2 1 8 1 16 Motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more 4 1 8 2 64 Parts of the electrothermic appliances of subgroup 78311 persons, including the dr 2 1 8 1 1677589 775.8 Other motor vehicles for the transport of ten or 4 1 8 2 64776 TRANSISTORS,VALVES,ETC. 78319 more persons, including7761 TV picture tubes,CRT,etc 7832 Road tractors for semi-trailers 4 1 8 2 64 Television picture tubes, cathode-ray (including 784 PARTS,TRACTORS,MOTOR VEH 1 1 8 2 1677611 video monitor cathode-ra Chassis fitted with engines, for the motor vehicles 1 4 4 1 16 Television picture tubes, cathode-ray (including 7841 of groups 722, 781, 7 1 1 8 2 1677612 video monitor cathode-ra 7842 Motor vehicle bodies7762 Oth.electronc valv,tubes Bodies (including cabs), for the motor vehicles of 4 4 8 1 128 Television camera tubes; image converters and 78421 group 781 1 1 8 2 1677621 intensifiers; other photoca Bodies (including cabs), for the motor vehicles of 4 4 8 1 12877623 Other cathode-ray tubes 1 1 8 2 16 78425 groups 722, 782 and 7877625 Microwave tubes (excluding grid-controlled tubes) 1 1 8 2 16 7843 Other parts,motor vehicl77627 Other valves and tubes 1 1 8 2 16 Bumpers and parts thereof, of the motor vehicles of 4 4 4 1 64 Parts of the tubes and valves of subgroups 776.1 78431 groups 722, 781, 782 1 8 8 2 12877629 and 776.2 Other parts and accessories of bodies (including 4 4 4 1 647763 Diodes,transistors etc. 78432 cabs), of the motor vehi Diodes, other than photosensitive or light-emitting Brakes and servo-brakes and parts thereof, of the 2 1 8 1 16 1 2 8 1 1677631 diodes 78433 motor vehicles of group Transistors (excluding photosensitive transistors) Gearboxes of the motor vehicles of groups 722, 1 1 8 1 8 1 2 8 1 1677632 with a dissipation rat 78434 781, 782 and 783 Transistors (excluding photosensitive transistors) Drive-axles with differential, whether or not 1 1 8 1 8 1 2 8 1 1677633 with a dissipation rat 78435 provided with other transmi Thyristors, diacs and triacs (excluding Non-driving axles and parts thereof, of the motor 1 1 8 1 8 1 2 4 1 877635 photosensitive devices) 78436 vehicles of groups 722, Photosensitive semiconductor devices; light- Other parts and accessories of the motor vehicles of 1 1 8 1 8 2 4 4 1 3277637 emitting diodes 78439 groups 722, 781, 78277639 Other semiconductor devices 1 1 8 1 8 785 CYCLES,MOTORCYCLES ETC.7764 Electronic microcircuits 7851 Motorcycles etc.77641 Digital monolithic integrated units 1 1 8 1 8 Motor cycles (including mopeds) and cycles fitted 8 4 8 1 25677643 Non-digital monolithic integrated units 1 1 8 1 8 78511 with an auxiliary motor77645 Hybrid integrated circuits 1 1 8 1 8 Motor cycles and cycles fitted with an auxiliary 8 4 8 1 256 Other electronic integrated circuits and 78513 motor, with or without s 1 1 8 1 877649 microassemblies Motor cycles and cycles fitted with an auxiliary 8 4 8 1 2567768 Elctrn comp pts,crystals 78515 motor, with or without s77681 Piezoelectric crystals, mounted 1 1 8 1 8 Motor cycles and cycles fitted with an auxiliary 8 4 8 1 256 Parts of the devices of subgroup 776.3 and of the 78516 motor, with or without s 1 8 8 1 6477688 mounted piezoelectric c Motor cycles and cycles fitted with an auxiliary 8 4 8 1 25677689 Parts of the articles of subgroup 776.4 1 8 8 1 64 78517 motor, with or without s778 ELECTRIC.MACH.APPART.NES Other motor cycles (including mopeds) and cycles 8 4 8 1 2567781 Batteries,accumulators 78519 fitted with an auxiliary77811 Primary cells and primary batteries 1 2 8 1 16 Bicycles and other cycles (including delivery 8 4 8 1 25677812 Electric accumulators (storage batteries) 1 2 8 1 16 7852 tricycles), not motorized77817 Parts of primary cells and primary batteries 1 1 8 1 8 7853 Invalid carriages,parts77819 Parts of electric accumulators 1 1 8 1 8 Invalid carriages, whether or not motorized or 2 4 8 2 1287782 Electric lamps,bulbs etc 78531 otherwise mechanically pro Filament lamps (other than flash bulbs, infrared and Parts and accessories of motor cycles (including 2 1 8 1 16 4 8 8 1 25677821 ultraviolet lamps an 78535 mopeds)77822 Discharge lamps (other than ultraviolet lamps) 2 1 8 1 16 78536 Parts and accessories of invalid carriages 2 8 8 1 12877823 Sealed-beam lamp units 2 1 8 1 16 78537 Parts and accessories of other vehicles of group 785 4 8 8 1 25677824 Ultraviolet or infrared lamps; arc lamps 2 1 8 1 16 786 TRAILERS,SEMI-TRAILR,ETC77829 Parts of the lamps of subgroup 778.2 2 1 8 1 16 Trailers and semi-trailers of the caravan type, for 4 2 8 2 1287783 Automotive electrc.equip 7861 housing or camping Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a kind 7862 Trailers,transport goods 1 1 8 1 877831 used for spark-igniti Self-loading or self-unloading trailers and semi- 1 1 8 2 1677833 Parts of the equipment of heading 778.31 1 8 8 1 64 78621 trailers for agricultura Electrical lighting or signalling equipment 78622 Tanker trailers and tanker semi-trailers 1 1 8 2 16 2 1 8 1 1677834 (excluding articles of subgro Other trailers and semi-trailers for the transport of 1 1 8 2 1677835 Parts of the equipment of heading 778.34 1 8 8 1 64 78629 goods7784 Electro-mech.hand tools Containers (including containers for the transport of 1 1 8 4 3277841 Drills of all kinds 8 1 8 1 64 7863 fluids) specially d77843 Saws 8 1 8 1 64 7868 Oth.nonmotr veh,trlr pts77845 Other tools 8 1 8 1 64 78683 Trailers and semi-trailers, n.e.s. 1 2 8 2 32 Parts of the electromechanical hand tools of 78685 Vehicles, not mechanically-propelled, n.e.s. 1 2 8 2 32 2 8 4 1 6477848 subgroup 778.4 Parts of the trailers and semi-trailers of heading 1 8 8 2 1287786 Electrical capacitors 78689 786.1, subgroup 786.2 Fixed capacitors designed for use in 50/60 Hz 79 OTHR.TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT 1 1 8 1 877861 circuits and having a react 791 RAILWAY VEHICLES.EQUIPNT77862 Tantalum fixed capacitors 1 1 8 1 8 7911 Elec.locos non-self-genr77863 Aluminium electrolytic fixed capacitors 1 1 8 1 8 Rail locomotives powered from an external source 2 1 8 2 3277864 Ceramic dielectric fixed capacitors, single layer 1 1 8 1 8 79111 of electricity77865 Ceramic dielectric fixed capacitors, multilayer 1 1 8 1 8 79115 Rail locomotives powered by electric accumulators 2 1 8 2 3277866 Paper or plastics dielectric fixed capacitors 1 1 8 1 8 7912 Othr.locomotives,tenders77867 Other fixed capacitors 1 1 8 1 8 79121 Diesel-electric locomotives 2 1 8 2 3277868 Variable or adjustable (pre-set) capacitors 1 1 8 1 8 79129 Rail locomotives, n.e.s.; locomotive tenders 2 1 8 2 3277869 Parts of electrical capacitors 1 1 8 1 8 Railway or tramway coaches, vans and trucks, self- 2 1 8 2 327787 Elec mch wth indiv funct 7916 propelled (other than m77871 Particle accelerators 1 1 8 8 64 Railway or tramway passenger coaches, not self- 2 1 8 2 32 Other electrical machines and apparatus, having 7917 propelled; luggage-vans, p 1 1 8 8 6477878 individual functions, n.e 7918 Rail,tram.frght cars etc Parts of the electrical machines and apparatus of Railway or tramway maintenance or service 1 8 8 8 512 2 1 8 2 3277879 subgroup 778.7 79181 vehicles, whether or not self-p7788 Elect machnery,equip,nes Railway or tramway goods vans and wagons 2 1 8 2 32 Electromagnets; permanent magnets and articles 79182 (freight cars), not self-propell 1 1 8 4 3277881 intended to become permane 7919 Rail.track fixtures,prts Electrical signalling, safety or traffic control Railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings; 1 1 8 2 16 1 1 8 1 877882 equipment for railways, 79191 mechanical (including ele77883 Parts of the equipment of heading 778.82 1 8 8 2 128 Parts of railway or tramway locomotives or rolling- 1 1 2 1 2 Electric sound or visual signalling apparatus (e.g., 79199 stock 1 1 8 1 877884 bells, sirens, indic 792 AIRCRAFT,ASSOCTD.EQUIPNT77885 Parts of the equipment of heading 778.84 1 8 8 1 64 7921 Helicopters Carbon electrodes, carbon brushes, lamp carbons, Helicopters, of an unladen weight not exceeding 1 1 8 4 32 2 1 8 4 6477886 battery carbons and othe 79211 2,000 kg77889 Electrical parts of machinery or apparatus, n.e.s. 1 8 8 4 256 Helicopters, of an unladen weight exceeding 2,000 2 1 8 4 6478 ROAD VEHICLES 79215 kg781 PASS.MOTOR VEHCLS.EX.BUS Aeroplanes or other, mechanically-propelled, of an 2 1 8 2 32 Vehicles specially designed for travelling on snow; 7922 unladen weight <= 2000 4 4 8 1 1287811 golf cars and similar Aeroplanes and other aircraft, mechanically- 2 1 8 4 647812 Motor vehicles for the transport of persons, n.e.s. 4 4 8 1 128 7923 propelled (other than helicop782 GOODS,SPCL TRANSPORT VEH Aeroplanes and other,mechanically-propelled, of an 2 1 8 4 647821 Goods vehicles 7924 unladen weight > 1500078211 Dumpers designed for off-highway use 1 1 8 2 16 Spacecraft (including satellites) and spacecraft 4 1 8 8 25678219 Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, n.e.s. 1 1 8 2 16 7925 launch vehicles7822 Special purpose vehicles Aircraft, n.e.s. (including dirigibles, balloons,78221 Crane lorries 1 1 8 4 32 7928 gliders, etc.) and associated equipment78223 Mobile drilling derricks 1 1 8 4 32 79281 Gliders and hang-gliders 2 2 4 2 3278225 Fire-fighting vehicles 1 1 8 4 32 79282 Balloons, dirigibles and other non-powered aircraft 2 2 4 4 6478227 Concrete-mixer lorries 1 1 8 4 32 51
