Meiosis, linkage and crossing over


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Meiosis, Linkage, Crossing over

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Meiosis, linkage and crossing over

  2. 2. LINKED GENES • Genes located close together on the same chromosome • Linked genes travel together during meiosis, eventually arriving at the same destination (the same gamete), and are not expected to assort independently
  3. 3. LINKAGE • Describes the tendency of genes to be inherited together as a result of their location on the same chromosome; measured by percent recombination between loci. • Linked genes do not assort independently
  4. 4. Concepts • Recombination is the sorting of alleles into new combinations. • Inter-chromosomal recombination, produced by independent assortment, is the sorting of alleles on different chromosomes into new combinations. • Intra-chromosomal recombination, produced by crossing over, is the sorting of alleles on the same chromosome into new combinations.
  5. 5. Notation for Crosses with Linkage • In analyzing crosses with linked genes, we must know not only the genotypes of the individuals crossed, but also the arrangement of the genes on the chromosomes
  6. 6. Complete Linkage Compared with Independent Assortment
  7. 7. Crossing Over with Linked Genes • Linkage is rarely complete—usually, there is some crossing over between linked genes (incomplete linkage), producing new combinations of traits • Crossing over, which takes place in prophase I of meiosis, is the exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids
  8. 8. Coupling and Repulsion • In crosses for linked genes, the arrangement of alleles on the homologous chromosomes is critically important in determining the outcome of the cross
  9. 9. Coupling • Wild-type alleles are found on one chromosome and mutant alleles are found on the other • Allelic arrangement in which mutants are on the same chromosome and wild-type alleles on the homologue • The cis configuration
  10. 10. Coupling phase (cis)
  11. 11. Repulsion • Each chromosome contains one wild-type and one mutant allele • Allelic arrangement in which each homologue chromosome has mutant and wild-type allele • The trans configuration
  12. 12. Repulsion phase (trans)
  13. 13. Calculation of Recombination Frequency • The percentage of recombinant progeny produced in a cross is called the recombination frequency, which is • calculated as follows:
  14. 14. Diskusi Suatu organisme pentahibrid yang mempunyai genotip Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee. Diketahui bahwa gen B dan C berangkai tidak sempurna secara coupling phase pada satu kromosom, sedangkan gen D dan E berangkai sempurna secara repulsion phase pada kromosom lainnya. Adapun gen A tidak berangkai dengan gen-gen lainnya , pada kromosom yang lain a) Apabila individu tersebutmembentuk gamet, ada berapamacamgamet yang dibentuk dan sebutkan macam- macamgamet tersebut b) Gambarkan secara jelas kemungkinan-kemungkinan sinapsis yang terjadi saatmetafase I (gambar tersebut berupa skema kromosomdengan gen-gen yang dibawa)
  15. 15. A two-point test cross to detect linkage in fruit flies
  16. 16. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION • In the 2300 offspring (bottom row) of an actual cross, about 1909 of the offspring belong to each of the two parental classes (83% total), and 391 belong to each of the two recombinant classes (17% total) • Thus, loci for wing length and body color are linked on a homologous chromosome pair
  17. 17. Calculating the frequency of crossing over reveals the linear order of linked genes on a chromosome
  18. 18. Concepts • During a single meiotic division, crossing-over may occur at several different points along the length of each homologous chromosome pair • In general, crossing-over is more likely to occur between two loci if they lie far apart on the chromosome and less likely to occur if they lie close together • A genetic map of the chromosome can be generated by converting the percentage of recombination to map units • 1% recombination between two loci equals a distance of 1 map unit
  19. 19. Result • By convention, 1% recombination between two loci equals a distance of 1 map unit, so the loci in our example are 17 map units apart
  20. 20. Gene Mapping • Gene order (that is, which locus lies between the other two) is determined by the percentage of recombination between each of the possible pairs
  21. 21. Gene Mapping • In this hypothetical example, the percentage of recombination between locus A and locus B is 5% (corresponding to 5 map units) and that between B and C is 3% (3 map units). • There are two alternatives for the linear order of these alleles.
  22. 22. Predicting the Outcomes of Crosses with Linked Genes • In cucumbers, – smooth fruit (t) is recessive to warty fruit (T) and – glossy fruit (d) is recessive to dull fruit (D) • Geneticists have determined that these two genes exhibit a recombination frequency of 16%.
  23. 23. Predicting the Outcomes of Crosses with Linked Genes • Suppose we cross a plant homozygous for warty and dull fruit with a plant homozygous for smooth and glossy fruit and then carry out a testcross by using the F1 • What types and proportions of progeny will result from this testcross?
  24. 24. Solution • Four types of gametes will be produced by the heterozygous parent – two types of non-recombinant gametes ( T D and t d ) – two types of recombinant gametes ( T d and t D ) • The recombination frequency tells us that 16% of the gametes produced by the heterozygous parent will be recombinants
  25. 25. Solution • Because there are two types of recombinant gametes, each should arise with a frequency of 16% : 2 = 8% • All the other gametes will be nonrecombinants; so they should arise with a frequency of 100% - 16% = 84% • Because there are two types of nonrecombinant gametes, each should arise with a frequency of 84% : 2 = 42%
  26. 26. Solution • The progeny of the cross result from the union of two gametes, producing four types of progeny • The expected proportion of each type can be determined by using the multiplication rule, multiplying together the probability of each uniting gamete