Game in Social Communication
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Game in Social Communication



Presentation for the lecture on the game phenomenon, its role for culture and society. The theories of Eric Berne and Johan Huizinga mentioned.

Presentation for the lecture on the game phenomenon, its role for culture and society. The theories of Eric Berne and Johan Huizinga mentioned.



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Game in Social Communication Game in Social Communication Presentation Transcript

  • И г р а
  • Процесс – Цель – Результат
    • «Игра – это деятельность, которая является добровольной , приносит удовольствие и не имеет никакой иной очевидной цели , кроме удовольствия». ( Collins Dictionary of Sociology )
    • Разновидность физической и интеллектуальной деятельности, лишенная прямой практической целесообразности и представляющая индивиду возможность самореализации, выходящей за рамки его актуальных социальных ролей
    • «Вид непродуктивной деятельности, где основной мотив лежит в удовольствии, связанном не только с результатом, но и с самим процессом деятельности». (Кругосвет)
    • Играют не просто с удовольствием, но ради удовольствия, доставляемом игрой.
    • Игра не зависит от полезной непосредственной цели, она противоположна работе, труду, делу, и в этом смысле она "несерьезна".
  • Функции игры
    • Одно из средств первичной социализации
    • Сфера эмоционально насыщенной коммуникации, объединяющей людей с различным социальным положением и профессиональным опытом.
    • Пространство игры сохраняет и воспроизводит архаичные навыки и ценности, утратившие с ходом времени свой первоначальный практический смысл.
    • Игра имеет немалую ценность и в качестве элемента творческого поиска, способствует построению вероятностных моделей исследуемых явлений, конструированию новых художественных или философских систем или просто спонтанному самовыражению индивида.
    • Любая инновация в культуре первоначально возникает как игра смыслами и значениями
  • Границы игры
    • «Игра умирает, когда исчезает грань условности и жизни. При этом возможны как вторжение реальности в мир грез, подменяющее "магическую реальность" примитивной прагматикой, так и экспансия умозрительных построений в реальную действительность.
    • Произвол воображения, покинувшего четко обозначенные границы пространства игры, порождает, наряду с другими проблемами, рискованные социальные эксперименты и одержимое мифотворчество». (Энциклопедия постмодернизма)
  • Признаки (атрибуты) игры
    • Участники
    • Место
    • Время
    • Правила
    • Цель (выигрыш)
    • Неопределённость исхода*
    • Иная реальность
    • Изначально игра всегда связана с высшими силами, верой в чудо, понятиями религии, сакрального, мистического, таинственного
  • Johan Huizinga (Dec . 7, 1872 – Feb . 1, 1945)
    • “ Homo Ludens ”, 1938
    • Play is free, is in fact freedom.
    • Play is not “ordinary” or “real” life.
    • Play is distinct from “ordinary” life both as to locality and duration.
    • “ Play is older than culture, for culture, however inadequately defined, always presupposes human society, and animals have not waited for man to teach them their playing.”
  • Проявления Игры
    • Язык
    • Состязание, Агон
    • Правосудие
    • Ратное дело
    • Политика, государственная служба
    • Экономика, бизнес
    • «Мудрствование» (загадки, философия, наука)
    • Искусство и культура (поэзия, миф), спорт, мода
    • Быт («потлатч»)
    • Плут и SpielBrecher
  • Эрик Берн (10.05.1910 -15.07.1970)
    • Berne, Eric. Games People Play – The Basic Hand Book of Transactional Analysis, 1964
    • Транзактный анализ
    • Родитель (нормативный подход) – «научили»
    • Взрослый (позитивизм) – «узнал сам»
    • Ребёнок – «почувствовал»
  • Games People Play
    • "A game is an ongoing series of complementary ulterior transactions progressing to a well-defined, predictable outcome. Descriptively, it is a recurring set of transactions... with a concealed motivation ... or gimmick“
    • To re-state Berne's definition, one can think of a game as a series of interactions (words, body language, facial expressions, etc.) between two or more people that follow a predictable pattern . The interactions ultimately progress to an outcome in which one individual obtains a "payoff" or "goal."  In most cases, the participants of the games are unaware that they are "playing."
  • Разновидности игр
    • Life Games
    • Marital Games