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product Aircraft launching gear; deck-arrestor or similar 8311 Handbags,nes 1 1 8 2 1679283 gear; ground flying tra Handbags, whether or not with shoulder-strap 4 4 4 1 647929 Parts,nes,aircraft,equip 83111 (including those without han79291 Propellers and rotors and parts thereof 1 8 4 4 128 Handbags, whether or not with shoulder-strap 4 4 4 1 6479293 Undercarriages and parts thereof 1 8 8 2 128 83112 (including those without han79295 Other parts of aeroplanes or helicopters 1 8 8 4 256 Other handbags, whether or not with shoulder-strap 4 4 4 1 6479297 Other parts of the goods of group 792 1 8 8 4 256 83119 (including those witho793 SHIP,BOAT,FLOAT.STRUCTRS 8312 Trunks, suit-cases,etc.7931 Yachts,sports vessls,etc Trunks, suitcases, vanity cases, executive cases, 4 4 4 1 64 Inflatable vessels (including rowing-boats and 83121 briefcases, school satc 2 2 4 1 1679311 canoes) Trunks, suitcases, vanity cases, executive cases, 4 4 4 1 64 Sailboats, not inflatable, with or without auxiliary 83122 briefcases, school satc 4 2 8 2 12879312 motor Trunks, suitcases, vanity cases, executive cases, 4 4 4 1 64 Non-inflatable rowing-boats and canoes and vessels 83129 briefcases, school satc 2 2 4 1 1679319 for pleasure or sport, Travel sets for personal toilet, sewing or shoe or 4 2 4 1 327932 Ships,boats,othr.vessels 8313 clothes cleaning79322 Tankers of all kinds 1 1 8 8 64 8319 Travel goods nes Fishing vessels; factory ships and other vessels for Articles of a kind normally carried in the pocket or 1 1 8 4 32 2 2 4 1 1679324 processing or preser 83191 handbag79326 Refrigerated vessels (other than tankers) 1 1 8 4 32 83199 Other travel goods, handbags and similar containers 4 4 4 1 64 Other vessels for the transport of goods (including 84 CLOTHING AND ACCESSORIES 1 1 8 4 3279327 vessels for the trans 841 MENS,BOYS CLOTHNG,X-KNIT Cruise ships, excursion boats and similar vessels 8411 Overcoats,outerwear,etc. 4 1 8 8 25679328 principally designed fo Overcoats, raincoats, car coats, capes, cloaks and 4 4 4 1 64 Other vessels (including warships and lifeboats 84111 similar articles, men 1 1 8 8 6479329 other than rowing-boats) Overcoats, raincoats, car coats, capes, cloaks and 4 4 4 1 647933 Vessels and other floating structures for breaking up 1 1 8 4 32 84112 similar articles, men7935 Spec.purpose vessels etc Other outer garments, n.e.s., mens or boys (not of 4 4 4 1 6479351 Dredgers 1 1 8 8 64 84119 841.2, heading 841.3 Floating or submersible drilling or production 8412 Suits and ensembles 1 1 8 8 6479355 platforms Suits, mens or boys, of wool or fine animal hair, 4 4 4 2 128 Light vessels, fire-floats, floating cranes and other 84121 not knitted or croche 1 1 8 4 3279359 vessels, n.e.s., th Suits, mens or boys, of textile materials other than 4 4 4 2 1287937 Tugs and pusher craft 1 1 8 4 32 84122 wool or fine anima7939 Othr.floating structures Ensembles, mens or boys (not of 845.2), of textile 4 4 4 2 12879391 Rafts, inflatable 1 1 8 1 8 84123 materials, not knitt79399 Floating structures, n.e.s. 1 1 8 4 32 Jackets and blazers, mens or boys, of textile 4 4 4 1 648 MISC MANUFACTURED ARTCLS 8413 materials, not knitted or81 PREFAB BUILDGS,FTTNG ETC Trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and 4 4 4 1 64811 PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS 8414 shorts, mens or boys, of8110 Prefabricated buildings 8415 Shirts812 PLUMBNG,SANITRY,EQPT.ETC Shirts, mens or boys, of cotton, not knitted or 4 4 4 1 648121 Boilrs.radiatrs,etc.n.el 84151 crocheted81211 Radiators and parts thereof 1 1 4 2 8 8416 Underwear,nightwear etc.81215 Air heaters and hot-air distributors and parts thereof 1 1 4 2 8 Underpants and briefs, mens or boys, not knitted or 4 4 4 1 64 Central heating boilers (other than those of group 84161 crocheted 1 1 4 8 3281217 711) Nightshirts and pyjamas, mens or boys, not knitted 4 4 4 1 6481219 Parts for the boilers of heading 812.17 1 8 1 8 64 84162 or crocheted8122 Ceramic plumbng fixtures Other underwear and nightwear, mens or boys, not 4 4 4 1 64 Ceramic sinks, wash-basins, wash-basin pedestals, 84169 knitted or crocheted 2 2 2 2 1681221 baths, bidets, water-cl 842 WOMEN,GIRL CLOTHNG,XKNIT Ceramic sinks, wash-basins, wash-basin pedestals, 8421 Overcoats,oth.coats etc. 2 2 2 2 1681229 baths, bidets, water-cl Overcoats, raincoats, car coats, capes, cloaks and 4 4 4 1 64813 LIGHTNG FIXTURES ETC.NES 84211 similar articles, wome8131 Lamps,light fittings nes Other outer garments, n.e.s., womens or girls, of 4 4 4 1 64 Chandeliers and other electric ceiling and wall 84219 textile materials (no 4 2 8 4 25681311 lighting fittings (exclud 8422 Suits and ensembles Portable electric lamps designed to function by their Suits, womens or girls, of textile materials, not 4 2 8 1 64 4 4 4 2 12881312 own source of energ 84221 knitted or crocheted81313 Electric table, desk, bedside or floor-standing lamps 4 2 8 2 128 Ensembles, womens or girls, of textile materials, 4 4 4 2 12881315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings, n.e.s. 4 2 8 2 128 84222 not knitted or croche81317 Non-electrical lamps and lighting fittings 4 2 8 2 128 Jackets and blazers, womens or girls, of textile 4 4 4 1 64 Illuminated signs, illuminated name-plates and the 8423 materials, not knitted 4 2 4 8 2568132 like Dresses, womens or girls, of textile materials, not 4 4 4 1 64 Parts of the portable electric lamps of heading 8424 knitted or crochete 2 8 1 8 1288138 813.12 (excl. storage bat Skirts and divided skirts, womens or girls, of 4 4 4 1 648139 Parts,light fittng,signs 8425 textile materials, not k Parts, n.e.s., of the goods of subgroup 813.1 and of Trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and 2 8 1 8 128 4 4 4 1 6481391 heading 813.2, of gl 8426 shorts, womens or girls, Parts, n.e.s., of the goods of subgroup 813.1 and Blouses, shirts and shirt-blouses, womens or girls, 2 8 1 8 128 4 4 4 1 6481392 heading 813.2, of plast 8427 of textile material Parts, n.e.s., of the goods of subgroup 813.1 and 8428 Underwear,nightwear etc. 2 8 1 8 12881399 heading 813.2, of mater Slips and petticoats, womens or girls, of textile 4 4 4 1 6482 FURNITURE,BEDDING,ETC. 84281 materials, not knitte821 FURNITURE,CUSHIONS,ETC. Nightdresses and pyjamas, womens or girls, of 4 4 4 1 648211 Convertible seats,parts 84282 textile materials, not kn82111 Seats of a kind used for aircraft 4 2 8 4 256 Other underwear and nightwear, womens or girls, 4 4 4 1 6482112 Seats of a kind used for motor vehicles 4 2 8 1 64 84289 of textile materials, n Seats of cane, osier, bamboo or similar materials, 843 MENS,BOYS CLOTHING,KNIT 4 2 4 2 6482113 whether or not upholst Overcoats, car coats, capes, cloaks, anoraks 4 4 4 1 6482114 Swivel seats with variable height adjustment 4 2 4 2 64 8431 (including ski jackets), win Seats, other than garden seats or camping 8432 Suits,jackts,trousrs.etc 4 2 4 2 6482115 equipment, convertible into bed Suits, mens or boys, of knitted or crocheted textile 4 4 4 2 12882116 Seats, n.e.s., with wooden frames 4 2 4 2 64 84321 materials82117 Seats, n.e.s., with metal frames 4 2 4 2 64 Ensembles, mens or boys, of knitted or crocheted 4 4 4 2 12882118 Other seats 4 2 4 2 64 84322 textile materials (not82119 Parts of the seats of subgroup 821.1 2 8 1 8 128 Jackets and blazers, mens or boys, of knitted or 4 4 4 1 648212 Mattresses, etc. 84323 crocheted textile mate82121 Mattress supports 2 2 2 1 8 Trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and 4 4 4 1 6482123 Mattresses of cellular rubber or plastics 2 2 4 1 16 84324 shorts, mens or boys, of82125 Mattresses of other materials 2 2 4 1 16 8437 Shirts,mens boys,knit82127 Sleeping-bags 4 2 4 1 32 84371 Shirts, mens or boys, knitted or crocheted of cotton 4 4 4 1 6482129 Other articles of bedding 2 2 4 1 16 Shirts, mens or boys, knitted or crocheted of textile 4 4 4 1 648213 Metal furniture nes 84379 materials other t82131 Furniture, n.e.s., of metal, of a kind used in offices 4 2 4 2 64 8438 Underwear,nightwear etc. Other furniture, n.e.s., of metal, other than of a kind Underpants and briefs, mens or boys, knitted or 4 2 4 2 64 4 4 4 1 6482139 used in offices 84381 crocheted of textile ma8215 Furniture,nes,of wood Nightshirts and pyjamas, mens or boys, knitted or 4 4 4 1 6482151 Furniture, n.e.s., of wood, of a kind used in offices 4 2 4 2 64 84382 crocheted of textile Furniture, n.e.s., of wood, of a kind used in the Other underwear and nightwear, mens or boys, 4 2 4 2 64 4 4 4 1 6482153 kitchen 84389 knitted or crocheted of te Furniture, n.e.s., of wood, of a kind used in the 844 WOMEN,GIRLS CLOTHNG.KNIT 4 2 4 2 6482155 bedroom Overcoats, car coats, capes, cloaks, anoraks 4 4 4 1 6482159 Furniture, n.e.s., of wood 4 2 4 2 64 8441 (including ski jackets), win8217 Furniture nes,othr.matrl 8442 Suits,dresses skirts etc82171 Furniture, n.e.s., of plastics 4 2 4 2 64 Suits, womens or girls, knitted or crocheted of 4 4 4 2 128 Furniture, n.e.s., of other materials (including 84421 textile materials 4 2 4 2 6482179 bamboo) Ensembles, womens or girls, knitted or crocheted 4 4 4 2 128 Parts of the furniture of subgroups 821.3, 821.5 and 84422 of textile materials 2 8 1 8 1288218 821.7 Jackets and blazers, womens or girls, knitted or 4 4 4 1 6483 TRAVEL GOODS,HANDBGS ETC 84423 crocheted of textile m831 TRUNK,SUIT-CASES,BAG,ETC 52
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product Dresses, womens or girls, knitted or crocheted of Headgear, n.e.s., of materials other than rubber or 4 4 4 2 128 4 4 4 1 6484424 textile materials 84849 plastics Skirts and divided skirts, womens or girls, knitted 85 FOOTWEAR 4 4 4 1 6484425 or crocheted of tex 851 FOOTWEAR Trousers, bib and brace overalls, breeches and 8511 Footwear,w.metal toe-cap 4 4 4 1 6484426 shorts, womens or girls, Waterproof footwear incorporating a protective 4 4 4 1 64 Blouses, shirts and shirt-blouses, womens or girls, 85111 metal toecap, with outer s 4 4 4 1 648447 knitted or crochete Footwear, non-waterproof, incorporating a 4 4 4 1 648448 Underwear, nightwear etc 85113 protective metal toecap, with o Slips and petticoats, womens or girls, knitted or Footwear, non-waterproof, incorporating a 4 4 4 1 64 4 4 4 1 6484481 crocheted of textile 85115 protective metal toecap, with o Briefs and panties, womens or girls, knitted or 8512 Sports footwear 4 4 4 1 6484482 crocheted of textile ma Ski boots and cross-country ski footwear, with outer 8 4 4 1 128 Nightdresses and pyjamas, womens or girls, 85121 soles and uppers of 4 4 4 1 6484483 knitted or crocheted of text Ski boots and cross-country ski footwear, with outer 8 4 4 1 128 Other underwear and nightwear, womens and girls, 85122 soles of rubber, pla 4 4 4 1 6484489 knitted or crocheted o Other sports footwear, with outer soles and uppers 8 4 4 1 128845 OTHR.TEXTILE APPAREL,NES 85123 of rubber or plastics8451 Babiesgarmnts,clths acc Other sports footwear, with outer soles of rubber, 8 4 4 1 128 Babies garments and clothing accessories, not 85124 plastics, leather or c 4 4 4 1 6484511 knitted or crocheted Tennis shoes, basketball shoes, gym shoes, training 8 4 4 1 128 Babies garments and clothing accessories, knitted 85125 shoes and the like an 4 4 4 1 6484512 or crocheted 8513 Footwear,nes,rubber,plst8452 Garment,felt,txtl fabric Other waterproof footwear with outer soles and 4 4 4 1 64 Garments made up of fabrics of subgroup 657.1 85131 uppers of rubber or of pla 4 4 4 1 6484521 (felt) or heading 657.2 (no Other footwear, n.e.s., with outer soles and uppers 4 4 4 1 64 Mens and boys garments made up of fabrics (not 85132 of rubber or plastics 4 4 4 1 6484522 knitted or crocheted) of 8514 Oth.footwear,lthr.uppers Womens or girls garments made up of fabrics (not Footwear with outer soles of leather and uppers 4 4 4 1 64 4 4 4 1 6484523 knitted or crocheted) 85141 which consist of leather Garments made up of knitted or crocheted fabrics of Footwear with uppers of leather or composition 4 4 4 1 64 4 4 4 1 6484524 headings 657.32, 657. 85142 leather, made on a base or Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats and similar Footwear, n.e.s., with uppers of leather or 4 4 4 1 64 4 4 4 1 648453 articles, knitted o 85148 composition leather and outer T-shirts, singlets and other vests, knitted or Footwear with uppers of leather or composition 4 4 4 1 64 4 4 4 1 648454 crocheted 85149 leather, n.e.s.8455 Brassieres,corsets,etc. 8515 Oth.footwear,textle uppr84551 Brassi res 4 4 4 1 64 Footwear with outer soles of rubber or plastics and 4 4 4 1 64 Girdles, corsets, braces, suspenders, garters and 85151 uppers of textile mat 4 4 4 1 6484552 similar articles Footwear with outer soles of leather or composition 4 4 4 1 648456 Swimwear 85152 leather and uppers of84561 Swimwear, mens or boys, not knitted or crocheted 4 4 4 1 64 85159 Footwear with uppers of textile materials, n.e.s. 4 4 4 1 6484562 Swimwear, mens or boys, knitted or crocheted 4 4 4 1 64 8517 Footwear, n.e.s. 4 4 4 1 64 Swimwear, womens or girls, not knitted or Parts of footwear (including uppers, whether or not 4 4 4 1 64 2 1 2 1 484563 crocheted 8519 attached to soles oth84564 Swimwear, womens or girls, knitted or crocheted 4 4 4 1 64 87 SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT NES8458 Oth.garments,not knitted 871 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS,NES84581 Ski suits, not knitted or crocheted 4 4 4 2 128 8711 Binoculars,telescope etc Articles of apparel, mens or boys, n.e.s., not 87111 Binoculars 4 1 4 2 32 4 4 4 1 6484587 knitted or crocheted Other astronomical instruments (excluding 2 1 4 4 32 Articles of apparel, womens or girls, n.e.s., not 87115 instruments for radio astronomy 4 4 4 1 6484589 knitted or crocheted Parts and accessories (including mountings), of 2 8 1 2 328459 Other garments knitted 87119 binoculars, telescopes, a84591 Track suits, knitted or crocheted 4 4 4 2 128 8713 Non-optic.microscope etc84592 Ski suits, knitted or crocheted 4 4 4 2 128 Microscopes (other than optical microscopes) and 1 1 8 4 3284599 Garments, knitted or crocheted, n.e.s. 4 4 4 1 64 87131 diffraction apparatus846 CLOTHING ACCESSRS,FABRIC Parts and accessories of microscopes (excl. optical 1 8 1 4 328461 Accessories,notknitted 87139 microscopes) and diff84611 Handkerchiefs, not knitted or crocheted 2 4 2 1 16 8714 Compnd optic.microscopes Shawls, scarves, mufflers, mantillas, veils and the 87141 Stereoscopic microscopes 1 1 8 4 32 2 4 2 1 1684612 like, not knitted or Other microscopes for photomicrography, 1 1 8 4 3284613 Ties, bow-ties and cravats, not knitted or crocheted 2 4 2 1 16 87143 cinephotomicrography or microproj84614 Gloves, mittens and mitts, not knitted or crocheted 4 4 4 1 64 87145 Microscopes, n.e.s. 1 1 8 4 32 Other made-up clothing accessories; parts of Parts and accessories of compound optical 2 4 2 1 16 1 8 4 4 12884619 garments or of clothing othe 87149 microscopes8462 Hosiery,etc.knitted 8719 Liq.crystal devcs;lasers84621 Pantihose and tights, knitted or crocheted 4 4 4 1 64 Telescopic sights for fitting to arms; periscopes; 1 1 4 4 16 Womens full-length or knee-length hosiery, 87191 telescopes designed to 4 4 4 1 6484622 measuring per single yarn les 87192 Lasers (other than laser diodes) 1 1 8 2 1684629 Other hosiery, knitted or crocheted 4 4 4 1 64 87193 Other optical devices, appliances and instruments 1 1 4 2 88469 Oth.made-up cloth.access Parts and accessories of the articles of subgroup 1 8 2 2 32 Gloves, knitted or crocheted of textile materials, 87199 871.9 4 4 4 1 6484691 impregnated, coated or 872 MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS NES Other gloves, mittens and mitts, knitted or 8721 Dental instruments nes 4 4 4 1 6484692 crocheted Dental drill engines, whether or not combined on a 1 1 8 2 16 Shawls, scarves, mufflers, mantillas, veils and the 87211 single base with other 2 4 2 1 1684693 like, knitted or croc 87219 Other dental instruments and appliances 1 1 4 1 484694 Ties, bow-ties and cravats, knitted or crocheted 2 4 2 1 16 8722 Othr.medical instruments Made-up clothing accessories, n.e.s.; parts of 87221 Syringes, needles, catheters, cannulae and the like 2 1 4 1 8 2 4 2 1 1684699 garments or of clothing ac 87225 Ophthalmic instruments and appliances, n.e.s. 1 1 8 4 32848 CLOTHNG,NONTXTL;HEADGEAR Other medical, surgical or veterinary instruments 1 1 4 1 48481 Leather apparel,accessrs 87229 and appliances Articles of apparel, of leather or of composition 8723 Theurapeutic apparatus 4 4 4 1 6484811 leather (not including Mechanotherapy appliances; massage apparatus; 8 1 8 2 128 Gloves, mittens and mitts, not designed for use in 87231 psychological aptitude-test 4 4 4 1 6484812 sports, of leather or Ozone therapy, oxygen therapy, aerosol therapy, 1 1 4 2 8 Belts and bandoliers, of leather or of composition 87233 artificial respiration or 4 4 2 1 3284813 leather Other breathing appliances and gas masks 1 1 4 2 8 Other clothing accessories, of leather or of 87235 (excluding protective masks havi 4 4 4 1 6484819 composition leather Medical, dental, surgical or veterinary furniture 1 1 8 2 168482 Plastc,rubbr,apparel,etc 8724 (e.g., operating tables Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, of 873 METERS,COUNTERS,NES 2 1 1 1 284821 plastics 8731 Gas,liquid,electr.meters84822 Rubber gloves 2 1 1 1 2 87311 Gas meters 1 1 8 1 8 Other articles of apparel and clothing accessories, 87313 Liquid meters 1 1 8 1 8 2 1 1 1 284829 for all purposes, of 87315 Electricity meters 1 1 8 1 88483 Articles,accessories.fur Parts and accessories of gas, liquid or electricity 1 8 1 1 884831 Articles of furskin 4 4 4 1 64 87319 meters84832 Artificial fur and articles thereof 4 4 4 1 64 8732 Rev.counters,meters etc.8484 Headgear,fittings,nes Revolution counters, production counters, 1 1 8 1 8 Felt hats and other felt headgear, made from the hat 87321 taximeters, mileometers, pedome 4 4 4 1 6484841 bodies, hoods or pla 87325 Speed indicators and tachometers; stroboscopes 1 1 8 1 8 Hats and other headgear, plaited or made by Parts and accessories of the articles of subgroup 4 4 4 1 64 1 1 8 1 884842 assembling strips of any mate 87329 873.2 Hats and other headgear, knitted or crocheted, or 874 MEASURE,CONTROL INSTRMNT 4 4 4 1 6484843 made up from lace, felt 8741 Compasses,survey instrmt84844 Safety headgear, whether or not lined or trimmed 8 4 4 2 256 Direction-finding compasses; other navigational 2 1 4 1 8 Headgear, n.e.s., of rubber or plastics, whether or 87411 instruments and appliance 4 4 4 1 6484845 not lined or trimmed Parts and accessories of navigational instruments 2 8 2 1 32 Headbands, linings, covers, hat foundations, hat 87412 and appliances 4 4 2 1 3284848 frames, peaks and chin-s Surveying (including photogrammetrical 1 1 8 4 32 87413 surveying), hydrographic, oceanogr 53
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product Parts and accessories for the articles of heading 883 CINE.FILM EXPOSD.DEVELPD 1 8 4 4 12887414 874.13 Cinematographic film, exposed and developed of 1 1 4 1 48742 Drawing,measurg.instrmnt 8831 35mm or more Drafting tables and machines, whether or not Cinematographic film, exposed and developed, with 2 1 4 2 16 1 1 4 1 487422 automatic, and other drawing 8839 or without sound Instruments for measuring length, for use in the 884 OPTICAL GOODS NES 2 1 1 1 287423 hand (e.g., measuring ro 8841 Optc.fibr.lens etc.unmnt Parts and accessories for the articles of heading 88411 Contact lenses 8 4 1 1 32 1 8 2 2 3287424 874.22 and 874.23 88415 Spectacle lenses of glass 8 4 1 1 32 Measuring or checking instruments, appliances and 88417 Spectacle lenses of other materials 8 4 1 1 32 1 1 8 2 1687425 machines, n.e.s.; profi Optical fibres and optical fibre bundles and cables; 1 1 1 1 1 Parts and accessories for the articles of heading 88419 sheets and plates of 1 1 4 2 887426 874.25 8842 Spectacles and frames8743 Gas,liq.meas.contrl.inst Frames and mountings for spectacles, goggles or the 4 4 4 4 256 Instruments and apparatus for measuring or 88421 like 1 1 8 4 3287431 checking the flow or level of Parts for frames and mountings of spectacles, 2 8 2 4 128 Instruments and apparatus for measuring or 88422 goggles or the like 1 1 8 4 3287435 checking the pressure of liqui Spectacles, goggles and the like, corrective, 4 4 4 4 256 Other instruments and apparatus for measuring 88423 protective or other 1 1 8 4 3287437 liquids or gases 8843 Lenses,prisms,etc.mountd Parts and accessories for the articles of subgroup Objective lenses for cameras, projectors or 1 8 4 4 128 1 1 1 1 187439 874.3 88431 photographic enlargers or red8744 Instruments,analysis etc 88432 Other objective lenses 1 1 1 1 187441 Gas or smoke analysis apparatus 1 1 8 4 32 88433 Filters 1 1 1 1 187442 Chromatographs and electrophoresis instruments 1 1 8 4 32 88439 Mounted optical elements, n.e.s. 1 1 1 1 1 Spectrometers, spectrophotometers and 885 WATCHES AND CLOCKS 1 1 8 4 3287443 spectrographs using optical radiati 8853 Watches,prec.metal cases87444 Exposure meters 1 1 8 4 32 Wrist-watches, battery or accumulator powered, 4 4 8 2 256 Other instruments and apparatus using optical 88531 whether or not incorporati 1 1 8 4 3287445 radiations (UV, visible, IR Other wrist-watches, whether or not incorporating a 4 4 8 2 256 Instruments and apparatus for physical or chemical 88532 stopwatch facility, w 1 1 8 4 3287446 analysis, n.e.s. Pocket watches and other watches (not wrist- 4 4 8 2 256 Microtomes; parts and accessories of the articles of 88539 watches), with case wholly or 1 1 4 4 1687449 subgroup 874.4 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl8745 Meas,contrl,sci inst.nes Wrist-watches, battery