    • Party Games
    • Sexual Games
    • Underworld Games
    • Consulting Room Games
    • Good Games
  • “ If It Weren't For You” (IWFY)
    • … Out of her many suitors, she had picked a domineering man for a husband. She was then in a position to complain that she could do all sorts of things "it if weren't for you." Many of her woman friends had domineering husbands, and when they met for their morning coffee, they spent a good deal of time playing "If It Weren't For Him."
    • As it turned out, however, contrary to her complaints, her husband was performing a very real service for her by forbidding her to do something she was deeply afraid of, and by preventing her, in fact, from even becoming aware of her fears. This was one reason... [she] had chosen such a husband.
  • “ Now I've Got You, You Son of a Bitch (NIGYSOB) ”
    • This can be seen in classic form in poker games. Mr. White gets an unbeatable hand, such as four aces. At this point, if he is a NIGYSOB player, he is more interested in the fact that Black is completely at his mercy than he is in good poker or making money.
    • Mr. White needed some plumbing fixtures installed, and he reviewed the costs very carefully with the plumber before giving him a go-ahead. The price was set, and it was agreed that there would be no extras. When the plumber submitted his bill, he included a few dollars extra for an unexpected valve that had to be installed – about four dollars on a four-hundred-dollar job.
    • Mr. White became infuriated, called the plumber on the phone and demanded an explanation. The plumber would not back down. White wrote him a long letter criticizing his integrity and ethics and refused to pay the bill until the extra charge was withdrawn. The plumber finally gave in…
  • “ See What You Made Me Do” (SWYMD)
    • White, feeling unsociable, becomes engrossed in some activity which tends to insulate him against people. Perhaps all he wants at the moment is to be left alone.
    • An intruder, such as his wife or one of his children, comes either for stroking or to ask him something like, "Where can I find the long-nosed pliers?" 
    • This interruption "causes" his chisel, paintbrush, typewriter or soldering iron to slip, whereupon he turns on the intruder in a rage and cries, "See what you made me do."
    • As this is repeated through the years, his family tends more and more to leave him alone when he is engrossed .  Of course it is not the intruder but his own irritation which "causes" the slip, and he is only too happy when it occurs, since it gives him a lever for ejecting the visitor.
    • Unfortunately, this is a game which is only too easily learned by young children , so that it is easily passed on from generation to generation.  The underlying satisfactions and advantages are more clearly demonstrated when it is played more seductively.
  • Cops and Robbers
    • Thesis: Because many criminals are cop-haters, they seem to get as much satisfaction from outwitting the police as from their criminal gains, often more. Their crimes, at the Adult Level, are games played for the material rewards, the take; but at the Child level, it is the thrill of the chase: the getaway and the cool-off.
    • Curiously enough, the childhood prototype of "Cops and Robbers" is not cops and robbers but hide-and-seek , in which the essential element is the chagrin at being found . 
    • Younger children readily betray this. If father finds them too easily, the chagrin is there without much fun. But father, if he is a good player, knows what to do: he holds off, whereupon the little boy gives him a clue by calling out, dropping something or banging. Thus, he forces father to find him, but still shows chagrin; this time he has had more fun because of the increased suspense.  If father gives up, the boy usually feels disappointed rather than victorious. 
    • Since the fun of being hidden was there, evidently that is not where the trouble lies.  What he is disappointed about is not being caught. When his turn comes to hide, father knows he is not supposed to outwit the child for very long, just long enough to make it fun; and he is wise enough to look chagrined when he is caught.
    • It soon becomes clear that being found is the necessary payoff .
    • Правда
    • Ложь
    • Серьёзность
    • Ирония
    • Adidas
    • Haka
    • India – Pakistan Wagah border ceremony
    • Путин в Пикалёво
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