or accumulator powered, 4 4 8 2 256 Balances of a sensitivity of 5 cg or better, with or 88541 whether or not incorporati 1 1 8 2 1687451 without weights Other wrist-watches, whether or not incorporating a 4 4 8 2 256 Instruments, apparatus or models, designed for 88542 stopwatch facility, n 1 1 8 4 3287452 demonstrational purposes ( Pocket-watches and other watches (not wrist- 4 4 8 2 256 Machines and appliances for testing the hardness, 88549 watches), not of 885.39 1 1 8 4 3287453 strength, compressibili 8855 Watch movements,assembld Parts and accessories for the machines and Watch movements, battery or accumulator powered, 1 8 4 4 128 2 2 8 2 6487454 appliances of heading 874.53 88551 complete and assembled Hydrometers and similar floating instruments, Watch movements, neither battery nor accumulator 1 1 8 2 16 2 2 8 2 6487455 thermometers, pyrometers, b 88552 powered, complete and as Parts and accessories for the instruments of heading 8857 Clocks 1 8 4 2 6487456 874.55 Instrument panel clocks and clocks of a similar 2 2 8 2 648746 Automatic control instrt 88571 type, for vehicles, aircr87461 Thermostats 1 1 8 2 16 Clocks with watch movements (excluding clocks of 4 4 8 2 25687463 Pressure regulators and controllers (manostats) 1 1 8 4 32 88572 heading 885.71), battery Other regulating or controlling instruments and Other clocks with watch movements (excluding 1 1 8 2 16 4 4 8 2 25687465 apparatus 88573 clocks of heading 885.71) Parts and accessories for automatic regulating or Alarm clocks, battery, accumulator or mains 1 8 4 2 64 4 2 8 1 6487469 controlling instruments 88574 powered8747 Oscilloscopes, etc. 88575 Other alarm clocks 4 2 8 1 64 Instruments and apparatus for measuring or 88576 Wall clocks, battery, accumulator or mains powered 4 4 8 2 256 1 1 8 2 1687471 detecting ionizing radiations 88577 Other wall clocks 4 4 8 2 256 Cathode-ray oscilloscopes and cathode-ray Other clocks, battery, accumulator or mains 1 1 8 2 16 4 4 8 2 25687473 oscillographs 88578 powered Other instruments and apparatus, for measuring or 88579 Clocks, n.e.s. 4 4 8 2 256 1 1 8 1 887475 checking voltage, curre 8859 Time measuring equip.nes Other instruments and apparatus, specially designed 88591 Watch-cases and parts of watch-cases 4 4 2 2 64 1 1 8 2 1687477 for telecommunication Watch-straps, watchbands and watch bracelets, and 4 4 4 2 128 Other instruments and apparatus for measuring or 88592 parts thereof, of metal 1 1 8 2 1687478 checking electrical quan Watch-straps, watchbands and watch bracelets and 4 4 4 2 128 Parts and accessories for the instruments and 88593 parts thereof, of materi 1 8 4 2 6487479 apparatus of subgroup 874.7 Time-of-day recording apparatus and apparatus for Parts and accessories for machines, appliances, measuring, recording or otherwise indicating 1 8 4 2 648749 instruments and apparatus intervals of time, with clock or watch movement or 2 2 4 2 3288 PHOTO.APPARAT.NES;CLOCKS with synchronous motor (e.g., time-registers, time-881 PHOTOGRAPH APPAR.ETC.NES 88594 recorders)8811 Cameras,flash equipt,etc Time switches with clock or watch movements or 2 2 8 2 6488111 Photographic (other than cinematographic) cameras 4 2 8 1 64 88595 with synchronous motors88112 Flash bulbs; flash-cubes and the like 2 1 8 2 32 88596 Clock movements, complete and assembled 1 2 8 2 32 Photographic flashlight apparatus (other than the Clock cases and cases of a similar type for other 1 1 8 2 16 4 4 4 2 12888113 discharge lamps of subg 88597 goods of group 885, and Parts and accessories for the photographic cameras Complete watch or clock movements, unassembled 4 8 4 1 128 1 2 2 2 888114 of heading 881.11 88598 or partly assembled (movem Parts and accessories for photographic flashlight 88599 Clock or watch parts. n.e.s. 2 8 4 2 128 2 8 4 1 6488115 apparatus 89 MISC MANUFCTRD GOODS NES8812 Cine.cameras,project.etc 891 ARMS AND AMMUNITION Cinematographic cameras, whether or not 8911 Armd.fight.vehcl,weapons 4 2 8 1 6488121 incorporating sound recording app Tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles, 1 1 8 8 64 Cinematographic projectors, whether or not 89111 motorized, whether or not fit 4 2 8 1 6488122 incorporating sound reproducin Military weapons (other than revolvers, pistols and 1 1 8 4 32 Parts and accessories for the cinematographic 89112 the arms of heading 8 1 8 4 1 3288123 cameras of heading 881.21 Swords, cutlasses, bayonets, lances and similar 8 1 4 4 128 Parts and accessories for cinematographic 89113 arms, and parts thereof a 1 8 4 1 3288124 projectors 89114 Revolvers and pistols (not of 891.31) 1 1 8 2 168813 Photo,cine.equipment nes 8912 Bomb,mines,missl.amm.etc Microfilm, microfiche or other microform readers, Cartridges for riveting or similar tools or for 2 1 8 2 32 1 1 4 1 488131 whether or not capable 89121 captive-bolt humane kille88132 Image projectors, n.e.s. 2 1 8 2 32 89122 Cartridges for shotguns 1 1 4 1 4 Photographic (other than cinematographic) 89123 Airgun pellets and parts of cartridges for shotguns 1 1 4 1 4 1 1 4 2 888133 enlargers and reducers 89124 Other cartridges and parts thereof 1 1 4 1 4 Parts and accessories for the equipment of headings 89129 Munitions of war and parts thereof, n.e.s. 1 1 4 1 4 1 8 2 2 3288134 881.31 through 881.33 8913 Non-military arms Apparatus and equipment for photographic Firearms, n.e.s., and similar devices which operate 1 1 4 2 8 4 1 8 2 6488135 (including cinematographic) labo 89131 by the firing of an e Parts and accessories for the apparatus and Other arms (e.g., spring, air or other gas guns and 1 8 2 2 32 4 1 8 2 6488136 equipment of heading 881.35 89139 pistols, truncheons),882 PHOTO.CINEMATOGRPH.SUPPL 8919 Parts,accessor.of weapon Photographic plates and film in the flat, sensitized, 89191 Parts and accessories of revolvers or pistols 2 8 2 2 64 1 1 2 1 28822 unexposed, of any m 89193 Shotgun barrels of shotguns of heading 891.31 2 1 2 2 8 Photographic film in rolls, sensitized, unexposed, of 89195 Other parts of shotguns and rifles of heading 891.31 2 8 2 2 64 1 1 8 1 88823 any material other Parts and accessories, n.e.s., of the articles of 2 8 2 2 64 Photographic paper, paperboard and textiles, 89199 headings 891.12 and 891 1 1 8 1 88824 sensitized, unexposed 892 PRINTED MATTER Photographic plates, film, paper, exposed but not 8921 Printed books,globes etc 1 1 8 1 88825 developed 89212 Childrens picture, drawing or colouring books 1 2 4 2 16 Photographic plates and film, exposed and 89213 Maps and charts in book form 1 2 4 2 16 1 1 8 1 88826 developed, other than cinematog 54
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Responsiveness Customization Customization Value Score Value Score Complexity Complexity Volume VolumeID Product ID Product Maps and hydrographic or similar charts of all kinds 8959 Oth.office,statnry.suppl 1 2 1 2 489214 (including wall maps Slates and boards, with writing or drawing surfaces, 2 1 1 2 4 Printed books, brochures, leaflets and similar 89592 whether or not frame 1 2 4 2 1689215 printed matter, in single Date, sealing or numbering stamps, and the like 2 1 4 1 8 Dictionaries and encyclopaedias, and serial 89593 (including devices for pr 1 2 4 1 889216 instalments thereof, not in s Typewriter or similar ribbons, inked or otherwise 1 1 8 2 16 Other books, brochures and similar printed matter, 89594 prepared for giving imp 1 2 4 1 889219 not in single sheets 896 WORKS OF ART,ANTIQUE ETC8922 Newspaper,periodical,etc 8963 Original sculptures and statuary, in any material 4 1 4 8 128 Newspapers, journals and periodicals, whether or 897 GOLD,SILVERWARE,JEWL NES 1 8 4 1 3289221 not illustrated or conta 8972 Imitation jewellery Newspapers, journals and periodicals, whether or Imitation jewellery of base metal, whether or not 1 8 4 1 32 4 2 2 2 3289229 not illustrated or conta 89721 plated with precious me8924 Postcards,transfers etc. Imitation jewellery of other than non-precious 4 2 2 2 3289241 Transfers (decalcomanias) 1 2 2 2 8 89729 materials Printed or illustrated postcards, printed cards 8973 Gold,silver jewelry,ware 1 2 1 2 489242 bearing personal greeting Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of precious 4 4 2 4 1288928 Printed matter, nes 89731 metal or of metal cl Paper or paperboard labels of all kinds, whether or Articles of goldsmiths or silversmiths wares and 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 2 4 12889281 not printed 89732 parts thereof, of prec Plans and drawings for architectural, engineering, Articles of natural or cultured pearls or of precious 1 1 1 8 8 4 4 2 2 6489282 industrial, commercial 89733 or semiprecious sto Unused postage, revenue or similar stamps of 8974 Othr.articles,prec.metal 1 1 1 1 189283 current or new issue in the Catalysts in the form of wire cloth or grill, of 1 4 2 2 16 Calendars of any kind, printed (including calendar 89741 platinum or of other met 1 1 2 2 489284 blocks) Articles of precious metal or of metal clad with 4 4 2 2 64 Music, printed or in manuscript, whether or not 89749 precious metal, n.e.s. 1 1 2 2 489285 bound or illustrated 898 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS,ETC. Trade advertising material, commercial catalogues 8981 String musical instrumnt 1 2 2 4 1689286 and the like Pianos (including automatic pianos); harpsichords 4 2 8 4 25689287 Pictures, designs and photographs 1 2 1 1 2 89813 and other keyboard stri89289 Printed matter, n.e.s. 1 2 1 1 2 Other string musical instruments (e.g., guitars, 4 2 8 2 128893 ARTICLES,NES,OF PLASTICS 89815 violins, harps)8931 Plastic containers etc. 8982 Musical instruments nes89311 Sacks and bags (including cones), of plastics 2 1 1 1 2 Keyboard pipe-organs; harmoniums and similar 2 2 8 2 64 Articles for the conveyance or packing of goods, 89821 keyboard instruments with fr 2 1 1 1 289319 n.e.s., of plastics; sto 89822 Accordions and similar instruments; mouth-organs 2 2 8 2 648932 Buildersware, plastics Other wind musical instruments (e.g., clarinets, 2 2 4 4 64 Baths, shower-baths, wash-basins, bidets, lavatory 89823 trumpets, bagpipes) 2 2 2 2 1689321 pans, seats and covers Percussion musical instruments (e.g., drums, 2 2 4 4 6489329 Other builders ware of plastics 2 2 2 2 16 89824 xylophones, cymbals, castane8933 Plastic flr,wall,coverng Keyboard instruments (other than accordions), the 2 2 8 2 64 Floor coverings of plastics, whether or not self- 89825 sound of which is produ 2 2 4 1 1689331 adhesive, in rolls or in Musical instruments, n.e.s., the sound of which is 2 2 8 4 128 Tableware, kitchenware, other household articles 89826 produced or must be am 4 2 1 1 889332 and toilet articles, of Music boxes, fairground organs, mechanical street 2 2 8 4 1288939 Plastic articles nes 89829 organs, mechanical sing89394 Office or school supplies of plastics 2 2 4 1 16 8984 Magnetic tape,unrecorded Fittings for furniture, coachwork or the like, of Magnetic tapes for sound recording or similar 2 2 2 2 16 1 1 4 1 489395 plastics 89841 recording of other phenomen89399 Other articles of plastics 4 2 2 1 16 Magnetic tapes for sound recording or similar 1 1 4 1 4894 BABY CARRIAGE,TOYS,GAMES 89843 recording of other phenomen8941 Baby carriages and parts thereof, n.e.s. 4 2 4 1 32 Magnetic tapes for sound recording or similar 1 1 4 1 48942 Childrens toys 89845 recording of other phenomen Wheeled toys designed to be ridden by children 8985 Oth.blank recordng media 4 4 8 1 12889421 (e.g., tricycles, scooters 89851 Magnetic discs 1 1 4 1 4 Dolls representing only human beings, whether or 89859 Prepared unrecorded media, n.e.s. 1 1 4 1 4 4 4 4 1 6489422 not dressed 8986 Magnetic tapes, recorded Parts and accessories of dolls representing only Magnetic tapes, recorded, of a width not exceeding 2 4 2 1 16 1 1 4 1 489423 human beings 89861 4 mm89424 Construction sets and constructional toys 4 4 2 1 32 Magnetic tapes, recorded of a width exceeding 4 1 1 4 1 489425 Toys representing animals or non-human creatures 4 4 4 1 64 89865 mm but not exceeding 6.589426 Toy musical instruments and apparatus 4 4 4 1 64 Magnetic tapes, recorded, of a width exceeding 6.5 1 1 4 1 489427 Puzzles 4 2 2 1 16 89867 mm89429 Toys, n.e.s. 4 2 4 1 32 8987 Other recorded media8943 Funfair,table game artcl 89871 Gramophone records 1 1 2 4 8 Video games of a kind used with a television 89879 Recorded media, n.e.s. 1 1 4 1 4 2 2 8 1 3289431 receiver Parts and accessories of musical instruments (e.g., 2 8 2 1 3289433 Articles and accessories for billiards 2 2 1 2 8 8989 mechanisms for music Other games, coin- or disc-operated (not bowling 899 MISC MANUFCTRD GOODS NES 2 2 2 2 1689435 alley equipment) 8992 Artificial flowers etc.89437 Playing-cards 2 1 2 1 4 Artificial flowers, foliage or fruit and parts thereof; 4 1 2 2 1689439 Articles for funfair, table and parlour games, n.e.s. 2 2 2 1 8 89921 articles made of8944 Festive articles etc.nes Artificial flowers, foliage or fruit and parts thereof; 4 1 2 2 1689441 Lighting sets of a kind used for Christmas trees 2 2 8 1 32 89929 articles made of89445 Other articles for Christmas festivities 2 2 4 1 16 8993 Candles,matches,etc.89449 Other entertainment articles 2 2 4 1 16 89931 Candles, tapers and the like 2 2 1 1 4 Roundabouts, swings, shooting galleries and other Matches, other than pyrotechnical articles of 4 1 4 2 32 1 1 2 1 28946 fairground amusements, 89932 subgroup 593.38947 Sports goods Cigarette lighters and other lighters, whether or not 2 2 4 1 16 Fishing-rods, fish-hooks and other line tackle; fish- 89933 mechanical or elect 4 2 4 1 3289471 landing nets, butter Liquid or liquefied-gas fuels in containers of a kind 1 1 2 1 2 Ice-skates and roller-skates (including skating boots 89934 used for filling or 8 4 4 2 25689472 with skates attache 89935 Parts of lighters, n.e.s., other than flints and wicks 2 8 2 1 3289473 Snow-skis and other snow-ski equipment 8 4 2 2 128 Roughly shaped blocks of wood or root, for the 2 2 1 2 8 Water-skis, surfboards, sailboards and other water 89936 manufacture of pipes 8 4 2 2 12889474 sport equipment Smoking pipes (including pipe bowls) and cigar or 4 4 2 2 6489475 Golf equipment 8 4 4 2 256 89937 cigarette holders, and Tennis, badminton or similar rackets, whether or Ferrocerium and other pyrophoric alloys in all 8 4 4 2 256 2 2 2 2 1689476 not strung 89939 forms; metaldehyde, hexame Gloves, mittens and mitts, specially designed for 8994 Umbrellas,walking-sticks 8 4 4 2 25689477 use in sports Umbrellas and sun umbrellas (including walking- 2 2 4 2 32 Articles and equipment for general physical 89941 stick umbrellas, garden um 1 1 4 2 889478 exercise, gymnastics or athle Walking-sticks, seat-sticks, whips, riding crops and 4 4 4 2 12889479 Sports goods, n.e.s. 4 1 2 2 16 89942 the like895 OFFICE,STATIONERY SUPPLS Parts, trimmings and accessories of articles falling 2 8 2 2 648951 Base metal office suppls 89949 within heading 899.4 Filing cabinets, card index cabinets, paper trays, 8996 Artificial aids,disabled 2 1 1 1 289511 paper rests, pen trays 89961 Hearing-aids (excluding parts and accessories) 8 4 8 1 256 Fittings for loose-leaf binders or files, letter clips, 89963 Orthopaedic or fracture appliances 8 4 4 2 256 2 1 1 1 289512 letter corners, p 89965 Artificial teeth and dental fittings 8 4 4 1 1288952 Pens,pencils,fountn.pens 89966 Other artificial parts of the body 8 4 8 2 512 Ball-point pens; felt-tipped or other porous-tipped Pacemakers for stimulating heart muscles 4 4 8 2 256 pens and markers; fountain-pens, stylograph pens 89967 (excluding parts and accessories and other pens; duplicating stylos; propelling or Appliances, n.e.s., which are worn or carried or 4 4 8 2 256 sliding pencils; penholders, pencil-holders and 2 1 4 1 8 89969 implanted in the body to similar holders; parts (including caps and clips) of 8997 Baskets,brooms,brush,etc the foregoing articles (not including goods of Basketware, wickerwork and other articles made 4 2 4 2 6489521 heading 895.22 or 895.23) 89971 directly to shape from pla89522 Pen nibs and nib points 2 1 1 1 2 Brooms, brushes (including brushes constituting 2 2 4 1 16 Pencils (other than pencils of heading 895.21), 89972 parts of machines, applia 2 1 2 1 489523 crayons, pencil leads, pa 55
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Responsiveness Customization Value Score Complexity VolumeID Product Plaits and similar products of plaiting materials, 2 2 4 4 6489973 whether or not assembl89974 Mats, matting and screens of vegetable materials 2 2 4 4 64 Plaiting materials, plaits and similar products of 2 2 2 4 3289979 plaiting materials, n.8998 Small-wares,toiletrs nes89981 Hand sieves and hand riddles 1 1 4 2 8 Powder-puffs and pads for the application of 2 1 2 1 489982 cosmetics or toilet preparat Press-fasteners, snap-fasteners and press-studs and 2 2 2 1 889983 parts therefor; butto Button moulds and other parts of buttons; button 2 2 1 1 489984 blanks89985 Slide fasteners 2 2 2 1 889986 Parts of slide fasteners 2 8 1 1 16 Scent sprays and similar toilet sprays, and mounts 2 2 4 2 3289987 and heads therefor Tailors dummies and other lay figures; automata 4 1 1 4 1689988 and other animated displ Combs, hair-slides and the like; hairpins, curling- 2 1 1 2 489989 pins, curling-grips, h8999 Manufactured goods,nes. Articles of gut (other than silkworm gut), of 1 1 1 2 289991 goldbeaters skin, of bladd Wigs, false beards, eyebrows and eyelashes, 8 4 4 1 12889995 switches and the like, of hum Parachutes (including dirigible parachutes) and 2 2 4 4 6489996 rotochutes; parts thereof Vacuum flasks and other vacuum vessels, complete 4 2 4 1 3289997 with cases; parts thereo96 COIN NONGOLD NONCURRENT961 COIN NONGOLD NONCURRENT9610 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender 2 1 1 2 464179 Oth.ppr,brd,coated,bulk 2 1 1 1 269991 Tungsten,wrght,artcl.nes 4 1 1 1 484159 Shirts,oth.textile matrl 4 4 4 1 64 56
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global EconomyAppendix II: Feasibility Analysis Feasibility Score Responsiveness Customization Value Score Complexity Speed/Cost Resolution Reliability Materials Volume Size ID Product Category 65821 Tarpaulins, awnings and sun-blinds Art and Home Décor 4 4 4 4 256 4 4 8 4 4 2048 65891 Tapestries, handwoven, of the Gobelins, Flanders, Aubusson, or Beauvais t Art and Home Décor 4 2 4 8 256 1 4 8 8 1 256 659 FLOOR COVERINGS, ETC. Art and Home Décor 4 2 4 8 256 8 1 8 1 1 64 66621 Statuettes and other ornamental ceramic articles, of porcelain or china Art and Home Décor 4 4 2 4 128 4 8 8 8 4 8192 66629 Statuettes and other ornamental ceramic articles, other than of porcelain Art and Home Décor 4 4 2 4 128 4 8 8 8 8 16384 69782 Statuettes and other ornaments, of base metal; photograph, picture or sim Art and Home Décor 4 4 2 4 128 4 8 8 8 4 8192 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes Art and Home Décor 4 2 8 2 128 4 8 8 8 4 8192 81311 Chandeliers and other electric ceiling and wall lighting fittings (exclud Art and Home Décor 4 2 8 4 256 4 8 8 8 4 8192 81313 Electric table, desk, bedside or floor-standing lamps Art and Home Décor 4 2 8 2 128 4 8 8 4 4 4096 81315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings, n.e.s. Art and Home Décor 4 2 8 2 128 4 8 8 4 4 4096 81317 Non-electrical lamps and lighting fittings Art and Home Décor 4 2 8 2 128 4 8 8 4 8 8192 8132 Illuminated signs, illuminated name-plates and the like Art and Home Décor 4 2 4 8 256 4 8 8 8 4 8192 88572 Clocks with watch movements (excluding clocks of heading 885.71), battery Art and Home Décor 4 4 8 2 256 4 8 4 4 8 4096 88573 Other clocks with watch movements (excluding clocks of heading 885.71) Art and Home Décor 4 4 8 2 256 4 8 4 4 8 4096 88576 Wall clocks, battery, accumulator or mains powered Art and Home Décor 4 4 8 2 256 4 8 4 4 8 4096 88577 Other wall clocks Art and Home Décor 4 4 8 2 256 4 8 4 4 8 4096 88578 Other clocks, battery, accumulator or mains powered Art and Home Décor 4 4 8 2 256 4 8 4 4 8 4096 88579 Clocks, n.e.s. Art and Home Décor 4 4 8 2 256 4 8 4 4 8 4096 8963 Original sculptures and statuary, in any material Art and Home Décor 4 1 4 8 128 8 8 4 8 8 16384 AVERAGE ART AND HOME DÉCOR 4.0 3.0 6.0 3.8 202.1 4.3 7.2 6.5 5.5 5.6 6160.8 69111 Bridges and bridge sections, of iron or steel Construction 4 1 8 8 256 8 1 1 1 8 64 69112 Towers and lattice masts, of iron or steel Construction 4 1 8 8 256 8 1 1 1 8 64 8110 Prefabricated buildings Construction 4 4 8 2 256 8 1 1 1 4 32 AVERAGE CONSTRUCTION 4.0 2.0 8.0 6.0 256.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 6.7 53.3 7612 Television receivers, black and white or other monochrome (including vide Consumer Electronics 4 2 8 2 128 4 4 4 4 1 256 76411 Telephone sets Consumer Electronics 8 4 8 1 256 4 8 8 4 1 1024 76424 Headphones, earphones and combined microphone/speaker sets Consumer Electronics 8 2 8 1 128 4 8 4 4 4 2048 AVERAGE CONSUMER ELECTRONICS 6.7 2.7 8.0 1.3 170.7 4.0 6.7 5.3 4.0 2.0 1109.3 7181 Hydrlc.turbine,wtr.wheel High Value Machinery 4 1 8 8 256 4 4 1 4 4 256 7187 Nuclear reactors,pts nes High Value Machinery 4 1 8 8 256 4 1 1 4 4 64 AVERAGE HIGH VALUE MACHINERY 4.0 1.0 8.0 8.0 256.0 4.0 2.5 1.0 4.0 4.0 160.0 8853 Watches,prec.metal cases Jewellery 4 4 8 2 256 4 8 4 8 4 4096 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl Jewellery 4 4 8 2 256 4 8 4 8 4 4096 88592 Watch-straps, watchbands and watch bracelets, and parts thereof, of metal Jewellery 4 4 4 2 128 4 8 4 4 4 2048 88593 Watch-straps, watchbands and watch bracelets and parts thereof, of materi Jewellery 4 4 4 2 128 4 8 4 4 1 512 88597 Clock cases and cases of a similar type for other goods of group 885, and Jewellery 4 4 4 2 128 4 8 8 8 4 8192 88599 Clock or watch parts. n.e.s. Jewellery 2 8 4 2 128 4 8 4 4 8 4096 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, of precious metal or of metal cl Jewellery 4 4 2 4 128 4 8 8 8 4 8192 89732 Articles of goldsmiths or silversmiths wares and parts thereof, of prec Jewellery 4 4 2 4 128 4 8 8 8 4 8192 AVERAGE JEWELLERY 3.8 4.5 4.5 2.5 160.0 4.0 8.0 5.5 6.5 4.1 4928.0 57
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Feasibility Score Responsiveness Customization Value Score Complexity Speed/Cost Resolution Reliability Materials Volume Size ID Product Category 8412 Suits and ensembles Luxury Clothing 4 4 4 2 128 1 8 8 4 1 256 8422 Suits and ensembles Luxury Clothing 4 4 4 2 128 1 8 8 4 1 256 8432 Suits,jackts,trousrs.etc Luxury Clothing 4 4 4 2 128 1 8 8 4 1 256 8442 Suits,dresses skirts etc Luxury Clothing 4 4 4 1 64 1 8 8 4 1 256 84581 Ski suits, not knitted or crocheted Luxury Clothing 4 4 4 2 128 1 8 8 4 1 256 84591 Track suits, knitted or crocheted Luxury Clothing 4 4 4 2 128 1 8 8 4 1 256 84592 Ski suits, knitted or crocheted Luxury Clothing 4 4 4 2 128 1 8 8 4 1 256 AVERAGE LUXURY CLOTHING 4.0 4.0 4.0 1.9 118.9 1.0 8.0 8.0 4.0 1.0 256.0 84844 Safety headgear, whether or not lined or trimmed Medical Devices 8 4 4 2 256 4 8 4 8 8 8192 87231 Mechanotherapy appliances; massage apparatus; psychological aptitude-test Medical Devices 8 1 8 2 128 8 4 8 1 4 1024 8842 Spectacles and frames Medical Devices 4 4 4 4 256 4 8 8 4 8 8192 89942 Walking-sticks, seat-sticks, whips, riding crops and the like Medical Devices 4 4 4 2 128 4 8 8 4 4 4096 8996 Artificial aids,disabled Medical Devices 8 4 8 1 256 8 8 4 8 4 8192 89995 Wigs, false beards, eyebrows and eyelashes, switches and the like, of hum Medical Devices 8 4 4 1 128 4 8 8 8 4 8192 AVERAGE MEDICAL DEVICES 6.7 3.5 5.3 2.0 192.0 5.3 7.3 6.7 5.5 5.3 6314.7 8981 String musical instrumnt Musical Instruments 4 2 8 2 128 4 4 4 4 1 256 8982 Musical instruments nes Musical Instruments 2 2 8 4 128 4 4 4 4 4 1024 AVERAGE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 3.0 2.0 8.0 3.0 128.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.5 640.0 6122 Saddlery and harness for any animal (including traces, leads, knee-pads, Sport Equipment 8 2 4 4 256 8 4 8 8 4 8192 65823 Sails Sport Equipment 4 4 4 2 128 4 4 8 4 4 2048 8512 Sports footwear Sport Equipment 8 4 4 1 128 1 8 4 4 1 128 89113 Swords, cutlasses, bayonets, lances and similar arms, and parts thereof a Sport Equipment 8 1 4 4 128 4 8 4 8 4 4096 89421 Wheeled toys designed to be ridden by children (e.g., tricycles, scooters Sport Equipment 4 4 8 1 128 8 4 8 4 8 8192 89472 Ice-skates and roller-skates (including skating boots with skates attache Sport Equipment 8 4 4 2 256 1 8 4 4 1 128 89473 Snow-skis and other snow-ski equipment Sport Equipment 8 4 2 2 128 8 8 4 4 4 4096 89474 Water-skis, surfboards, sailboards and other water sport equipment Sport Equipment 8 4 2 2 128 8 8 4 4 4 4096 89475 Golf equipment Sport Equipment 8 4 4 2 256 8 8 4 4 4 4096 89476 Tennis, badminton or similar rackets, whether or not strung Sport Equipment 8 4 4 2 256 8 8 4 4 4 4096 89477 Gloves, mittens and mitts, specially designed for use in sports Sport Equipment 8 4 4 2 256 1 8 4 4 1 128 AVERAGE SPORT EQUIPMENT 7.3 3.5 4.0 2.2 186.2 5.4 6.9 5.1 4.7 3.5 3572.4 7811 Vehicles specially designed for travelling on snow; golf cars and similar Vehicles 4 4 8 1 128 4 1 4 1 1 16 7812 Motor vehicles for the transport of persons, n.e.s. Vehicles 4 4 8 1 128 4 1 1 1 1 4 7842 Motor vehicle bodies Vehicles 4 4 8 1 128 4 1 4 4 8 512 785 CYCLES,MOTORCYCLES ETC. Vehicles 8 4 8 1 256 4 1 1 1 1 4 7861 Trailers and semi-trailers of the caravan type, for housing or camping Vehicles 4 2 8 2 128 8 1 1 1 8 64 7925 Spacecraft (including satellites) and spacecraft launch vehicles Vehicles 4 1 8 8 256 4 1 1 4 4 64 79312 Sailboats, not inflatable, with or without auxiliary motor Vehicles 4 2 8 2 128 8 1 1 1 8 64 79328 Cruise ships, excursion boats and similar vessels principally designed fo Vehicles 4 1 8 8 256 8 1 1 1 8 64 82111 Seats of a kind used for aircraft Vehicles 4 2 8 4 256 4 1 1 4 4 64 AVERAGE VEHICLES 4.4 2.7 8.0 3.1 184.9 5.3 1.0 1.7 2.0 4.8 95.1 58
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global EconomyAppendix III: Trade Statistics by Product Products Identified as Feasible All Manufactured Products All Commodities OECD Import Data Value OECD Import Data Value OECD Import Data Value USA $35,722,597,307 USA $1,198,666,286,794 USA $1,732,320,797,682 United Kingdom $9,471,318,775 Germany $520,560,116,000 Germany $779,819,058,000 Germany $8,692,348,002 United Kingdom $363,812,393,116 Japan $515,866,387,675 France $8,071,047,547 France $301,057,569,992 United Kingdom $515,782,184,687 Japan $7,784,818,700 Japan $260,841,536,728 France $475,856,799,498 Other OECD Nations $43,042,951,375 Other OECD Nations $2,157,628,798,775 Other OECD Nations $3,370,619,939,611 Other non-OECD Nations $28,866,758,659 Other non-OECD Nations $1,996,495,285,595 Other non-OECD Nations $3,005,324,152,243 Total Import: $141,651,840,353 Total Import: $6,799,061,987,001 Total Import: $10,395,589,319,396 OECD Export Data Value OECD Export Data Value OECD Export Data Value Switzerland $16,574,739,820 Germany $760,981,734,000 Germany $977,131,972,000 USA $12,748,585,306 USA $662,269,271,644 USA $904,339,487,215 Italy $11,550,784,102 Japan $528,101,722,138 Japan $594,940,865,790 Germany $8,053,455,002 France $293,000,954,725 France $434,354,245,109 France $6,654,782,450 Italy $292,853,750,128 United Kingdom $384,364,970,472 Other OECD Nations $33,724,894,410 Other OECD Nations $2,157,870,954,303 Other OECD Nations $3,353,516,089,012 Other non-OECD Nations $48,308,152,725 Other non-OECD Nations $2,100,080,201,374 Other non-OECD Nations $3,437,292,058,298 Total Export: $137,615,393,803 Total Export: $6,795,158,588,313 Total Export: $10,085,939,687,896 Analysis Analysis Analysis Total OECD Imports $112,785,081,706 Total OECD Imports $4,802,566,701,405 Total OECD Imports $7,390,265,167,153 Total OECD Exports $89,307,241,090 Total OECD Exports $4,695,078,386,938 Total OECD Exports $6,648,647,629,598 OECD Trade Deficit -$23,477,840,616 OECD Trade Deficit -$107,488,314,467 OECD Trade Deficit -$741,617,537,555 Total non-OECD Imports $28,866,758,659 Total non-OECD Imports $1,996,495,285,595 Total non-OECD Imports $3,005,324,152,243 Total non-OECD Exports $48,308,152,725 Total non-OECD Exports $2,100,080,201,374 Total non-OECD Exports $3,437,292,058,298 non-OECD Trade Surplus $19,441,394,066 non-OECD Trade Surplus $103,584,915,779 non-OECD Trade Surplus $431,967,906,055 Trade Deficit between OECD and Trade Deficit between OECD and Trade Deficit between OECD and non-OECD Nations (Average) $21,459,617,341 non-OECD Nations (Average) $105,536,615,123 non-OECD Nations (Average) $586,792,721,805 59
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Feasible Art and Home Décor Feasible Consumer Electronics Feasible Medical Devices OECD Import Data Value OECD Import Data Value OECD Import Data Value USA $13,415,004,758 USA $671,598,866 USA $6,785,587,114 Germany $3,406,146,002 Germany $336,046,002 France $3,314,239,263 United Kingdom $2,581,342,038 United Kingdom $254,453,179 Germany $2,453,258,002 France $2,130,085,831 Rep. of Korea $215,317,047 Netherlands $2,206,937,490 Canada $1,645,399,998 Japan $212,291,287 Japan $1,962,096,773 Other OECD Nations $13,207,529,596 Other OECD Nations $1,149,018,696 Other OECD Nations $13,599,520,915 Other non-OECD Nations $6,521,960,503 Other non-OECD Nations $1,101,843,778 Other non-OECD Nations $3,873,199,117 Total Import: $42,907,468,714 Total Import: $3,940,568,843 Total Import: $34,194,838,662 OECD Export Data Value OECD Export Data Value OECD Export Data Value Germany $3,449,330,002 Mexico $266,951,343 USA $5,531,407,819 Italy $3,098,208,982 USA $261,069,774 Switzerland $3,737,145,627 Mexico $2,168,307,890 Germany $237,860,002 France $2,932,285,828 USA $1,904,122,307 Netherlands $217,676,651 Ireland $2,732,554,791 United Kingdom $1,427,477,525 Rep. of Korea $86,293,363 Italy $2,705,732,689 Other OECD Nations $9,804,814,505 Other OECD Nations $347,075,152 Other OECD Nations $10,636,084,419 Other non-OECD Nations $15,367,517,189 Other non-OECD Nations $2,002,808,392 Other non-OECD Nations $5,017,434,595 Total Export: $37,219,778,388 Total Export: $3,419,734,665 Total Export: $33,292,645,756 Analysis Analysis Analysis Total OECD Imports $36,385,508,223 Total OECD Imports $2,838,725,077 Total OECD Imports $30,321,639,557 Total OECD Exports $21,852,261,211 Total OECD Exports $1,416,926,285 Total OECD Exports $28,275,211,173 OECD Trade Deficit -$14,533,247,012 OECD Trade Deficit -$1,421,798,792 OECD Trade Deficit -$2,046,428,384 Total non-OECD Imports $6,521,960,503 Total non-OECD Imports $1,101,843,778 Total non-OECD Imports $3,873,199,117 Total non-OECD Exports $15,367,517,189 Total non-OECD Exports $2,002,808,392 Total non-OECD Exports $5,017,434,595 non-OECD Trade Surplus $8,845,556,686 non-OECD Trade Surplus $900,964,614 non-OECD Trade Surplus $1,144,235,478 Trade Deficit between OECD and Trade Deficit between OECD and Trade Deficit between OECD and non-OECD Nations (Average) $11,689,401,849 non-OECD Nations (Average) $1,161,381,703 non-OECD Nations (Average) $1,595,331,931 60
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Feasible Musical Instruments Feasible Jewellery Feasible Sport Equipment OECD Import Data Value OECD Import Data Value OECD Import Data Value USA $890,312,189 USA $11,453,873,175 USA $2,506,221,215 Japan $242,771,652 United Kingdom $4,099,173,844 Japan $853,861,287 Germany $219,285,002 Switzerland $3,573,068,778 United Kingdom $620,045,145 United Kingdom $207,791,609 Japan $3,338,993,007 France $521,456,141 Canada $117,058,813 France $1,878,023,501 Germany $484,652,002 Other OECD Nations $824,401,256 Other OECD Nations $8,797,147,363 Other OECD Nations $2,611,072,930 Other non-OECD Nations $352,950,162 Other non-OECD Nations $15,341,574,396 Other non-OECD Nations $1,675,230,713 Total Import: $2,854,570,671 Total Import: $48,481,854,052 Total Import: $9,272,539,421 OECD Export Data Value OECD Export Data Value OECD Export Data Value USA $273,363,572 Switzerland $12,475,885,043 USA $1,000,508,260 Japan $268,029,804 Italy $5,377,399,100 Austria $553,624,854 Germany $181,296,002 USA $3,778,113,584 France $545,710,971 Belgium $135,721,192 United Kingdom $2,732,452,818 Germany $410,601,002 France $106,436,218 France $1,626,950,029 Japan $319,818,688 Other OECD Nations $492,415,016 Other OECD Nations $5,776,702,908 Other OECD Nations $1,707,813,420 Other non-OECD Nations $1,007,467,262 Other non-OECD Nations $21,313,903,144 Other non-OECD Nations $3,599,022,153 Total Export: $2,464,729,054 Total Export: $53,081,406,614 Total Export: $8,137,099,336 Analysis Analysis Analysis Total OECD Imports $2,501,620,521 Total OECD Imports $33,140,279,668 Total OECD Imports $7,597,308,720 Total OECD Exports $1,457,261,804 Total OECD Exports $31,767,503,482 Total OECD Exports $4,538,077,195 OECD Trade Deficit -$1,044,358,717 OECD Trade Deficit -$1,372,776,186 OECD Trade Deficit -$3,059,231,525 Total non-OECD Imports $352,950,162 Total non-OECD Imports $15,341,574,396 Total non-OECD Imports $1,675,230,713 Total non-OECD Exports $1,007,467,262 Total non-OECD Exports $21,313,903,144 Total non-OECD Exports $3,599,022,153 non-OECD Trade Surplus $654,517,100 non-OECD Trade Surplus $5,972,328,748 non-OECD Trade Surplus $1,923,791,440 Trade Deficit between OECD and Trade Deficit between OECD and Trade Deficit between OECD and non-OECD Nations (Average) $849,437,909 non-OECD Nations (Average) $3,672,552,467 non-OECD Nations (Average) $2,491,511,483 61
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Appendix IV: Trade Statistics by Country United States Germany United Kingdom Top Imported Items Value Top Imported Items Value Top Imported Items Value89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, $8,049,005,362 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $1,927,982,000 $3,249,896,420of precious metal or of metal cl of precious metal or of metal cl8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $5,817,701,395 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $1,506,871,000 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $1,261,059,929 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof,8996 Artificial aids,disabled $4,106,275,885 $783,492,001 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $1,015,494,941 of precious metal or of metal cl8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $2,605,664,150 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $746,473,000 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $459,217,66781311 Chandeliers and other electric ceiling 81311 Chandeliers and other electric ceiling 81315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings, $2,328,329,708 $627,217,001 $397,667,145and wall lighting fittings (exclud and wall lighting fittings (exclud n.e.s. 81315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings,8842 Spectacles and frames $1,808,685,289 $446,618,001 89475 Golf equipment $364,015,309 n.e.s.Other Feasible Products $11,006,935,516 Other Feasible Products $2,653,695,001 Other Feasible Products $2,723,967,366All Other Products $1,696,598,200,377 All Other Products $771,126,710,001 All Other Products $506,310,865,915 Top Exported Items Value Top Exported Items Value Top Exported Items Value 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof,8996 Artificial aids,disabled $5,062,484,059 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $1,776,886,000 $2,406,807,087 of precious metal or of metal cl89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, $3,348,025,333 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $1,479,451,000 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $1,579,310,076of precious metal or of metal cl 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof,89475 Golf equipment $763,944,369 $779,308,001 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $445,698,227 of precious metal or of metal cl 81311 Chandeliers and other electric ceiling 8963 Original sculptures and statuary, in any8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $727,092,231 $718,532,001 $439,085,173 and wall lighting fittings (exclud material8963 Original sculptures and statuary, in any 81315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings, $423,268,764 $640,600,001 89475 Golf equipment $238,304,751material n.e.s. 81315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings,8842 Spectacles and frames $393,938,024 8842 Spectacles and frames $351,638,000 $222,365,486 n.e.s.Other Feasible Products $2,029,832,524 Other Feasible Products $2,307,040,001 Other Feasible Products $1,039,846,055All Other Products $891,590,901,911 All Other Products $969,078,517,001 All Other Products $377,993,553,622 Analysis Value Analysis Value Analysis ValueCurrent Trade Balance -$827,981,310,467 Current Trade Balance $197,312,914,000 Current Trade Balance -$131,417,214,215Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $35,722,597,305 Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $8,692,348,004 Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $9,471,318,777Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $12,748,585,304 Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $8,053,455,004 Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $6,371,416,855Total Trade Balance affected by RM $22,974,012,001 Total Trade Balance affected by RM $638,893,000 Total Trade Balance affected by RM $3,099,901,922Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 2.77% Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 0.32% Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 2.36% 62
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy France Japan Italy Top Imported Items Value Top Imported Items Value Top Imported Items Value8996 Artificial aids,disabled $2,637,627,262 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $1,523,559,392 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $1,282,797,55689731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, $995,547,781 $1,470,635,167 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $821,681,621of precious metal or of metal cl of precious metal or of metal cl 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof,8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $944,049,811 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $1,387,539,445 $542,144,351 of precious metal or of metal cl8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $585,477,715 89475 Golf equipment $615,103,916 8842 Spectacles and frames $449,760,1018842 Spectacles and frames $517,323,907 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $514,125,094 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $427,166,24581311 Chandeliers and other electric ceiling $404,798,082 8853 Watches,prec.metal cases $361,910,203 8853 Watches,prec.metal cases $207,037,982and wall lighting fittings (excludOther Feasible Products $1,986,222,990 Other Feasible Products $1,911,945,484 Other Feasible Products $1,085,261,508All Other Products $467,785,751,954 All Other Products $508,081,568,978 All Other Products $380,019,711,258 Top Exported Items Value Top Exported Items Value Top Exported Items Value 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof,8996 Artificial aids,disabled $2,439,811,007 89475 Golf equipment $303,428,473 $4,758,308,812 of precious metal or of metal cl89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, $1,014,692,006 8982 Musical instruments nes $268,029,802 8842 Spectacles and frames $2,128,621,667of precious metal or of metal cl8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $586,387,737 8842 Spectacles and frames $241,053,396 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $1,432,408,651 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, 81311 Chandeliers and other electric ceiling8842 Spectacles and frames $426,100,716 $188,676,318 $790,556,997 of precious metal or of metal cl and wall lighting fittings (exclud89473 Snow-skis and other snow-ski 84844 Safety headgear, whether or not lined or 81315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings, $368,262,115 $105,878,264 $457,747,869equipment trimmed n.e.s.8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $260,095,158 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $91,649,511 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $377,812,330Other Feasible Products $1,559,433,712 Other Feasible Products $365,072,719 Other Feasible Products $1,605,327,778All Other Products $427,699,462,662 All Other Products $593,377,077,312 All Other Products $361,406,361,825 Analysis Value Analysis Value Analysis ValueCurrent Trade Balance -$41,502,554,389 Current Trade Balance $79,074,478,116 Current Trade Balance -$11,878,414,693Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $8,071,047,548 Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $7,784,818,701 Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $4,815,849,364Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $6,654,782,451 Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $1,563,788,483 Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $11,550,784,104Total Trade Balance affected by RM $1,416,265,097 Total Trade Balance affected by RM $6,221,030,218 Total Trade Balance affected by RM -$6,734,934,740Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 3.41% Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 7.87% Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 56.70% 63
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Switzerland China Hong Kong Top Imported Items Value Top Imported Items Value Top Imported Items Value89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, $2,480,081,002 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $434,641,908 $2,242,546,802of precious metal or of metal cl of precious metal or of metal cl8996 Artificial aids,disabled $911,339,850 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $406,836,990 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $2,073,325,470 76424 Headphones, earphones and combined8853 Watches,prec.metal cases $386,590,307 $317,972,721 8853 Watches,prec.metal cases $869,630,358 microphone/speaker sets8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $343,190,353 89475 Golf equipment $152,061,747 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $754,252,67788592 Watch-straps, watchbands and watch $285,198,558 88599 Clock or watch parts. n.e.s. $121,030,123 89475 Golf equipment $628,997,455bracelets, and parts thereof, of metal 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof,88599 Clock or watch parts. n.e.s. $211,054,629 $108,258,642 8842 Spectacles and frames $453,930,066 of precious metal or of metal clOther Feasible Products $1,244,627,715 Other Feasible Products $394,565,591 Other Feasible Products $2,366,548,533All Other Products $120,711,599,986 All Other Products $658,017,394,403 All Other Products $290,771,214,377 Top Exported Items Value Top Exported Items Value Top Exported Items Value8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $6,225,563,119 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $4,692,560,275 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $3,600,311,106 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof,8996 Artificial aids,disabled $3,669,040,095 $2,004,581,693 $3,165,371,363 of precious metal or of metal cl of precious metal or of metal cl 81315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings,8853 Watches,prec.metal cases $2,984,040,166 $1,727,468,186 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $1,123,511,232 n.e.s.89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, 81311 Chandeliers and other electric ceiling $2,718,916,976 $1,255,003,127 8842 Spectacles and frames $1,121,184,550of precious metal or of metal cl and wall lighting fittings (exclud 76424 Headphones, earphones and combined88599 Clock or watch parts. n.e.s. $233,771,498 8842 Spectacles and frames $980,515,593 $818,472,674 microphone/speaker sets89732 Articles of goldsmiths or silversmiths $189,716,174 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $951,834,353 89475 Golf equipment $797,683,017wares and parts thereof, of precOther Feasible Products $553,691,794 Other Feasible Products $7,185,346,402 Other Feasible Products $3,069,723,490All Other Products $114,354,891,840 All Other Products $743,156,099,907 All Other Products $278,422,416,752 Analysis Value Analysis Value Analysis ValueCurrent Trade Balance $4,355,949,262 Total Trade Balance $102,000,647,411 Current Trade Balance -$8,041,771,554Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $5,862,082,414 Total Feasible Imports affected $1,935,367,722 Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $9,389,231,361Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $16,574,739,822 Total Feasible Exports affected $18,797,309,629 Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $13,696,257,432Total Trade Balance affected by RM -$10,712,657,408 Affected Balance -$16,861,941,907 Total Trade Balance affected by RM -$4,307,026,071Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 245.93% Affected deficit as % of Total Deficit 16.53% Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 53.56% 64
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy India Russia Indonesia Top Imported Items Value Top Imported Items Value Top Imported Items Value89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, $164,310,505 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $156,842,429 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $30,677,826of precious metal or of metal cl 81311 Chandeliers and other electric ceiling8996 Artificial aids,disabled $68,551,472 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $95,084,493 $12,724,707 and wall lighting fittings (exclud 81311 Chandeliers and other electric ceiling8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $38,661,442 $84,829,286 8982 Musical instruments nes $4,968,988 and wall lighting fittings (exclud 81315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings,8842 Spectacles and frames $24,268,711 $38,736,285 8842 Spectacles and frames $4,638,503 n.e.s. 81315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings,8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $21,246,905 8842 Spectacles and frames $28,487,573 $4,453,032 n.e.s. 81313 Electric table, desk, bedside or floor- 81313 Electric table, desk, bedside or floor-8853 Watches,prec.metal cases $16,058,119 $22,490,217 $4,280,662 standing lamps standing lampsOther Feasible Products $83,744,721 Other Feasible Products $143,004,679 Other Feasible Products $24,741,679All Other Products $149,333,123,854 All Other Products $98,137,780,815 All Other Products $57,614,395,523 Top Exported Items Value Top Exported Items Value Top Exported Items Value89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, $3,434,287,465 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $26,669,917 8982 Musical instruments nes $189,625,317of precious metal or of metal cl6122 Saddlery and harness for any animal 69782 Statuettes and other ornaments, of base 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, $77,815,212 $25,330,631 $79,362,317(including traces, leads, knee-pads, metal; photograph, picture or sim of precious metal or of metal cl89732 Articles of goldsmiths or silversmiths 81311 Chandeliers and other electric ceiling 76424 Headphones, earphones and combined $53,522,351 $12,172,432 $58,710,065wares and parts thereof, of prec and wall lighting fittings (exclud microphone/speaker sets8963 Original sculptures and statuary, in any 81315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings, 89995 Wigs, false beards, eyebrows and $28,662,797 $11,361,630 $52,539,614material n.e.s. eyelashes, switches and the like, of hum 84844 Safety headgear, whether or not lined or8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $17,362,132 $6,834,718 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $43,217,132 trimmed8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $14,656,014 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $5,050,047 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $42,961,020Other Feasible Products $79,218,778 Other Feasible Products $19,532,852 Other Feasible Products $83,693,668All Other Products $99,698,642,397 All Other Products $241,344,704,661 All Other Products $85,109,838,376 Analysis Value Analysis Value Analysis ValueCurrent Trade Balance -$46,345,798,583 Current Trade Balance $142,744,401,111 Current Trade Balance $27,959,066,589Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $416,841,875 Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $569,474,962 Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $86,485,397Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $3,705,524,749 Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $106,952,227 Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $550,109,133Total Trade Balance affected by RM -$3,288,682,874 Total Trade Balance affected by RM $462,522,735 Total Trade Balance affected by RM -$463,623,736Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 7.10% Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 0.32% Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 1.66% 65
    • Rapid Manufacturing and the Global Economy Brazil Thailand Top Imported Items Value Top Imported Items Value 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $231,207,435 $178,720,116 of precious metal or of metal cl 8842 Spectacles and frames $49,109,944 88599 Clock or watch parts. n.e.s. $131,837,529 76424 Headphones, earphones and combined $32,791,587 8853 Watches,prec.metal cases $76,281,055 microphone/speaker sets 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $28,948,464 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $70,124,115 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $22,689,790 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $40,751,384 8982 Musical instruments nes $19,970,730 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $38,208,452 Other Feasible Products $61,584,269 Other Feasible Products $149,951,064 All Other Products $73,154,073,248 All Other Products $117,478,464,620 Top Exported Items Value Top Exported Items Value 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, 89731 Articles of jewellery and parts thereof, $62,972,872 $1,679,519,382 of precious metal or of metal cl of precious metal or of metal cl 8996 Artificial aids,disabled $58,851,099 88599 Clock or watch parts. n.e.s. $156,758,360 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $9,753,629 8854 Watches,other than p.mtl $93,050,809 89732 Articles of goldsmiths or silversmiths 89474 Water-skis, surfboards, sailboards and $7,092,531 $68,146,523 wares and parts thereof, of prec other water sport equipment 81315 Electric lamps and lighting fittings, $6,410,257 8131 Lamps,light fittings nes $62,296,882 n.e.s. 8982 Musical instruments nes $5,438,469 89475 Golf equipment $60,537,772 Other Feasible Products $20,186,425 Other Feasible Products $247,463,847 All Other Products $118,357,982,841 All Other Products $107,742,260,623 Analysis Value Analysis Value Current Trade Balance $44,928,312,656 Current Trade Balance -$8,054,304,137 Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $446,302,219 Total Feasible Imports affected by RM $685,873,715 Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $170,705,282 Total Feasible Exports affected by RM $2,367,773,575 Total Trade Balance affected by RM $275,596,937 Total Trade Balance affected by RM -$1,681,899,860 Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 0.61% Affected Balance as % of Total Deficit 20.88% 66
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